TeopeTM'leCKMe M TexHonorM'leCKMe acneKTbl noeeAeHMJI nopoWKOBblX Ten npM cneKaHMM



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

TeopeTM'leCKMe M TexHonorM'leCKMe acneKTbl noeeAeHMJI nopoWKOBblX Ten npM cneKaHMM



 

 

15.3.1. CneKaHMe c >KMAKOM cJ>a30M, npMCYTCTBYIO eM AO KOH...8 M30T8pMM'18CKOM Bb1A8P>KKM

 

 

IlpH TaKOM cneKaHHH B npouecce HJOTepMHtleCKOH Bbl,Uep)KKH


0 1-C -C 0 '


(15.5)


)l(H,UKaH <t>aJa noCTOHHHO npHCYTCTByeT B nopoWKOBOM TeJie.

I
IlyCTb .ueyx<t>aJHaH CHCTeMa COCTOHT HJ 1WCTHU 6oJiee TYfOilJiaBKO­


f,UeIl, Il - COOTBeTCTBeH HO HaqaJihHaH H KOHeqHaH IlOpHCTOCTh nopOIIIKOBOro reJia; c - o6beMHaH KOHUeHTpaUHH JierKoilJiaBKOfO

KOMilOHeHTa B HCXO,UHOM IlOpOIIIKOBOM TeJie; C1 - 06'beMHaH KOH­

UeHTpaUHH TBep;::i;oii <t>aJhI, nepexo,UHrn.eii B pacilJiaB npn pacTBope-


ro KOMilOHeHTa A H 1.JaCTHU 6oJiee nerKonJiaBKoro KOMnotteHTa B, B

pacilJiaBe KoToporo KoMnotteHT A qacTH'IHO pacTBopHeTCH. IlpM noHB­ JieHHH )l(H,UKOH <t>aJhl OHa JanoJIHHeT nopbl H KailHJIJIHpbl , CMalJHBaH


lfacn1ub1 KoMnottettrn A H CTS1fHBaS1 HX, a TaIOKe pacTBopS1eT 6oJiee MeJIKHe llaCTHUbIKoMnottettrn A (pacTBop A B B tte ttaCb IUeH no OTHo­ wettHIO K HHM H3-3a 60JibWeii, no cpaBHeHHIO c paBHOBeCHOH, HX pacTBopHMOCTbIO B CBSIJH c nOBb WeHHOH KPHBHJHOH noBepxttocTH). B

pe3yJibTaTe nepeKpHCTaJIJIH3aUHH Ha KpynHb X lfaCTHUax KOMnoHeHTa A Bbl.UeJIS1eTcS1 BemecTBo A H3 nepecb IUeHttoro no OTHOWeHHIO K HHM pacTBopa A B B. 3TO npHBO.UHT K pocTy KpynttbIX lfaCTHU Ja clleT MeJI­

KHX H npHo6perettHIO HMH npaBHJibHOH (paBHOBeCHOH) <l>opMbI; lfTO CBSl3aHO c aHH30TpOnHeH noBepXHOCTHOH 3HepruH .llJISI pa3JIHlfHb X THnoB KpHCTaJIJIHlfeCKHX CTpYKTyp. OrMeTHM, lfTO orpaHKa HJIH OK­

pyrnem1e lfaCTHU o6JieNaeT HX aKKOMOllaUHIO npH neperpynnHpOBKe H CfiJIIDK.eHHH.

IlpH nOJIHOH CMalfHBaeMOCTH H 3aMeTHOH paCTBOPHMOCTH TyfO­

nJiaBKOH <l>aJbIB )l{H.llKOH B CHCreMe WC-Co ynJioTtteHHe npH 1400 ·c

.llOTHraeTCSI }')Ke B nepBbie HeCKOJibKO (I-IO) MHHYT HJOTepMHlfeC­

KOH Bb llep)l(KH H cpaBHHTeJlbHO HefiOJibWOM [ 10-20 % (o6beMH.)] KOJIHlfecTBe XHllKOH <l>a3bI, TOraa KaK .llJISI CHCTeMbIWC-Cu (cMalfH­ BaHHe HenoJittoe H pacTBOpHMOCTH tteT) .llJISI noJittoro ynJioTHeHHSI B rex xe YCJIOBHSIX Tpe6yeTCSI OKOJIO 70 % )l{H.llKOH <l>a3bl (ofibeMH.).

Ha pHc. 259 Ha npHMepe CHCTeMbIW-NinpeacrnBJietta 06o6mett­ HaS1 cxeMa YCMKH npH XH.llKO$a3HOM cneKaHHH (TeMnepaTypa HJO­ TepMHlfeCKOH Bb .UepXKH 1500 °C) CMeCH nopOWKOB B3aHMOlleH­

CTBYIOIUHX KOMnOHeHTOB. Ha CTMHH InoKaJaHO HCXOllHOe COCTOSIHHe

MOHO- H nOJIHKPHCTaJIJIHlfeC­

KHX BOJib<l>paMOBbIX lfaCTHU, noKpbITbIX HHKeJieM. CTailHSI II xapaKTepHJyeT npouecc ae­

Jbl HTe rpaUHH nOJIHKPH­ CTaJIJIHlfeCKHX lfaCTHU H HH­ TeHCHBHYIO MeXaHHlfeCKYIO

a
neperpynnHpoeKy npH pac­ nJiaBJieHHH HHKeJISI. XHMHlfec­ KaSI neperpynnHpOBKa BHalfa­

Jie (CTallHSI Ill) npHBOllHT K

9 KOaJiecueHUHH H pocTy 6oJiee

3 KpynttbIX lfaCTHU BOJib$paMa

JV Ja ClfeT 6oJiee MeJIKHX, a Ja­ TeM (cTallHSI IV) H K OKOHlfa­


BaThCSI B nopowKoBOM TeJie ao Kottua HarpeBa npH TeMnepaType cne­

KaHHSI H B TOM CJIYlfae, eCJIH KOMnotteHTbIA H B B3aHMHo ttepacTBO­ pHMbI(ttanpHMep, B cHcTeMe W-Cu). PacnJiaBHBWHHCSI JierKonJiaB­

KHH KoMnotteHT B JaTeKaeT B nopbIMe)l(lly lfaCTHUaMH KOMnotteHTa A H CTSlrHBaeT HX; eCJIH lfaCTHUbl npH <t>opMOBaHHH o6paJOBaJIH )l(eCT­ KHH cKeJieT, TO ycaaKa noa aeHCTBHeM pacnJiaBa B JIH6o He npoHcxo­ llHT' JIH60 OHa BeCbMa He3HalfHTeJibHa.

 

15.3.2. CneKaHMe c >KMAKOM cl>a30M, MC't838IOl1\8M B npo...ecce Harpeea

 

IlyCTb CMeCb nopOWKOB COCTOHT HJ TYfOnJiaBKOfO OCHOBHOfO KOM­

notteHTa A H 6oJiee JierKonJiaBKoro KoMnotteHTa B, KOTOpb H npH HarpeBe pacnJiaBJISleTCSI H B )l{H.llKOM COCTOSIHHH llH<l><l>YttaHpyeT B lfa­ CTHUbl KOMnotteHTa A c o6pa3oBaHHeM oatto<l>aJttoro TBepaoro pa­ cTBopa HJIH KaKoro-JIH6o TyronJiaBKoro coeaHHettm1; aonycTHM TaK­

)l(e, lfTO KOMnotteHT A llH<l><l>YttaHpyeT B pacnJiaB B c o6pa3oBaHHeM

attaJIOfHlfttoro TyronJiaBKoro coemrneHHSI. Toraa, noKa CYIUeCTByeT pacnJiaB, cneKaHHe SIBJISleTCSI )l{H.llKO$a3Hb M H lfaCTHUblKOMnOHeHTa A MOfYT CTSlfHBaTbCSI cHJiaMH noBepxttocTttoro ttaTS1XeHHS1, lfTO npo­

SIBHTCSI B ycaaKe nopOWKOBOfO TeJia.

Haao HMeTb B BH.llY, llTO npH cneKaHHH peaJibHb X TeXHHlfeCKHX MeTaJIJIHlfeCKHX nopOWKOB Bceraa YlfHTbIBaIOT B03MO)l(HOCTb o6paJo­ BaHHSI )l{H.llKOH <t>aJbl Ja ClfeT HMeIOIUHXCSI npHMeceii. ,[(a)l(e npH BeCb­ Ma MaJib X KOJIHlfeCTBax )l{H.llKOH <t>aJbl , npHCYTCTBYIOIUeH B nopOWKO­ BOM TeJie B Ka)l(llblH aaHHbIH MOMeHT, B TelfeHHe BCero npouecca lfe­ pe3 Hee MOfYT npopearupoBaTb (HJIH nepeKpHCTaJIJIHJOBaTbCSI) 60Jib­ wHe MacchiTBepaoii <t>aJbI, ecJIH otta pacTBopHMa B pacnJiaBe.

THnHlfHbIM npHMepoM cneKaHHSI c o6pa3oBaHHeM )l{H.llKOH <t>aJbI, HClfeJaIOIUeH B npouecce HarpeBa, MO)l(eT CJI}')KHTb npoHJBOllCTBO no­ CTOSIHHbIX MarHHTOB HJ CMeCH nopOWKOB )l(eJie3a, HHKeJISI H aJIIOMH­

HHSI. TaKoii cnJiaB o6bilfHo coaep)l(HT 27-28 % Ni, 13-14 % Al, oc­

TaJibHoe )l(eJieJo, npHlleM aJIIOMHHHH BBOllSIT B <t>opMe HJMeJiblfeHHOH HHKeJibaJIIOMHH HeBOH JIHraTypbI, nJiaBSIIUeHCSI npMMepHO npM 1150 ·c.

IlpM TeMnepaType cneKaHHSI, npeBbIWa10mei1 TOlfKY nJiaBJieHHSI JIH­ raTypbl, pacnJiaB nocJieatteH. pacnpeaeJIS1eTcS1 Me)l(lly TBepllbIMH lfac­ THUaMH )l(eJieJa H HHKeJISI H llH<l><l>YHllMpyeT B HHX c o6paJoBaHHeM COOTBeTCTBYIOIU HX TpOHHblX TBepabIX pacTBopoB.


P11c. 259. CyMMapHaH cxeMa yca.nKH np11

lKH,llKOcj>aJHOM cneKUHHH nopowKOBOH CHCTe­ Mbl W-Ni (1-12 - PUJJIH'l Hbie JepHa BOJlbQ>­ paMa)

 


TeJibHOMY ynJioTHeHHIO CHcre­

t
MbL

)l(HaKaSI <t>aJa MO)l(eT OCTa- 4

i

{


,[(pyrnM npMMepoM TaKOro poaa CHCTeM MOfYT CJI}')KHTb 6pOHJO­

Bbie (Cu-Sn) H 6pOHJO-rpa<l>HTOBbi e (Cu-Sn-C) KOMnOJHUHH, WHpOKO npMMeHSleMbie B TeXHHKe B Ka'leCTBe aHTM<l>pHKUHOHHbIX

 


MarepHanoB. B CHCTeMe Cu-Sn cyll.leCTBYIOT 3BTeKTHKa (reMnepaTYPa nn:aBJieHHH 227 °C), a.-TBep.llh H pacTBop Sn B Cu (MaKCHMaJihHoe co­

)lepxaHHe Sn paBHO 13,5% npH 800 °C) H <i>aJhl Tl (Cu Sn ), e (Cu Sn),


HMYIUeCTBeHHOfO .llHcPcPYJHOHHOfO noroKa Me)l{)ly )l{Jl)lKOH <l>aJOH H TBep)lOH Ha npo­

THBOilOJIO)l(HOe (LlH<l>cl>YJHH Cu B Al 6oJiee


6 5 3


8 (Cu4Sn IDIH Cu31 Sn8), (Cu6Sn) c reMnepaTYPaMH nJiaBJieHHH 415,

-680, -590 H 798 ·c COOTBeTCTBeHHO. B JII060M CJIY'Iae noHBJIHIOll.laHCH

)l{Jl)lKaH <l>a3a HcqeJaeT JIH6o paCTBOpHHCb B Me)lHOH MaTpHUe, JIH60 KpHCTaJIJIHJYHCb B BH)le BHOBb o6pa3YI01UeHCH 6oJiee TYfOnJiaBKOH cPaJhl.

B pa6oTax A.TI. CaBHUKOro H )lp. HCCJie)loBaHbIBonpoChI, CBH3aH­

Hb e c 06'beMHb M POCTOM nopOIIIKOBb X TeJI B npHCYTCTBHH He60Jib­ IIIHX KOJIHqecTB )l{Jl)lKOH <l>aJb , HHTeHCHBHO paCTBOpHIOll.leHCH B TBep­

)lb X qacT11uax. TaK, np11 cneKaHHH B BaKYYMe B c11cTeMe Cu-Al rrpH nepexo)le qepeJ reMnepaTYPY nJiaBJieHHH 3BTeKTHKH (548 °C) BeJI11- q11Ha OTpHUaTeJibHOH YCa)lKH peJKO BOJpacTaeT (pHC. 260; HCXO)lHaH nopHCTOCTb 20-25 %): npH HeBblCOKHX TeMneparypax cneKaHHH

(550-700 °C) Mana TBep.llocl>aJHaH yca)lKa Me.llH, TBep)loro pacTBopa Al B Cu 11 o6pa3yI01Uerocsi: npH 450 -500 ·c HHTepMeTaJIJIH.11.a CuA1 , TOf)la KaK npeHMyll.leCTBeHHaH .llH<l>cl>YJHH aJIIOMHHHH B Me)lb (npH 565 ·c

pacTBopHMOCTh Al B Cu 9,4 %, a Cu B Al 2,5 %), aKTHBHpoBaH HaH noHBHBIIIeHCH )l{Jl)lKOH <l>aJOH, rrpHBO)lHT K o6'beMHOMY pOCTy noporn­ KOBOfO TeJia HJ-Ja pa36yxaHHH qacTHU Me)lH. ):Lim 6oJiee MeJIKOfO no­


HHTeHCHBHaH, qeM Al B Cu), MO)l(HO no­

JiyqHTh o6'beMHYIO YCa.11.KY npH OTHOCHTeJib­ HO MaJib X KOJIHqeCTBax )l{H)lKOH cPaJbl(pHC. 261; HCXO)lHaH nopHCTOCTb nopOIIIKOBOfO

TeJia 15 %, cneKaHHe B BaKYYMe B reqeHHe 1 q): yca.11.Ka HaqHHaeTCH npH 580 ·c H co­

)lepxaHHH Me.llH > 3 %, a npH 640°C Bee

COCTaBbl)laIOT o6'beMHYIO YCa.11.KY· AHano­ rnqHbie peJyJihTaThInoJiyqeHhInpH cneKa­ HHH aJIIOMHHHH c )lo6aBKaMH KpeMHHH,

HHKeJIH, cepe6pa.

B pa6ore B.B. CKopoxo)la H LlP· HCCJie­

.llOBaHa cHcreMa Ti-50 % (aT.) Fe H noKa­ JaHo BJIHHHHe )l{H)lKOH <PaJbl, noHBJIH­

IOll.leHCH B peJyJihTaTe KOHTaKTHOfO nJiaB­ JieHHH (reMnepaTYPa nJiaBJieHHH 3BTeKTH­ KH 1085 °C), Ha o6'beMHbie HJMeHeHHH


 

 

10 2

 

 

5

 

 

0 2

Cu, % (111acc.)

 

P11c. 261. 3aa11c11MOCTh KO­ He'IHOH nop11CTOCTH 6p11KeTOB Al-Cu OT KOHUeHTpau1111

Me)l.11 npH reMnepazype cneKa­ Hl1H, ·c: 1 - 460; 2 - 580;

3 - 600; 4 - 620; 5 - 640 '


pornKa aJIIOMHHHH YCJIOBHH ero LlHcPcPYJHH HJ )l{Jl)lKOH <PaJblB TBep­ LlYIO 6oJiee 6JiaronpHHTHbl(CYMMapHaH nJIOllla)lb KOHTaKTa qaCTHU Me)lH H aJIIOMHHHH 60Jihllle, H, CJie)loBaTeJibHO, KOJIHqecTBO o6paJyI01UeHCH

(V/V)·10 % )l{Jl)lKOH <l>aJbl60JibIIIe, qeM B CJiyqae 60-

2 Jiee KpynHoro nopornKa anIOMHHHH). Ta­

KHM o6pa30M, yBeJIHqeHHe paJMepa HC-

0 XO)lHb X qacTHU aJIIOMHHHH yMeHbIIIaeT


nopOIIIKOBOfO TeJia (nopOIIIOK THTaHa fH.llPH.llHOKaJibUHeBbIH c

S I /r
s = 6 7 M2/r· nopoIIIOK xeJie3a KpynHblH c s = 0,1 M2/r H MeJIKHH

YJJ. ' ' YJJ.

c = M2 HCXO)lHaH nopHCTOCTh npeccoBKH 26%, crreKaHHe B

YJJ. '

BaK}'YMHOM )lHJiaTOMeTpe npH 1,2.10- a H TeMnepaTYPe HJOTepMH-

qecKOH Bhmep)l(KH l IOO 0C). TBep.ll$J- HaH yca)lKa (pHC. 262) npeCCOBKH Ha-

qJIHaeTCH c 800 °C, a npH nosi:BJieHHH ; --------/,."'K"'


o6'heMHb H pOCT nopOIIIKOBoro TeJia rrpH

-2 ero )l{H)lKOcPaJHOM cneKaHHH. POCT co)lep­ xaHHH aJIIOMHHHH, YBeJI11q11BaH KoJiwqe­

CTBO )l{Jl)lKOH <l>aJbl, npHBO)lHT K ' OOJib­ IIIeMy 06'beMHOMY pocTy nopOIIIKOBOfO

-6 TeJia npH cneKaHHH. IlpH nOBb IIIeHHH

TeMnepaTYPhI crreKaHHH yca.11.Ka Me.llH, a TaKXe <l>aJ Ha ee OCHOBe npOHBJIHeTCH


)l{H)lKOH cl>aJhl HaqHHaeTCH pOCT no­ pOIIIKOBOfO TeJia, np11qeM B CJiyqae 1000 CMeCH c MeJIKHM nopOIIIKOM xeJieJa 800 paCIIIHpeHHe o6paJua npoHCXO)lHT 600

npaKTHqecKH MfHOBeHHO (pHC. 262, KpHBaH 2) H OHa Cyll.leCTByeT BCero 400 HeCKOJibKO CeKYHJl. (paJBHTaH noBepx- 200

HOCTb xeJieJa KaK 6hI«BCaCbIBaeT TH­


0

100

300

500

700


200 600 r, ·c


)lOCTaroqHo JaMeTHO H npH TeMneparype


TaH» HJ )l{H)lKOH cl>aJb ); B CJiyqae CMe-


0 40 80 120 160 t, MUH


PHc. 260. 3rumcHMOClb ofueM­ Hb X 113MeHeHl1H npeCCOBOK 113

CMec11 Cu-Al OT reMnepa'fYPbI

cneKaHl1H np11 KOHUeHTpau1111 aJIIOMl1HHH, % (aT.): I - 5; 2 - 10; 3 - 15


cneKaHHH > 800 ·c o6'beMHblH pOCT 110-

0

poIIIKOBOfO TeJia cy1UeCTBeHH0 yMeHb­

rnaeTCH, nepexo)lH )la)l(e B yca.11.Ky LlJIH coCTaBa Cu-5 % (aT.) Al.

IlpH HJMeHeHHH HanpaBJieHHH npe-


CH c KpynHhIM nopoIIIKOM xeJieJa )l{H)l- P11c. 262. ,ll.HJiarorpaMMbl npo­ KaH cPaJa CYIUeCTByeT 20 MHH. lpeHMy- ueccoe cneKaHHH cMecew nopollI­

ll.leCTBeHHh H MacconepeHOC HJ )l(H)l- KOB TITTaHa 11 )l(eJieJa: I - Kp11Brul

Harpeaa; 2 - MeJIKl1H nopOUIOK

KOH cl>aJbl B TBep)lyIO, npHBO)lHIUHH K )l(eJieJa; 3 _ KpynttbIH nopoUIOK

yBeJIHqeHHIO ee o6'beMa, CBH3aH c )l(eJieJa


npaKTffl:leCKH 0,llHOCTOpOHHeH .llH<PcPYJHeH THTaHa HJ )l{H,IJ.KOH ct>aJbl 3BTeKTH' eCKoro COCTaBa [Ti-30 % (aT.) Fe] B qacTHUbl)KeJieJa (K03cP­ cPHUHeHT .llHcPcPYJHH THTaHa B )KeJieJo Ha nop.Sl,llOK 60JibUie, qeM B

o6paTHOM HanpaBJieHHH). TaKHM o6paJoM, B onpe.neJieHHb X ycJIOBHSIX npH )KH,llKocf>aJHOM cneKaHHH HMeeT MeCTO o6beMHb H pOCT noporn­

KOBOro reJia. YBeJIHqeHHe nopHCTOCTH MO)KHO oueHHTb cJie,nyIOIUHM


OpeHe6pera.si: BeJIHqHHOH (S,. - S.)cr,.., TaK KaK B HaqaJibHb H Mo­

MeHT s H s COHJMepHMb , noJiyqaeM

"' r

(15.8) HJIH


aHaJIHTHqecKHM BblpruKeHHeM:


cr COSS 0.

>
lK


(15.9)


(15.6)

r,ne 00, 0 - nOpHCTOCTb nopOllIKOBOro TeJia ,llO H nOCJie cneKaHH.Sl COOTBeTCTBeH HO; c -o6beMHaSI KOHIJ,eHTpaIJ,H.Sl JierKonJiaBKOH .no6aB­

KH (.noJIH e.nHHHUbI). Bb pruKeHHe (15.6) cnpaBe,!J.JIHBo npH .nocrnroq­

HO MaJibIX JHaqeHH.SlX HCXO,llHOH nopHCTOCTH nopOUIKOBOro TeJia H KOJIHqecrnax )l{H,IJ.KOH cPaJbl < 40 % (06.).

 

 

15.4. MH<t>MnbTpaa.-MH nopowKoeol4 <t>opMOBKM

 

 

l1H<l>HJihTpaUIDI IlOJ>OWKOBOil: <l>oPMOBKH -

JanoJIHeHHe nop nopoUJKOBOil: <l>opMOBKH pacruJaBJieHHh M MeTaJl.JJOM HJJH CruJaBOM

HccJie,noBaHH.Sl no HHcPHJibTpaUHH (.no 1982 r. npHMeHSIJIH repMHH

«nponHTKa») nopOUIKOBb X Tex npOBO,ll.SlTC.Sl, nO-BH,llHMOMy, c 1914 r.

f
OpOMblllIJleHHblH BbinYCK HJ,lleJIHH no TaKOH TeXHOJIOfHH opraHHJO­ BaH BepO.SlTHO TOJibKO B 1945 r., HO yxe B 50-e fO,llbl xx B. BbinYCK

KOMnpeccopHblX JionaTOK peaKTHBHb X .llBHraTeJieH COCTaBJISIJI nopsi.n­ Ka 1 MJIH. rnT/Mec.si:u.

f
Cyll.l,HOCTb Mero.na HHcPHJibTpal.l,HH ,llOCTaToqHo npocrn: HJ noporn­ Ka 6oJiee zyronJiaBKOro KOMilOHeHTa cf>opMyIOT nopHCTb H KapKaC, a JaTeM JanoJIHHIOT ero nycTOTbI (nopb ) pacnJiaBJieHHbIM 6oJiee Jier­ KOnJiaBKHM KOMnoHeHTOM (MeTaJIJIOM HJIH CnJiaBOM).

f
TepMO.llHHaMHqecKoe ycJioBHe HHcPHJibTpaIJ,HH - B peJyJihTare Ja­ noJIHeHHSI nop pacnJiaBoM cBo6o.nHasi 3HeprHSI CHCTeMbI,noJl)KHa YMeHb­ rnaTbC.Sl - MO)KHO BbipaJHTb CJie,llyIOll.l,HM o6paJOM:

crTST + cr,.S,. - crT_lKST - cr,.Sr > 0, (15.7)

rae ST, S,., Sr - coorneTCTBeHHO BHYTpeHH.Sl.Sl nosepXHOCTb nop cf>op­ MOBKH, nosepXHOCTb )KH,llKOro MeTaJIJia nepe.n HHcPHJibTpaIJ,HeH H nJIO­

ll.1,3,llb nop, Bb XO,ll.Slll.l,HX Ha BHeUIHIOIO ra6apHTHYIO noBepXHOCTb cf>op­ MOBKH, r.ne pacnJiaB conpHKacaeTC.Sl c OKpyxaIOll.l,eH raJOBOH aTMO­ ccf>epou.


nocKOJibKY cr BCer.na OOJibUie HYJI.Sl, TO ycJIOBHe ocyll.l,eCTBJieHH.Sl HHcPHJibTpal.l,HH s"' < 90°; npH s 90° HHcPHJibTpal.l,H.Sl npOHCXO,llHTb He

6y.neT (HanpHMep, nopHCTOe TeJio HJ A1p3 HeBOJMO)KHO HHcPHJibTpO­ BaTb )l{H,IJ.KHMH MeTaJIJiaMH rpynnbI)KeJieJa). ,ll.rl.Sl yJiyqUieHH.Sl HHcPHJib­ TpaUHH K nopOUIKY zyronJiaBKOfO KOMnoHeHTa nepea cf>opMOBaHHeM

.no6aBJI.SIIOT He6oJibllIOe (2,5-5 %) KOJIHqecTBO nopornKa HHcPHJib­

TpyeMoro HJIH KaKorO-JIH60 .npyroro ,llOCTaToqHo JierKOnJiaBKOfO H

BJaHMO,lleHCTBYIOll.l,ero c HHM MeTaJIJia. TeMnepazypa HHcPHJibTpaIJ,HH Ha 100-150 ·c,noJl)KHa npeBb UiaTb Trui pacnJiaBJI.SieMoro MeTaJIJia (cnJia­

Ba). YnJioTHeHHe nopornKoBoro reJia npH HHcPHJihTpaUHH aHaJiornqHo cneKaHHIO B npHCyTCTBHH )l{H,IJ.KOH cf>aJbl(pHC. 258).

CKopoCTb HHcPHJibTpaIJ,H H COCTaBJI.SleT HeCKOJibKO aec.SlTb X MHJIJIH­ MeTpa B CeKYH.llY' a TOJill.l,HHa HHcPHJibTpOBaHHOfO CJIO.Sl h JaBHCHT OT

CBOHCTB pacnJiaBa H ,!J.JIHTeJibHOCTH t ero KOHTaKTa c TBep,llb M KapKa­ COM:

h = (1/ 7t) cr..,. cos Sr,t / rt. , (15.10)r.ne r - 3cf>ct>eKTHBHb H pa,nHyc nopOBb X KaHaJIOB.

HTeJibHOCTb nOJIHOH HHcPHJibTpaIJ,HH tn MO)KHO onpeaeJIHTb HJ COOTHOUieHH.Sl

t" = 4rt,.l 2 /(r,cr,. cos S± gV y ,.r,2I S , (15.11)

 

r.ne I - ra6apHT (TOJIIUHHa) cf>opMOBKH; g - ycKopeHHe CBo6o.nHoro na.neHH.Sl; v - HaqaJibHb H o6beM nop B cf>opMOBKe; YJK - nJIOTHOCTb

pacnJiasa; S - nJIOIU3.llb ceqeHHSI cf>opMOBKH.

11HcPHJibTpaU,HIO HJ BHeUIHHX HCTOqHHKOB Be.nyT:

no MemoiJy HOJIOJICeHUH (B JHaMeHaTeJie cPOPMYJiblJHaK «+»); nopH­ CTb H KapKaC HJ qacTHU zyronJiaBKOro KOMnOHeHTa (nocJie cf>opMOBa­ HH.Sl HJIH npe,nBapHTeJibHOro cneKaHH.Sl) BMeCTe c noMell.l,eHHblM Ha HeM Tpe6yeMb M KOJIHqecTBOM rnepaoro JierKonJiaBKOfO MeTaJIJia ,!J.JI.Sl HHcPHJibTpaUHH, paccqHTaHHOM HCXO,ll.Sl HJ o6beMa nop B KapKace, JarpyxaIOT B HarpeBaTeJibHOe YCTpOHCTBO c Jall.l,HTHOH aTMoccf>epoH H

COOTBeTCTBYIOIUeH TeMnepazypou; o6paJYIOIUHliC.Sl pacnJiliB BnHTbl-


 


BaeTCH B nopbIKapKaca;

no emoi}y no2pyJ1CeHUR (B JHaMeHareJie <l><>PMYJibIJHaK «-»); no­ pHCTblH KapKac BBOMT B npe.uBapHTeJibHO pacnJiaBJieHHb H JierKo­ nJiaBKHH KOMnOHeHT, JIH6o B npouecce HarpeBa C03,llaIOT pacnJiaB BOK­ pyr nopwcTOro KapKaca.

flOCJie HH$HJibTpaQHH IlOJiyqaeMb H KOMil03HUHOHHb H MaTepHaJI npaKTnqecKH He co.uep:)faff nop H JierKo no.u.uaeTCH nocJie.uyiomeH: .ue­

«i>opMaUHH.

 

15.5. YnpaeneHMe o6'beMHblMM M3MeHeHMRMM nopOWKOBblX Ten npM >KMAKO<l>83HOM cneKaHMM

 

 

HHTeHcH$HKauHH YMeHbUieHHH ofi'heMa nopornKoBoro TeJia B npH­ CYTCTBHH )l(ff,llKOH $a3blnpH cneKaHHH H ,llOCTIDKeHHe HM KOHeqHOH MaJionopHCTOH (a HHor.ua npaKTHqecKH 6ecnopHCTOH) CTpYKTYPbl JIHlllaJIO aKryaJibHOCTH B TeqeHHe ,llOCTaTOqHo ,llJIHTeJibHOro BpeMeHH Bonpoc 0 B03MO)l(HOCTH noJiyqeHHH BbICOKonopHCTb X MaTepHaJIOB

)l(ff,llKo«l>a3Hb M cneKaHHeM.

B KOHUe 70-x ro.uoB XX B. B pa6omx IO.B. HaH.uwqa, B.B. CKopoxo­

.ua, C.M. CoJIOHHHa H .up. 6bmH HCCJie.UOBaHhIycJioBHH, noJBOJIHIOlllHe ynpaBJIHTb 06'beMHb MH H3MeHeHHHMH npH )l(ff,llKO$a3HOM cneKaHHH, noJiyqaH Bb COKOnopHCTb e nopOUIKOBb e MaTepHaJiblH H3,lleJIHH c pa3-


 

o6»eMoM nop 76 % [24 % (o6'beMH.) MeJIKHe ec­ TecTBeHHb e nopbI H 52 % (o6'beMH.) KpynHb e HCKYCCTBeHHh e nopb1]. Ha pHc. 263 noKaJaHa Ja­ BHCHMOCTb o6'beMHOH yca,UKH H KOHeqHOH nopH­

CTOCTH OT KOJIHqecTBa )l(ff,llKOH $a3bl npH cneKa­ HHH ( 1250 ·c, 1 q, H ) o6pa3UOB W-Cu "

W-Cu-Ni. Y o6pa3UOB W-Cu nocJie cneKaHMH coxpaHHeTCH nopHCTOCTb 70 % ,lla)l(e npn 50%­ HOM co.uep)l(aHHH )l(H,llKOH $a3bl (T.e. MHKpono­ pMCTOCTb YMeHbUiaeTCH HeJHaqnreJibHO H3-3a no­ BbillleHHoro conpoTHBJieHHH BH3KOMY .ue$op­ MHpOBaHHIO 3TOH reTeporeHHOH CHCTeMb ), Tor­

.ua KaK npHCYTCTBHe HHKeJIH, B KOTOpOM paCTBO­

pHeTCH BOJib$paM, JaMeTHO yBeJiwqnBaeT yca.uKY H npH co.uep)l(aHHH )l(H,llKOH $a3bl > 28 % KO­

HeqHaH nopHCTOCTb MeHbllle, qeM HCXO,llHaH MaK­ ponopHCTOCTb [OTMeTHM, qTQ npH co.uep)l(aHHH

)l(ff,llKOH $a3bl 20-35 % (o6'beMH.) B MaTepHaJie coxpaHHeTCH BblCOKaH o6maH nopHCTOCTb 40-60 %].

B nopornKoBOM reJie c HCXO.UHOH 6HnopncToH:

CTPYKTypoH: o6'beMHaH yca.uKa onpe.ueJisieTCH npe)l(,lle Bcero ynJioTHeHHeM yqacTKOB c MeJIKH-


 

 

/2
60

'#.

40

<1 1

-
20 ,>'

 

60

'#.

c:::

40

 

 

20 35 50

}f{. % (o6beMH.)

 

P11c. 263. 3as11c11-

MOCTb o6beMHOH yca,n:­ KH (ii V/ JI) 11 KOHe'l­ HOH nop11cTOCTH 6p11- KeTOB (n) OT KOJIH'le­ CTBa )1(11,UKOH <f>aJbl

()K) np11 cneKaHHH B

H2 np11 1250 ·c, 1 'I:

I - W-Cu; 2 - W­

(Cu-20 Ni)


MepaMH, npaKTHqecKH paBHb MH paJMepaM HCXO.UHb X npeccoBoK. Ha npHMepe BOJib«l>paM-Me,llHb X KOMil03HUHH 6bmo nOKa3aHo, qTO ,llJIH 3Toro Tpe6yTCH COJ.UaHHe 6unopucmou cmpyKmypbl nopornKoBoro reJia, co.uep)l(ameH MeJIKHe ecTeCTBeHHble nopblH KpynHbie HCKYCCTBeHHb e

nopb1 (coJ,UaHHh e, HanpHMep, Ja cqeT yJieTyqHBaiomerocH nopoo6- pa30BaTeAA c KpynHbIMH qaCTHQaMH). B 3TOM CJiyqae npowcxo,UHT YMeHb­ rneHHe CHJI noBepxHOCTHOro HaTH)l(eHHH, .ueH:CTBYIOlllHX B KpynHb X HCKYCCTBeHHb X nopax, a TaK)l(e npoHBJIHeTCH 6oJibUia» o6»eMHaH BH3-

KOCTb npecCOBOK c KpynHb MH nopaMH no cpaBHeHHIO c npeCCOBKa­ MH c MeJIKHMH eCTeCTBeHHb MH nopaMH.

MeTaJIJIHqecKHe nopOllIKH (BOJib«l>paM Bq, Me,llb IlMC-1, HHKeJib IlHK-1) CMeUIHBaJIH c nopOUIKOM .UByyrJieKHCJIOro aMMOHHH [52 %

(o6'beMH.);' pa3Mep qacTHU 100 MKM], npeCCOBaJIH 6pHKeTbl TaKHM

o6pa30M, qTofibIMHKponopHCTOCTb (ecrecTBeHHaH nopHCTOCTb ofi'be­ MOB MeTaJIJiwqecKoro nopOUIKa) COCTaBJIHJia 50 %, H npH 200 ·c B H2

OTrOHHJIH H3 npecCOBOK nopoo6pa30BaTeJib, C03,llaBaH B HHX 52 % (o6'beMH.) KpynHh X nop (MaKponopHCTOCTb). TaKHM o6pa3oM, nepe.u cneKaHHeM npeCCOBKH HMeJIH 6HnOpHCTYIO CTpYKTYPY c cyMMapHbIM

242


MH ecTecTBeHHbIMH nopaMH. CJie,UoBaTeJibHO, ecJIH JaTopMo3HTb nx ynJIOTHeHHe (HanpHMep, JanOJIHHTb 3TH nopbl.uo HaqaJia HHTeHCHB­ HOH yca,UKH KaKHM-JIH6o BemecTBOM), TO yca.uKa nopOUIKOBOfO TeJia npH cneKaHHH He npoHJoH:.ueT. TaK, MO)l(HO coBMeCTHTb co cneKaHn­ eM HH$HJibTpaUHIO Me,llbIO MeJIKHX nop B 611nopHCTOH BOJib$paMOBOH

$opMOBKe KaK H3 BHeWHHX, TaK " H3 BHyTpeHHHX HCTOqHHKOB.

npH noJiyqeHHH nopHCTOfO MaTepHaJia COCTaBa W-30 Cu (BoJIL«t>­ paM aKTHBHPOBaH HHKeJieM) cneKaHHeM CMeCH 3THX ,llHCnepCHblX nopOWKOB yca.uKa COCTaBHJia 21 %, a COBMelll,eHHeM cneKaHHH " HH­

$HJibTpaUHH H3 BHeWHero HCTQqHHKa BCero 2, I%.

DOJiee TeXHOJIOfHqHa HH$HJibTpaIJ,HSI H3 BHyTpeHHHX HCT04HHKOB

c ncnoJib30BaHMeM KpynHoro c$epn4eCKoro Me.uHoro nopowKa. B noM CJiyqae TOpMO)l(eHHe YCa,UKH nopoWKOBOfO TeJia npOHCXO,llHT BCJie.u­ CTBHe JanoJIHeHHSI MeJIKHX nop (B KOTOpblX .ueflcTByIOT 6bJibWHe Ka­ nHJIJIHpHbi e CHJibl) pacnJiaBJieHHOM Me,llbIO'. 4aCTHIJ,bl Me.UH pacnJiaB­

JIHIOTCH, )KH,llKOCTb BCaCbJBaeTCSI MeJIKHMH nopaMH H nOHBJISIIOTCSI

KpynHbie c$epn4eCKHe nopbI, KOTOpb1e, He BJIHHSI Ha yca.uKy, pe3KO yseJIM4HBaIOT raJonpoHnu,aeMOCTb nopncToro MaTepnana. B Ta6JI. 54


T a 6 JI M u a 54. 061.eMHlUI yc8,ll,Ka (d V/ Ji) H ra30npoaaeMOCT1t (q) cne11e1111WX W-Cu 6pHKeTOB

.


KoHmpoAbHble Bonpocbl

1. KaKoe cneKattHe Ha3bIBaIOT )l(H.IJ.KOcPa3HbIM?

2. KaKOBO o6H3aTeJibHOe ycnoeHe np11 npoee.IJ.eHHH )l(H.IJ.Koct>a3HO-

ro cneKaHHH?


Cocrae n·,% VcJVMn dVIV


q , JJ/(MllH•CM 2)


3. YKa)l{HTe HCTO'IHHKH, o6ecne'IMBaIOIUMe noHBJieHHe )l(H.IJ.KOH


W-!Ni 55 0 13,7 -

WN;-6,4 Cu 60 0,3 6,1 -

WN;-13,8 Cu 60 0,7 2,1 -

WN;-25,8 Cu 60 1,0 1,3 -

W-IOCu 75 - - 39

W-20 Cu 74 - - 58

W-30 Cu 72 - - 63

 

• Oop11CTOCTb nocne cneKaH11ll.

•• f!Pll dp = 0,05 Mna II TOJlll.lllHe o6pa:ma 5 MM.

 

npHBe.IJ.eHbl BeJIH'IHHbl (>KH.IJ.KOcPa3HOe cneKaHMe npH 1250 °C, 0,5 q) o6beMHOH yca.IJ.KH 6HnopHCTbIX 6p11KeTOB (MHKponopHCTOCTb 30 %) B 3aBHCMMOCTH OT CTeneHH 3aflOJIHeHHH Me.IJ.blO MeJIKHX nop ( VcJ vM.n - OTHOI.UeHHe 06beMa Me.IJ.H K ofibeMy MeJIKHX nop) 11 ra30npott11uaeMOCTb cneqeHHbIX W-Cu Marep11anoe. KaK noKa3bIBaIOT 3TH .IJ.aHHbie, np11

HHcPMJibTpaUHH MeJIKHX nop 113 BHYTpeHHHX MCTO'IHHKOB c yeeJIH'le­

HHeM KOJIH'leCTBa )l(H.IJ.KOH ct>a3bl yca.IJ.Ka nopoUIKOBOfO Tena c HCXO.IJ.­ HOH 6HnOpHCTOH CTpYKTYPOH yMeHbUiaeTCH, H npH MaKCHMaJibHOM

3anoJIHeHHH MeJIKHX nop 06beMHbie H3MeHeHHH npH cneKaHHH npaK­ TH'leCKH OTCYTCTBYIOT. fa3onpott11uaeMOCTb cne'leHHbIX 06pa3uoe cy­ mecTBeHHO 803pacrneT c yeeJIH'leHHeM KOJIH'leCTBa Me.IJ.H, TaK KaK pacTeT KOJIH'leCTBO KpynHblX nop, KOTOpbie OCB060)l{)J,aIOTCH npH ne­ pepacnpe.IJ.eJieHHH Me.IJ.H e npouecce )l(H.IJ.Koct>a3Horo cneKaHHH (oTMe­ THM, '!TO pa3Mepbl 'laCTHU JierKOnJiaBKOfO KOMnoHeHTa .IJ.OJI)l(Hbl cy­ mecTBeHHO npeBOCXO.IJ.HTb pa3MepblecTeCTBeHHbl X nop, TaK KaK B CJIY­ qae MeJIKO.IJ.HCnepCHbIX '!aCTHU o6pa3yeMbl H HMM pacnJiaB 6y.IJ.eT B 60Jib­ I.UeH Mepe y.IJ.ep)l{HBaTbCH Ha MeCTe 3Ha'IHTeJibHbl MH KanHJIJIHPHbl MH CHJiaMM).

TaKMM o6pa3oM, MO)l{HO o6ecne'IHTb 6e3yca.IJ.O'I HOe cneKaH11e B npHCYTCTBHH )1(11.IJ.KOH ct>a3bl , '!TO MO)l{eT OKa3aTbCH )l(eJiaTeJibHbIM np11 H3fOTOBJieHHH HeKOTOpblX THnoe nopOLUKOBbIX 113.IJ.eJIMH.

 

 


cfmb1.

4. nepe'IHCJIHTe CTa.IJ.HH YnJIOTHeHMH npM )l(H.IJ.KOcPa3HOM cneKa-

HHH H npHBe.IJ.HTe KpHBYIO YnJIOTHeHH H.

5. PaccKa)l{HTe o npoueccax neperpynn11poBKH 11 nepeKpHCTaJI- JIH3aUHH npH )l(H.IJ.KOcPa3HOM cneKaHHH.

6. PaccKa)l{HTe o cneKaHHH c o6pa3oBaHMeM )l(H.IJ.KOH ct>a3b , npH­

CYTCTBYIOI.UeH .IJ.O Kottua HJOTepMH'leCKOH Bbl.IJ.ep)l{KH npH ttarpeee.

7 KaKOBbIocHOBHbie 3aKoHoMepHOCTH HHcPHJibTpau1111?

8: KaK 3a6JioKHpoBaTb yca.IJ.KY npH )l(H.IJ.KOcPa3HOM cneKaHHH?

 

 

PeKo.MeHiJameAbHblii 6u6Auozpacftu11ec 1Cuii cnucoK

I. CKopoxoiJ B.B., CoAOHUH C.M. <l>H3HKO-MeTaJIJiypmqecK11e ocHOBbI cneKaHHH nopoUIKOB. - M.: MeTannypmH, 1984. - 159 c. (c. 116 -

148).

2. Fezy3uH J/.E. <l>H3HKa cneKaHHH. - 2-e H3.IJ.., nepepa6. M .IJ.OTI. - M.:

HayKa, 1984. - 312 c. (c. 294 - 299).


rnaea 16. npaKTMKa cneKaHMJI

16.1. ATMoctt>epbl cneKaHMH M aa114MTHb1e aaCblnKM

 

CneKam1e nopoIIIKOBb X <t>opMoBoK npoBOMT B cpe.ne JalllHTHoro ra3a HJIH B BaKYYMe.IlpHMeHeHHe 3alllHTHb X aTMoc<t>ep Heo6xo.nHMO MH npe.noxpaHemrn HarpeBaeMb X MaTepHaJIOB OT OKHCJieHHH B npo­ uecce TepMHqeCKOH o6pa60TKH, a TaIOKe BOCCTaHOBJieHHH OKCJf.llOB, HMeIOlllHXCH Ha noBepxHOCTH qacTHU COOTBeTCTBYJOlll HX nopOIIIKOB.

OmcJieHHe npH cneKaHHH KpaH:He He)l(eJiaTeJihHo, TaK KaK npo­ uecc YIUIOTHeHHH H ynpoqHeHHH HarpeBaeMblX nopOIIIKOBb X TeJI TOp­

M03HTCH H .naxe OCTaHaBJIHBaeTCH npH o6pa3oBaHHH Ha noBepXHOCTH qacTHU (nopoIIIHHOK) OKCJf.llHbIX IUieHOK.IlpH HarpeBe qaCTHUbl no­

pOIIIKa MOryT OKHCJIHTbCH KHCJIOPO.llOM, co.nep)l(alllHMCH B 3alllHTHOH N

aTMoc<t>epe (HanpHMep·, B BH.lle napoB BO.llblHJIH npHMeCH KHCJIOpo­

.na) HJIH B cneKaeMOM MaTepHaJie (HanpHMep, B BH.ne OKCJf.llOB Ha noBepxHOCTH qacTHU IDIH B BH.lle KHCJiopo.nco.nep)l(amero ra3a B nopax nopoIIIKOBOH <t>opMOBKH), a .TaIOKe KHCJIOPO.llOM BOJ.nyxa, no.ncacb ­


  C(' 0 0 0 g 0 0 .,... 0 7 ,. 0 "? 1' "i' "i' s
      .,... _ ....., I I I I I 8.""1". 88 o 0 00
  :i u   - I I I I I.
u .,... .-..... I I I - I I I I ""' _ .,... \I \I ii
  u ...... I I I I '7 r-. I I N 00 -0 0N -
  oo _ O o o \I \I
  0-0 -.,... 0
     

 

BaeMoro B pa6oqee npocTpaHCTBo HarpeBaTeJibHoro ycTpoHCTBa qepe3 ero HeIUIOTHOCTH. MeTaJIJIJfqecmH: MaTepHaJI He OKHCJIHeTCH B fa30- BOH aTMoc<t>epe, B KOTOpoH: napUHaJibHOe .naBJieHHe KHCJIOpo.na MeHb­ IIIe, qeM ynpyroCTb .llHCCOUHaUHH OKCJf.llOB 3TOfO MaTepHaJia npH TeM­ nepazype H30TepMJfqeCKOH Bbl.llep)f(KJf. 3amHTy OT OKHCJieHHH OCo6eHHO TpY.llHO OCYllleCTBHTb npH cneKaHHH MeTaJIJIOB, o6pa3YJOlllHX TpY.llHO­ BOCCTaHOBHMb e OKCH.llbl (xpoM, THTaH, aJIIOMHHHH H .np.).

Bb16op JalllHTHoH: cpe.nb1 B JHaqHTeJibHOH CTeneHH JaBHCHT. OT co­ CTaBa nopoIIIKOBOro MaTepHaJia, THna neqJf, 3KOHOMJfqecKHX <t>aKTo­ poB H T.n. BJaHMo.neH:cTBHe c aTMoc<t>epoH: B pa6oqeM npocTpaHCTBe neqJf He .llOJI)J(HO npHBO.llHTb K o6paJoBaHHIO coe.nHHeHHH, yxy.nIIIaIO­ lllHX CBOHCTBa nopoIIIKOBb X TeJI; aTMoc<t>epa cneKaHHH BJIHHeT Ha .ne­ cop6UHIO raJOB, pa<t>HHHPOBaHHe, BOCCTaHOBJieHHe H .llHCCOUHaUHIO

OKCJf.llOB, nepeHoc Bemecrna qepe3 raJoByro <t>aJy, o6pa3oBaHHe pa3- JIHqHbIX XHMJfqecKHX coe.nHHeHHH, noBepxHOCTHYIO .llH<l><l>Y3HIO aTO­ MOB H np.

B Kaqecrne JalllHTHoH: aTMoc<t>epbInpH cneKaHHH qame Bcero npH­ MeHHIOT Bo.nopo.n, .llHCCOUHHpoBaHHbIH aMMHaK, KOHBepTHpOBaHHb H

npHpO.llHbIH ra3, aproH, a30T, 3H.ll0- H 3K30fa3bl, a TaIOKe BaKYYM. 11.x o6maH xapaKTepHCTHKa .naHa B Ta6JI. 55, a cnoco6b1 noJiyqeHHH npH-


 

 

 

 

I r-.


 

 

I I I I


 

 

247


Be,lleHhIpaHee (r.l, n. 3.1.2).

B 6oJihllIHHcree cJiyqaee npHMem1eMb1e JaIUHTHhie raJhInepe,ll no­

,llalJ:eH: B pafioqee npocrpaHCTBO nelJ:H OlJ:HIUaIOT OT CBOOO,llHOfO KHC­ JIOpO,lla, yrneKHCJIOTbl H BJiarH. .[l.rrn OlJ:HCTKH OT KHCJIOpO,lla raJ npo­ nycKaIOT qepeJ Harperyio ,llO 400-500·c rpy6y c Me,llHOH CTp}')KKOH HJIH nopHCTOH ry6KoH:: Me,llb JIH6o CJI)l)KHT KaTaJIHJaTOpOM peaKUHH BJaHMO,lleHCTBHJI KHCJIOpo,lla H 80,llOpo,lla (npHMeCb KHCJIOpO,lla, co­ e,llHH.SUICb c eo,llopo,llOM, npeepamaercfl e naphI BO.llhI no peaKUHH

H2 + 0,5 02 = Hp), 1m60 OKHCJiflercH no peaKUHH 2Cu + 02 = 2 CuO.

noJiee Bh CoKafl creneHh OlJ:HCTKH raJoe or KHCJiopo,lla .llOCTHraeTCfl

nponycKaHHeM ero qepeJ HarpeThIH .llO 900-1000·c nopHCTh H $ep­ poMapraHeu,cPePPOTHTaH, $eppoCHJIHUHH HJIH ry6lJ:aTh H THTaH. Kanh­ UHH HHTeHCHBHO nornomaeT KHCJIOpO,ll npH 450-500·c H aJOT npH 650-750·c. Mo)l(}{o nponycKaTh BO,llopo,ll qepeJ cneuHaJihHh H anna­ paT c naJIJia,lJ,HeBbIM KaTaJIHJaTopoM, o6ecnelJ:HBaIOIUHM BJaHMO,lleH­ CTBHe KHCJiopo,lla c 80,llOpO,llOM npH KOMHaTHOH TeMneparype; TaKHe CTaH,llapTHhle ycTaHOBKH HMeIOT npOHJBO,llHTeJibHOCTh 6-60 M3/q.

co2 Y.llaJifIIOT, nponycKaH o6pa6aTbIBaeMh H JaIUHTHh H ra3 qepe3 80,lJ,Hh e pacreopbl3TaHOJiaMHHOB, KOTOpbIMH OH nornomaeTCH.

Ba)l(}{OH npo6JieMoH: HBJIHeTCH ocy111Ka JaIUHTHh X raJoB, co,llepxa­ HHe B KOTOpb X H20 xapaKTepH3YIOT TOlJ:KOH pOCbl HJIH KOJIHlJ:eCTBOM

80,llhlB rpaMMax Ha lM3' a TaK.>Ke Bh pa.>KaIOT B o6'beMHh X npoueHTax.

fiapbl 80,ll.hl, npHCYTCTBYIOIUHe B JaIUHTHOM raJe, norJIOIUaIOTCH npH ero npoxo)KJJ,eHHH qepeJ a,lJ,Cop6ephIc CHJIHKareneM HJIH aJIIOMoreJieM. B na6opaTopHoH: npaKTHKe ra3 MO)l(}{O ocy111HTh, nponycKaH qepeJ XJIOpHCTbIH KaJihUHH, <Poc<PopHhlH aHrH.llPH.ll. H ,llpyme eemecTBa, nornomaiomHe Mary. .[lJIH oco6o ocrpoH: ocyUIKH, Heo6xo,n.HMOH npH cneKaHHH, HanpHMep xpoMa H ero cnJiaeoe, Moryr norpe6oeaThCH cneUHaJihHhie nptteMhI.

.[lJIH aHaJIHJa cocraea JaIUHTHhlX ra30B HCnOJib3YIOT ra30aHaJIH3aTOpbl pa3JIHlJ:HhIX rnnoe: BTH-2, OPCA, T0-5101M , TKf-4, MfK-2 H ,n.p.

no YCJIOBHHM TeXHHKH 6eJonacHOCTH ycTaHOBKH ,ll)IH Bh pa6oTKH JaIUHTHh X raJOB H 6aJIJIOHhl co C.>KaTb M raJOM paJMeIUaIOT B OT,lleJib­ Hh X noMeIUeHHHX, Y.llaJieHHh X OT OCHOBHOfO npOHJBO,llCTBa, a raJ K nelJ:aM no,n.eo,n.HT no rpy6onpoeo,n.aM.

IlpH cneKaHHH B JaIUHTHh X aTMoc$epax npH 6b CTpOM Harpeee B peJyJihTaTe HHTeHCHBHoro BhI,lleJieHHH raJOB, a,lJ,Cop6HpoeaHHh X no­ POllIKOM, Mo.>KeT npoHJOHTH paJpYUieHHe <PopMoBoK. B n1060M cJiyqae

.n.ecop6UHH a,llCOp6HpOBaHHh X nopoUIKOM raJOB npH Harpeee OKaJbl­ eaeT TOpMOJHIUee 803,lleHCTBHe Ha cPOPMHPOBaHHe CBOHCTB cneKae­ MhlX HJ,lleJIHH.


IlpH cneKaHHH e BaKYYMe raJhIY.llaJIHIOTCH JHalJ:HTeJihHO JieflJ:e H npH 6onee HHJKHX TeMneparypax. BaKY)rM He TOJihKO npe,n.oxpaHHeT nopOllIKOBbie cPoPMOBKH OT B3aHMO,ll.eHCTBHH c KHCJIOpO,llOM npH Ha­ rpeee, HO H cnoco6cTeyeT eoccTaHoBJieHHIO oKCH.ll.OB (HanpHMep, no.a.

.ueH:CTBHeM npHMeCH yrnepo.ua, HMeIOmeH:cH B HeKOTOph X nopOUIKax) HJIH HX ,ll.HCCOUHaUHH; B HeM JieflJ:e HCnapHIOTCH neryqHe npHMeCH, co,n.ep.>KaIUHeCH BO MHOfHX MeTaJIJIHlJ:eCKHX nopoUIKax. IloJIO.>KHTeJib­ Hoe BJIHHHHe BaKYYMa HaH60Jiee JaMeTHO npOHBJIHeTCH npH cneKaHHH c .>KH,ll.KOH <PaJoH:: ynyq111aeTCH CMalJ:HBaHHe ryronJiaBKOH $a3bl pac­ nJiaBOM, eaKYYM cnoco6cTeyeT 6oJiee 6b1crp0My ynJIOTHeHHIO H no­ Bh UiaeT paBHOMepHOCTh pacnpe,n.eJieHHH .>KH,ll.KOH <Pa3bl B nopOUIKO­ BOM TeJie.

He3aBHCHMO OT aTMoc<PephIe pa6olJ:eM npocrpaHcTee nelJ:H cneKa­

HHe qacro npOBO,!lHT B TaK HaJbIBaeMblX 3aIUHTHhlX JaCbinKax (KBapue­ BOM necKe, KoppaKce, rpa$HTOBOH KpynKe, ac6eCTOBOH MeJIOlJ:H H

.up.), KOTOpb e HCnOJib3YIOT npH YKJia,lJ,Ke nopoUIKOBh X cPOPMOBOK B nOMOHhl, Kopo6a HJIH JIO,lJ,OlJ:KH. qame ecero npHMeHHIOT KOM6HHH­ poeaHHbie JaCblnKH, COCTOHIUHe H3 pa3HOPO.llHh X KOMnOHeHTOB (Ha­ npHMep, KOppaKCa c ,ll06aBKOH rpa$HTOBOH KpynKH HJIH xpoMa, KpeM­ HHH H T.n.). CocTaB JaChinKH BhI6HpaIOT TaKHM o6pa30M, lJ:T06hl c ee noMOIUhlO COJ,ll.aTb B Henocpe,llCTBeHHOH 6JIH30CTH OT cneKaeMOH Ja­ fOTOBKH (BOKpyr Hee) HaH6onee 6naronpHHTHYIO JaIUHTHYIO aTMOC­

<Pepy. TeMneparypa nJiaBJieHHH JaChinKH .!lOJI)l(Ha fihITh Bh Uie TeMne­ paryphIcneKaHHH H JaChmKa He ,llOJI)l(}{a BJaHMO,ll.eHCTBOBaTb co cne­ KaeMblM MarepHaJIOM. 3aIUHTHaH JachmKa cnoco6cTeyeT raK.>Ke 6onee paBHOMepHOMY nporpeey cneKaeMhlX JaroTOBOK H npe,llOTBpamaer HX npHneKaHHe .llPYf K ,n.pyry.

 

KoHmpoAbHble Bonpocbl ·

l. KaKoeo HaJHalJ:eHHe JaIUHTHh X aTMoc<Pep npH cneKaHHH?

2. fiepelJ:HCJIHTe JaIUHTHbie ra30Bble cpe,llbl, npHMeHHeMbie npH cneKaHHH.

3. .[laH:re xapaKTepHCTHKY KaqecTea JaIUHTHhlX ra3oe.

4. PaccKa.>KHTe o Mero.a.ax OlJ:HCTKH raJoe OT pa3JIHlJ:Hh X npHMe­ ceH:.

5. KaKoea poJih JaIUHTHOH JacblnKH npH cneKaHHH H rpe6oeaHHH

K Heii?

 

 

PeKoMeHoameAbHblU 6u611uo2parjm11ecKuii cnucoK

l. nopOllIKOBaH MeTaJIJiyprHH. MaTepHaJihl, TeXHOJIOfHH, CBOHCTBa, o6nacTH npHMeHeHHH: CnpaeolJ:HHK/ H.M. <Peoop11eHKo,


H.H. <l>pam1,eeu11, H.,D.. PaooMblCeJlbCKuu H .up. - KHee: HayKoea

.UYMKa, 1985. - 624 c. (c. 573 - 581).

2. Kunapucoe C.C., llaoa.nKo O.B. 06opy.uoeaHHe npe.unpIDITHH nopom­ KOBOH MeTilJIJiypnrn.- M.:MeTilJIJiypIIDI, 1988. -448 c. (c. 385 -397).

 

Ne'tM AJlJI cneK8HMJI

 

CneKaHHe nopomKoewx <l>opMoBoK HJIH ceo6o.n;Ho HacbmaHHoro nopomKa npOBO,WIT B neqax, paJJrnqaIOll.lHXCH KaK no KOHCTpYKUHH, TaK H no cnoco6y Harpeea. Bb16op THna neqH 3aBHCHT OT MHOfHX <l>aK­ ropoe, B TOM qffcJie OT CBOHCTB cneKaeMOfO MarepHaJia, YCJIOBH H cne­ KaHHH (xapaKTepa 3all.lHTHOH cpe,Ubl, TeMnepazypblH Bb ,Uep)l{KH npH

cneKaHHH, pe:xrnMa Harpeea H OXJIIDK.UeHIDI), Tpe6yeMOH npOH3BO.UH­ TeJibHOCTH H T.n.

IleqH MH cneKaHIDI KJiaCCHcPHU:HPYJOT no CJie,UyIOll.lHM npH3Ha­ KaM:

no THny o6orpeea HJIH HCToqHHKa 3HeprnH: 3JieKTpHqecKHe HJIH c fa30Bb M o6orpeBoM;

no npHHU:Hny pa6oTw: nepHo.n;HqecKoro HJIH HenpepbIBHoro .ueii­ CTBHH;

no xapaKTepy pa6oqei1 aTMoc<1>epb1: c eo3.n;ymHoi1, HeHTpaJibHOH H BOCCTaHOBHTeJibHOH ra30BOH aTMOCcPePOH HJIH BaKyyMHbie;

no pa6oqei1 TeMnepazype: HH3KOTeMnepazypHbie (.UO 1250 °C) H

Bb COKoTeMnepazypHwe (Bbtme 1250 °C);

no creneHH MexaHH3aIJ;HH: aeTOMaTHqecKHe, noJiyaBTOMaTHqecKHe H HeaBTOMaTHqeCKHe.

lle'IU Henpepb16H020 iJeucmBUJl. fieqH 3T0f0 THna n03BOJUIIOT CHH- 3HTb pacxo.u 3Hepnrn, noBblCHTb npOH3BO.UHTeJibHOCTb Tpy.n;a, yeeJIH­ qHTb CbeM npo.uyKUHH c e,UHHHU:blOJIOll.la,UH pa6oqero npocTpaHCTBa,

yeeJIHqHTb Bb XO.U fO,UHOfO. 06bJqHo MH neqeii HenpepbIBHOfO .ueii­ CTBHH xapaKTepHO HaJIHqHe Tpex pa6oqux JOH: 1) OTIKHra HJIH BXO.U­ HOH; 2) ropHqeii (30Hbl MaKCHMaJlbHOH TeMnepazypbt); 3) OXJIIDK.Ue­ HHH. B nepeoii pa6oqei1 JoHe neqH npoHCXO.UHT HcnapeHHe HJIH BbDKH­

raHHe H Y.UaJieHHe CMa3KH (nJiaCTHcPHKaropa), BBe,UeHHOH B llIHXTY nepe.u <l>opMoBaHHeM nopomKa, a TaIOKe CHHTHe (peJiaKcau;u») Ha­ npIDKeHHH, HMeIOll.lHXC» e nopomKoeoii <l>opMoeKe. B rop»qeu JoHe npoHcxo.uH:r co6cTBeHHo cneKaHHe. HaJHaqeHHe TpeTbeH JOHbI- ox­ JIIDK.UeHue cneqeHHOH JaroTOBKH c 3a,UaHHOH CKOpOCTblO .uo TeMnepa­ TYPbI, o6ecneqHeaIOll.leH 6eJoKHCJIHTeJibHYIO BbifPYJKY ee Ha 003.n;yx. HarpeeareJibHbie 3.TleMeHTb1 3.TleKipHqecKHX neqeu cneKaHHH .lleJiaIOT HJ

MaTepHaJIOB, TeXHHqecKaH xapaKTepHCTHKa K<Yl'OpblX npuee.ueHa B Ta6JI. 56.


,ll,Jrn HenpepblBHOH TpaHcnopTHPOBKH cneKaeMbIX 3afOTOBOK qepe3 neqb HCnOJib3YIOT KOHBeiiep H3 ceTqaTOH JieHTbl , pOJIHKOBbIH (pOJib­ raHfOBb H) HJIH maraIOll.lHH no.a, TOJIKaTeJIH pa3JIHqHoro Tuna.

B KOHBeiiepHoH neqH cneKaeMbie JaroTOBKH yKJia,UbIBaIOT e no.u.uo­

HbIHJIH Henocpe,UCTBeHHO Ha KOHBeiiepHyIO JieHTY H3 OKaJIHHOCTOH­ KOH npoeoJIOKH u nepeMell.laIOT ux B.UOJib pa6oqero npocTpaHcTBa nequ

HaBCTpeqy 3all.lHTHOMY ra3y; llIHPHHa noJIOTHa JieHTbl 300-600 MM,

CKOpOCTb ee .UBIDKeHHH 2-3 M/q. 06ll.laH .n;JIHHa KOHBeiiepHOH nequ 06b1qHo COCTaBJIHeT 15-20 M npH .n;JIHHe 30HblcneKaHHH 6-10 M. Pa-

6oqag reMnepazypa e neqH JaBHCHT OT MaTepuaJia HarpeeaTeJibHbIX 3JieMeHTOB H COCTaBJIHeT 1000-1600 °C.

PoJibraHroBb e nequ HMeIOT 6oJibllIYIO npoHJBO.UHTeJibHOCTb. B HHX MH TpaHcnopTHpOBKH Kopo6oe co cneKaeMbIMH 3afOTOBKaMH npu-

 

 

T a 6 JI " u a 56. CsoiicTBa MaTepHaJIOB AJIR earpeaaTeJJJ.HhlX 3JieMeBTOB

 

 

Y.nenhHoe TcMncpaTypa MaKCHMaJihHIUI MaTcpuan JJICKTpoconpoTHBJieHHe pa6oqrui

npH 20 °C, 0M·MM 2/M nJiaBJICHHll, °C TeMnepaTypa, °C

Cnnae X l3I04 1,0 1300 .!lO 800

HuxpoM 1,1 1400 1050

X l5H60

HuxpoM I,I 1400 II OO X20H80

H11xpoM 1,3 1400 1180

X2H80T3

Cnnae 311325 1,4 1430 1150

(OX25I05)

Cnnae 311525 1,35 1570 1200

(OX23I05)

Cnnae 311626 1,42 1570 1300

(OX27I05A)

Monu6.ncH 0,052 2620 2000

TauTan 0,15 3000 2500

BonhcppaM 0,05 3380 2800

Cumrr 800-1900 - 1350

(Kap6opyH.n)

.l1,HCHJIHUH.!l 0,2--0,4 2020 1700MOJIH6.!lCHa

rpacpHT 8-13 - 2400

2800 (eaKyyM)


MeHeHblpOJIHKH HJ JierupoBaHHOH CTaJIH c HH,ll,HBH.llYaJihHbIM npHBO­

.UOM; Ha Bxo.ue H Bh xo.ue HJ neqH POJIHKH BpamaIOTCSI c nepeMeHHOH CKOpOCTbIO, qTo o6ecneqHBaeT nJiaBHYIO H aBTOMaTHqecKyIO no.uaqy

Kopo6oe Ha TpaHcnopTep cornacHo Ja.UaHHOMY UHKJiy. OpoHJBO.UH­ TeJihHOCTh neqH COCTaBJISieT 6oJiee 100 Kf/q.

Oeqh c rnaraIOIUHM no.uoM noJBOJISieT cneKaTh JaroTOBKH npH TeM­ nepaTYpe .uo 1200-1400 °C H HMeeT pa6oqee npocTpaHCTBO paJMepoM 320X 240X 1840 MM. OpoHJBO.UHTeJibHOCTb neqH COCTaBJISieT 14-70 Kr/q

npH pacxo.ue 3JieKTpo3Hepm H 10,3-2,7 KBT·q/Kr.

ToJIKaTeJihHhie MycpeJihHh e neqH (pHc. 264) HaH6oJiee npocTbIno KOHCTpYKUHH. Opo,UBIDKKa Jio.uoqeK (no.u.uoHOB) HJ rpacpHra HJIH CTa­ JIH, B KOTOpb e JarpeHblcneKaeMbie JafOTOBKH, npOHJBO.UHTCSI Me­ xaHHqecKHM TOJIKareJieM HJIH BpyqHyIO. 3aIUHTHb H raJ noczynaeT B

neqb co CTOpOHblpaJrpyJoqHoro naTpy6Ka no npHHl{Hny npOTHBOTO­ Ka. Pa6oqag reMnepaTYPa neqH .uo 1300 °C, a npoHJBO.UHTeJihHOCTh nopSI.uKa 20 Kr/q. CymecrnyIOT 6eJMycpeJihHhie TOJIKaTeJihHb e neqH, B

KOTOpblX no.u.uoHbl co cneKaeMbIMH JafOTOBKaMH nepeMeIUaIOTCSI He­ nocpe.ucrneHHO no no.uy neqH, Bh JIO)KeHHOMY HJ orHeynopHoro KHp­

nwra.

OeqH HenpepbIBHoro .ueH:cTBHSI 3KOHOMHqHhIH o6ecneqHBaIOT paB­

HOMepHoe pacnpe.ueJieHHe reMnepaTYP B JOHe Harpeea, 6Jiaro.uapSI qeMy nopOilIKOBb e HJ,UeJIHSI nocJie cneKaHHSI HMeIOT O.UHOPO.UHbi e CBOH­

cma.

lle'IU nepUOOU'leCKOW iJeiicmBUJl. 3JieKTponeqH 3TOfO THna IlIHpOKO npHMeHSIIOT B nopOilIKOBOH MeTaJIJiypmH, oco6eHHO MSI HCCJie,UOBa­ HHH. 0HH MOfYT 6bITh npsiMoro HJIH KOCBeHHoro 3JieKTpoHarpeea, a TaKXe HH.UYKUHOHHhie. B KoJinaKoeoH: neqH 3JieKTpoHarpeea cneKaIOT

 

8500

 

 

P11c. 264. My<f>eJJbHaH TOJJKaTCJJbHaH ne'lb cneKaH11H: / - MexaH11'1ecK11tt Bl1HTOBOH TOJIKUTeJJb; 2 - JarpyJO'IHbI H naTpy6oK; 3 - My<f>eJJb ne'111; 4 - 3JICKTpoHarpeBaTeJJl1; 5 - repMonapa; 6 - Kopnyc ne'111; 7 - paJrpyJO'IHbIH naTpy6oK; 8 - no.ncrnBKa


,llJIHHHOMepHb e npeCCOBKH-IlITa6HI<H HJ nopOilIKOB TYfOnJiaBKHX Me­ TilJJJIOB.

CneKaHHe B eo.uopo.ue, HeHTpaJihHOM raJe HJIH BaKyyMe npH TeM­ nepaTYpe .uo 2500 ·c MO)KHO npOBO.UHTb B 3JieKTpOneqax KOCBeHHOfO

Harpeea. B KaMepHhIX neqax JarpyJKy H BhifPYJKy HJ.UeJIHH ocymecrn­ JISIIOT qepeJ .ueepuy, pacnoJio)KeHHYJO B nepe.uHeH: CTeHKe neqH. B rnax­ THhIX neqax JafPYJKy H3.UeJIHH B UHJIHH,D.puqeCKYJO BepTHKaJibHYJO IliaxTY

- pa6oqyIO JOHY neqH - OCYIUeCTBJISIIOT CBepxy, onycKaSI HJ,UeJIHe Ha crauHoHapHYJO no.ucraBKy, HaxOMIUYIOCSI B HH)KHeH qacTH rnaxTbI. B 3JieBaTOpHbIX neqax HJ.UeJIHSI B.UBHraIOT B l{HJIHH,D.pHqecKyIO BepTH­ KaJibHYIO pa6oqyIO JOHY CHH3y, Ha no.ucraBKe, KOHCTpYKTHBHO o6be­

.UHHeHHOH co CbeMHhIM .UHHIUeM neqH. B KoJinaKOBh X neqax (KoJina­ KOB y O.UHOH nequ MO)KeT 6b Tb HeCKOJibKO) HJ,UeJIHe nepe.u HaqaJIOM Harpeea ycraHaBJIHBaIOT Ha CTaUHOHapHOH no.ucraBKe H HaKpbIBaIOT KOJinaKOM, BHyTpH KOTOporo CMOHTHpOBaHbl HarpeBaTeJIH, TenJIOBaSI HJOJISIUHSI H .upyrue KOHCTpyKTHBHh e 3JieMeHThl neqH. B raKHX 3JieKT­ poneqax KOCBeHHOfO HarpeBa npHMeHSIIOT B OCHOBHOM HarpeBaTeJIH Tpex THnoB: npOBOJIOqHb e HJIH JieHTOqHbie JHfJaroo6paJHb e Ha HJO­ JISITOpax; npOBOJIOqHb e HJIH JIHCTOBb e, coe,UHHeHHbie naHKOH HJIH MeXaHHqecKH c BO.UOOXJia)K,UaeMblMH TOKOnO.UBO.UaMH, BXO.llSIIUHMH B

ropSJqYIO JOHY nequ;npOBOJIOqHbie HJIH JIHCTOBb e, coe,UHHeHHble CBap­ KOH, MexaHuqecKH HJIH cBo6o.uHoH: HaBeCKOH qepeJ HeoXJiax.uaeMh H BbIBO.U HJ TYfOnJiaBKOfO MeTaJIJia c BO.UOOXJia)K,UaeMbIMH TOKono.ueo­

.uaMH, KOTOpb e HMeIOT onpe.ueJieHHb e npeHMYIUeCTBa nepe.u .UBYMSI

.UPYrHMH THnaMH HarpeBareJieH.

 

 

KoHmpoAbHble Bonpocbl

1. KaKoBa KJiaccHcpHKauusi neqeH: MSI cneKaHHSI?

2. ,JJ.aH:Te xapaKTepHCTHKy neqeH: cneKaHHSI HenpepbIBHoro .ueH:- CTBHSI.

3. PaccKa)KHTe o neqax cneKaHHSI nepuo.uHqecKoro .ueH:CTBHSI H

HarpeBaTeJISIX MSI HHX.

 

 

PeKoMeHiJame.nbHblii 6u6Attozpa</Ju'lecKuii cnucoK

KunapucoB C.C., llaiJOAKO 0.B. 06opy.uoeaHHe npe.unpHSITHH noporn­ KOBOH MeTaJIJiypmH. - M.: MeTaJIJiyprusi, 1988. - 448 c. (c. 287 - 385).

 


16.3. SpaK npM cneKaHHH H Mepbl no ero npeAynpe>KAeHMIO

 

IlpH cneKaHHH IlOSIBJUieTCSI He TOJlbKO 6paK, Bb 3BaHHb H Hapyrne­ HHeM TeXHOJIOfHH, HO H BbUIBJISleTCSI 6paK npe.l(bl,ll;Ylll.HX onepau;HH . H3fOTOBJieHHSI nopOIIIKa, nopOUlKOBblX CMeceH: H ct>opMOBOK.Ilo3TOMY K opraHHJaUHH npoBe.l(eHHSI 3TOH onepau;HH CJie.nyeT IlO.l(XO.l(HTb O'leHb BHHMaTeJibHO. HIDKe npHBe.neHbl HaH6oJiee 'lacro BCTpe'laIOll{HeCSI BH.llhI 6paKa npH cneKaHHH.

c,pblmblu paCCJIOU - IlpOSIBJieHHe B nopOUlKOBOH ct>opMOBKe IlOCJie cneKaHHSI rpell{HH, HMeBUlHXCSI B Helf B pe3yJibTaTe HenpaBHJibHOfO pe:lKHMa <l>oPMOBaHHSI B BH.l(e He60JiblllHX HapyllleHHii CilJIOUlHOCTH, HeBH.D.HMbIX HeBoopyxeHHb M rnaJOM. BpaK HeHcnpaBHM.

Kopo6AeHue u ucKaJICeHue rjJopMbl ·- HapyUieHHe Tpe6yeMblX reo­

Me'lpH'lecKHx pa3MepoB nopOUlKOBOfO H3,l(eJiml. qaCTO Ha61110.naeTCSI B IJ,1IOCKHX H3,l(eJimJX, TOJlll{HHa KOTOpb X He3Ha'IHTeJibHa no cpaBHeHHIO c AllHHOH, oco6eHHO B CJiyqae H3fOTOBJieHHSI H3.l(eJIHH H3 Bb COKO­

,l(HcnepcHblX nopOUlKOB, .naIOll{HX 3Ha'IHTeJlbHYIO yca.nKY npH cneKa­ HHH. loHliJieHHIO TaKoro BH.l(a 6paKa cnoco6cTByeT IlJIOXOe CMeUlHBa­ HHe KOMilOHeHTOB UlHXThl,HepaBHOilJIOTHOCTb nopOUlKOBOH <l>oPMOBKH H CJIHUlKOM 6blC'lpblH ee HarpeB npH cneKaHHH. 3TOT 6paK MO)KeT 6b1Tb HCilpaBJieH (xorn H He BCer.na) IlOCJie.llYIOrn.eH: XOJIO.l(HOH HJIH ropSI'leH: o6pa6oTKoH: .naBJieHHeM. C u;eJibIO npe.nynpe)K,l(eHHH ero no­ HBJieHHSI npHMeHSIIOT cneKaHHe no.n .naBJieHHeM HJIH npH cpa!JHHTeJibHO HeBb COKHX CKOPOCTSIX HarpeBa nopOUlKOBb X <l>oPMOBOK.

llepeJICOZ - HapyllleHHe HOpMaJibHOH C'fPYKTYPbI nopOUlKOBOfO

H3.D.eJIHH, npoS1BJIS110llJ.eecS1 B BH.lle ee 3arpy611eHHS1 ('1pe3MepHoro po­ cTa 'laCTHU), IlOBblUleHHSI nopHCTOCTH HJIH pac'lpeCKHBaHHSI H3-3a cyrn.ecrneHHoro npeBb UieHHSI Ja.naHHOH reMnepazypbIcneKaHHSI. BpaK HeHCilpaBHM.

HeiJoneKaHue - HapyrneHHe 'lpe6oBaHHH IlJIOTHOCTH H npo'IHOCTH nopOUlKOBOfO H3.l(eJIHSI IlOCJie cneKaHHSI B CBSl3H c 3aHIDKeHHOH TeM­ nepazypoH: HJIH AllHTeJihHOCTbIO Bbl,ll;ep)KKH npH HarpeBe. BpaK MO)KeT 6b1Tb HCnpaBJieH IlOBTOpHb M cneKaHHeM.

0KUCJleHue - IlOSIBJieHHe Ha IlOBepXHOCTH nopOUlKOBOfO H3,l(eJIHSI

UBeTOB no6eXaJIOCTH, OKaJIHHblHJIH KOpp03HH. 3TOT BH.l( 6paKa CBSl-

3aH B OCHOBHOM c HapyUieHHeM COCTaBa 3all{HTHOH aTMocct>epbl npH cneKaHHH H B pSl.l(e CJiyqaee MO)KeT 6bITb HCnpaBJieH IlOBTOpHb M Ha­ rpeBOM B BOCCTaHOBHTeJibHOH aTMocct>epe. IlpH HaJIH'IHH B COCTaBe nopoUIKoBoro MaTepHana KOMnoHeHToB, 06pa3y10rn.Hx TPY.llHOBoc­ craHOBHMh e OKCH.l(bl, TaKOH 6paK HeHcnpaBHM.


Kopo'IKa - .nect>eKT npH cneKaHHH nopoUIKoeoH: <l>opMOBKH, JaK­ JIIO'laIOllJ.HHCH e 06pa3oeaHHH B noeepxHOCTHOM c11oe CTPYKTYPhI, OT­ JIH'la10rn.eH:cS1 OT 3a,l(aHHOH. HanpHMep, 3TO MO)KeT HMeTb MeCTO H3-3a pa3JIO)KeHHH opraHH'leCKHX CBSIJOK, BBO.llHMb X e nopoUioK. BpaK He­ HcnpaBHM. )J,JISI npe.nynpe)K.l(eHHSI ero IlOSIBJieHHSI He06XO.l(HM MeMeH­ Hb H H paBHOMepHblH Harpee nopOUlKOBOH <l>oPMOBKH, Tll{aTeJibHoe ee yKpbITHe JacblnKoH H .nocTaTO'IHhlH pacxo.n Jall{HTHoro raJa.

Bcny'luBaHue - 06pa3oeaHHe ny3hipeH: Ha noeepxHoCTH cne'leH­

HOH JaroTOBKH H3-3a HHTeHCHBHoro raJOBb .D.eJieHHH npH )KH.l(Koct>aJ­ HOM cneKaHHH HJIH MeCTHblX neperpeBOB B CBSl3H c HepaBHOMepHOC­ TbIO narpeea nopoUlKOBOH ct>opMOBKH B ne'IH, Bb 3bIBaIOll{HX pacilJlaB­ JieHHe KOMilOHeHTOB npn rnep.no<l>a3HOM cneKaHHH. BpaK npaKTH'lec­ KH HeHcnpaBHM.Ilpe.nynpe.l(HTb ero IlOSIBJieHHe MO)KHO no.n6opoM no­ pOUlKOB, HJMeHeHHeM pe)KHMa cneKaHHH H cnoco6a HarpeBa nopoUI­ KOBOH <l>opMOBKH.

BblnomeBaHue - Bbl.l(eJieHHe )KH.l(KOH ct>aJbI Ha noeepxHOCTH no­

poUIKOBoro H3,l(eJIHSI npH )KH,l(KO<l>a3HOM cneKaHHH H3-3a IlJIOXOH HJIH

yxy.nUia10rn.eH:cS1 CMa'IHBaeMOCTH pacilJlaBOM TYfOilJlaBKOH COCTaBJISl­ IOll{eH MaTepHaJia. BpaK HeHcnpaBHM. )J,JISI npe.nynpe)K.l(eHHSI ero IlOSIB­ JieHHSI XHMH'leCKHH COCTaB MarepHaJia .l(OJl)KeH 6b Tb CKOppeKTHpOBaH.

,D,u<JxjJy3UOHHOR nopucmocmb - nopHCTOCTb, 803HHKaIOll{aSI npn cneKaHHH nopOUlKOBOH ct>opMOBKH, COCTOSlll{eH H3 KOMilOHeHTOB, 0611a.na10ll{HX pa3JIH'IHblMH K03<l>ct>HUHeHTaMH B3aHMHOH .nn<l>ct>y3HH.

06e3y211epoJ1CuBaHue - yMeHbllleHHe co.nep)((aHHH yrnepo.na e no­

eepxHOCTHb X CJIOSIX nopOUlKOBOfO H3,l(eJIHSI, B OCHOBHOM H3-3a IlOBbl­

UleHHOfO co.nep)((aHHSI OKHCJIHTeJieH: B aTMocct>epe ropSl'leH 30Hblne'IH.

)J,JIH npe.nynpe)K,l(eHHSI onaCHOCTH o6e3yrJiepo:lKHBaHHSI H3,l(eJIHH JIO­

.l(O'IKH (IlO.ll.llOHb ) c nopOUlKOBbIMH ct>opMOBKaMH 3aKpbIBaIOT MeTaJI­ JIH'leCKHMH HJIH rpa<l>HTOBb MH Kpb lllKaMH, a TaK)((e npHMeHSllOT 3a­ ll{HTHb e JaCblilKH, co.nep)((all{He yrnepo.n. C11a60 06e3yrnepo)((eHHh1e nopOUlKOBbie H3,l(eJIHSI MO)((HO HCnpaBHTb, cneKaSI HX IlOBTOpHo B yr- 11epo.nco.nep)((all{eH JacbmKe npn MHHHMaJibHOM TOKe eo.nopo.na.

CaJ1Cucmblii HOAem - 06pa3oeaHHe Ha noeepxHOCTH nopoUIKOBOH

ct>opMOBKH TeMHOfO HaJieTa B pe3yJibTaTe pa3JIO)((eHHSI OKCH.l(a yrnepo­

.na, MeTaHa HJIH .llPYrHX yrneBO.llOPO.llOB. 3TOT BH.ll 6paKa MO)((eT no­ SIBHTbCSI H3-3a HaJIH'IHSI Ha IlOBepXHOCTH nopoUlKOBOH ct>opMOBKH TSl­

)((eJiblX Mace11 H .npyrHX eern.ecrn, 3aneKa10rn.nxcS1 npn Harpeee c o6- pa3oBaHHeM yrnepo.nco.nep)((allJ.HX HaJieToe.

CyAb<jJUOHaR fUleHKa - o6pa3oBaHHe Ha noBepxHOCTH nopoUIKOBo­

ro H3.l(eJIHH HaJiera, co.nep)((arn.ero coe.nnHeHHH cepbI.

Pa3oeOaHue u wepoxoBamocmb noBepxHocmu - HapyUieHHe u;eJibHo-

255


CTH rroeepXHOCTH rropOWKOBOfO HJ.D;eJiml B peJyJihTare paJJio.>KeHHSI HJIH BOCCTaHOBJieHHSI KaKHX-JIH6o XHMHqecKHx coe.n;HHeHHH, KOTO­

pble 6blJIH Ha rroeepXHOCTH rropOWKOBOH <t>opMOBKH HJIH o6paJoea­ JIHCb rrpH ee Harpeee e rrequ.

6paK rrpu crreKaHHH, oco6eHHo HeucrrpaBHMhIH, cymecTBeHHo yxy.n;waeT 3KOHOMHqecKHe JIOKaJaTeJIH rrpOHJBO.D;CTBa MaTepuanoe H HJ.D;eJIHH MeTO.D;OM rropOWKOBOH MeTaJIJiypfHH. B CBSIJH c 3THM rrpu

JIOHBJieHHH 6paKa .D;OJI.>KHbl 6b1Tb rrpHHSITbl HeMe.lJ)leHHh e Mepbl rro BblSICHeHHIO rrpuqHH ero BOJHHKHOBeHHSI H HX ycTpaHeHHIO, B TOM qucne Ha ecex CTa.D;HSIX TeXHOJIOfHH, rrpe.n;weCTBYIOIUeH crreKaHHIO.

 

KoHmpo.nbHble Bonpocbl

1. KaKOBblrrpHqHHbl JIOSIBJieHHSI 6paKa rrpH crreKaHHH?

2. IlepeqHCJIHTe BH.n;bl 6paKa, JIOSIBJISIIOIUerocH rrpH CJieKaHHH.

3. PacCKa.>KHTe o6 OKHCJieHHH u o6eJyrnepo.>KHeaHHH rropowKo­ BblX <l>oPMOBOK rrpH crreKaHHH.

4. )J,atfre orrpe.n;eneHue TaKHM eu.n;aM 6paKa, KaK KopoqKa H .n;u<t>­

<l>YJHOHHa» rropHCTOCTb.

5.Ilpe.zuio.>KHre Mepbl rro rrpe.n;yrrpe.>K.n;eHHIO H ycTpaHeHHIO Ko­ po6neHHH, HCKa.>KeHHSI <l>oPMbl H He.n;orreKaHHSI JIOpoWKOBblX HJ.D;e­ JIHH.


rnaea 17. ropH"lee ripeCCOB8HM9

 

fopsiqee npecCOBaHHe - npeCCOBaHHe Me­ T3JIJIHqecKoro nopouu<a HJIH nopowKOBOM

<l>opMOBKH npH TeMneparype, npeBbIWalO­ IUeM TeMneparypy peKpHCTaJIJIHJaUHH oc­ HOBHOfO KOMfiOHeHTa.

Teru10e npeccoBaHHe - npeccoBaHHe Me­ TammqecKoro nopowKa HJIH nopowKoBoii

<t>opMOBKH npH TeMnepazype OT 0, l TeMne­

pazypbi ruiaBJieHHH ,no TeMnepaTyphI pe­ KpHCTaJIJIHJaUHH OCHOBHOfO KOMnOHeHTa

Ilo CBOeH CYIUHOCTH ropHqee rrpeCCOBaHHe rrpe.n;CTaBJISleT C060H coeMemettue rrpouecca rrpeccoeaHHH H crreKaHHH H rrpoeo.n;HTCH rrpu

o 5-0 95 T oCHOBhIrropowKoeoro MaTepuana. Otto rroJBOJIHeT rrpaK­

Tqec:rn pHJOBaTb Ha6JIIO.n;aeMoe rrpH JIOBb WeHHH TeMrrepaTypbl yeenuqeHue TeecTH eemecTBa u rronyqaTb <t>aKTuqecKH 6ecrropuc­ Tbie rropOWKOBbie MaTepHaJiblH HJ,D;eJIHSI, qTo oco6eHHO Ba.>KHO B cny­ qae xpyrrKHX MaTepHaJIOB H coe.n;HHeHHH THJia Kap6u.n;oe, 6opu.n;oe, CHJIHUH.n;OB H .n;p.

0.n;HHM HJ rrepBb X rrpHMepoe rrpOMbIWJieHHOfO rrpuMeHeHHSI ro­

pSlqero npeccoeaHHSI MO.>KHO cqHTaTb TeXHOJIOfHIO JIJiaTHHOBb X HJ,n;e­ JIHH, pa3pa60TaHffYIO n.r. Co6oJieBCKHM B 1826 r. H JIOCJiy.>KHBwyIO

ocHoeoH co3.n;aHHH caMOH nopowKoeotf MeTaJIJiypruu. PH.n; 3Kcnepu­

MeHTOB no rop»qeMy npeccoeaHHIO paJJiuqHhIX nopowKOB 6bIJI npo­ ee.n;eH e CIIIA e KOHUe XIX - Haqane XX B. B 1912 r. B fepMaHHH H CIIIA npoeo.n;HJIH rop»qee npeccoeaHue nopowKoB TYfOJIJiaBKHX Me­

TaJIJIOB H HX coe.n;HHeHHH, HarpeeaeMbIX npOXOMIUHM qepe3 HHX 3JieK­ TpffqecKHM TOKOM. B cepe.n;uHe 20-x ro.n;oe B fepMaHHH 6bIJIH nonyqe­ HhInareHThIHa rop»qenpeccoeaHHbie TBep.n;b1e cJIJiaBbI, a HaquHa» c

1930 r. KOJIHqeCTBO naTeHTOB B o6JiaCTH ropSlqero npeccoeaHHSI pe3KO B03pOCJIO. Bo BTOpOH JIOJIOBHHe 20-x - Haqane 40-x ro.n;oe xx B. npo­

ee.n;eHblCHCTeMaTuqecKHe HCCJie.n;oeaHHSI JaKOHOMepHOCTeH ropSlqero npeccoeaHHH KaK Ja py6e)lmM (fepMaHHH, IlonLwa, CIIIA), TaK u B Harnett CTpaHe.

Hau6oJiee cymecTBeHHhIM peJyJihTaTOM rop»qero npeccoeaHHH CJie.n;yeT cqHTaTb MaKCHMaJibHO 6bICTpOe YJIJIOTHeH He npOWKOBOfO TeJia H nonyqeHHe JafOTOBOK (HJ.D;eJIHH) c MHHHMaJibHOH nopucroc­ TbIO npu cpaBHHTeJibHO MaJiblX .n;aBJieHHSIX npeccoeaHHSI. J.fJMeHeHHe JIJIOTHOCTH nopOWKOBOfO TeJia npu ropHqeM npeccoBaHHH CBSIJaHO c


9 - 5582


nJ aCTHqeCKOH .ue<t>opMauHeH, HeCTaUHOHapHb M H CTaUHOHapHb M

.UH<l><i>YJHOHHh M KpHnoM. CHJihI BHeurnero .uaBJieHHH npH ropHqeM npeCCOBaHHH cyMMHpYJOTCH c KanHJIJIHpHb MH .uaBJieHHHMH, npHBO­

.llHIUHMH K pa3BHTHIO Me)l(l{aCTHqHoro cuenJieHHH H yMeHbIIIeHHIO


 

=6> .g2250

8.
0 ::it:

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1680


nopHCTOCTH nopOIIIKOBOfO TeJia. TipaKTHqecKH KIDK,llOH TeMnepazype


<:: 0


 

1125


ropHqero npeccoBaHHH COOTBeTCTByeT BnOJIHe onpe.ueJieHHOe MHHH­

MaJibHOe ,llaBJieHHe, npH KOTOpOM MO)l(eT 6bITb noJiyqeHO MaJionopH­ croe (TI < 1-2 %) nopOIIIKOBOe H3,UeJIHe B TeqeHHe KOpOTKOfO Bpe­

MeHH (10-30 MHH).

CKopoCTh ynJIOTHeHHH nopomKoBoro TeJia npH ropHqeM npecco­ BaHHH KaqecTBeHHo MO)l(eT fihITh Bh pIDKeHa ypaBHeHHeM MaKKeHJH­ lliaTTJIBopca:

ln [(1 - 9)/(1 - 9)] - 0,75r:p/TJ, (17.1)

r.ue 9 - OTHOCHTeJibHaH nJIOTHOCTb nopOIIIKOBOfO TeJia, noJiyqeHHOfO


"Q'.Q=>.

t:: <:: 562

 

,g 320

5 240

c: E


fOpHqHM npeCCOBaHHeM; 9


- HaqaJibHaH OTHOCHTeJibHaH nJIOTHOCTb


"' 0

150


nopOIIIKa HJIH nopOIIIKOBOH <t>opMOBKH; r; - ,ll)IHTeJibHOCTb H30TepMH­

qeCKOH Bhl.llep)KIQ{; p - .uaBJieHHe ropHqero npeccoBaHHH; TJ - K0- 3<t><i>HUHeHT BH3KOCTH npeccyeMOfO MaTepHaJia.

B CJiyqae, Kor.ua HanpH)l(eHHH, B03HHKaIOIUHe npH npHJIO)l(eHHH

Harpy3KH, Bh IIIe npe.aeJia reKyqeCTH npeccyeMoro MaTepHaJia, yca.uKa ocyruecTBJIHeTCH 3a cqeT nJiaCTHqeCKOH .ue<t>opMaUHH; eCJIH 3TH Ha­

npH)l(eHHH HH)l(e crT, ynJIOTHeHHe nporeKaeT Ja cqeT HeCTaUHOHapHoro

(HeOTO)l()l(eHb e nopOIIIKH) HJIH 6JIH3KOfO K CTaUHOHapHOMY (OTO)l()l(eH­

Hb e nopomKH) KpHna. MexaHH3M ynJioTHeHHH H,UeHTHqeH Ha6J110.ua­ eM0My npH cneKaHHH: o6pa30BaHHe Me)l(l{aCTHqHoro KOHTaKTa, pOCT nJIOTHOCTH c O,llHOBpeMeHHb M yBeJIHqeHHeM pa3Mepa qacTHU H ,llaJib­ HeHIIIHH pOCT qacTHU npH He3HaqHTeJibHOM .uonOJIHHTeJibHOM YnJIOT­ HeHHH.

CBoiicrna ropHqenpeccoBaHHhIX nopoIIIKOBh X HJ.UeJIHH cyruecTBeH­ HO JaBHCHT OT ycJioBHH npeccoBaHHH (pHc. 265). KaK npaBHJIO, TaKHe H3,UeJIHH o6Jia,UaIOT 6oJiee Bb COKHM npe,UeJIOM npoqHOCTH, 60JiblllHM

Y.UJIHHeHHeM, noBhIIIIeHHOH rnep.uocThIO, Jiyqmeii 3JieKTponpo­ BO.UHOCThIO H 6oJiee roqHb MH reoMeTPHqecKHMH pa3MepaMH, qeM H3,lleJIHH, noJiyqeHHb e nyreM pa3,UeJibHOfO npeCCOBaHHH H cneKaHHH. KpoMe Toro, 3TH HJ.UeJIHH ornHqa10TcH MeJIKoJepHHCTOH CTPYKTYPOH

H Hepe.aKo no MexaHHqecKHM CBOHCTBaM He ycTYnaIOT HJ.UeJIHHM HJ JIHTbIX MeTaJIJIOB (cnJiaBOB).

)J,JIH HarpeBa nopomKa HJIH nopOIIIKOBOH <t>opMOBKH HCnOJib3YIOT, KaK npaBHJIO, 3JieKTPHqecKHH TOK (pHC. 266). HaH60Jiee pacnpOCTPa­ HeHHb M MarepHaJIOM ,ll)IH H3fOTOBJieHHH npecc-<t>opM HBJIHeTCH rpa-


g! =>

=> Q.

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0 ----1. J

100 200 300 400 500

TeMnepamypa Hazpesa, °C

 

Puc. 265. 3aBHCHMOCTh 11JIOTHOCTH, TBep.ll,OCTH " rrpo'IHOCTll rrpu C)KaTHH 6p11Keroa 113 Me.ll,Horo rropowKa OT reMrrepazyphIropst'!ero rrpeccoaatt11st rrpu .ll,aBJieH1111, MTia: I - 80; 2 - 400; 3 - 780

 

$HT (Ta6JI. 57), B TOM qHcJie CHJIHUHPOBaHHb H. OpHeHTHpOBOlJHblH

pacqeT MaTPHU rpa$HTOBbIX npecc-<t>opM npOBO,llHT no HH)l(HeMy 3Ha­ qeHHIO cnpaBOlJHbIX .uaHHbIX 0 np04HOCTH rpa$HTa Ha paCTH)l(eHHe. TipaKTHlJeCKH MaTpHUbl H3 HaH60Jiee ,llOCTynHhIX copTOB rpa$HTa

Bh ,Uep)l(HBaIOT MaKCHMaJihHOe oceBoe .uaBJieHHe nopH,UKa 40 H/MM2•

oaH,Ua)l(HpOBaHHe rpa$HTOBbIX MaTPHU JIHIIIeHO CMbICJia, TaK KaK Ha­ THf B coe,UHHeHHH MeTaJIJIHlJeCKOfO 6aH,UIDKa H MaTPHUbl npH HarpeBe HClJeJaeT (K03$$HUHeHT JIHHeHHOfO paCIIIHpeHHH MeTaJIJIOB H cnJia­ BOB OOJlbIIIe; qeM y yrnerpa$HTOBbIX MaTepHaJIOB). TipH cpaBHHTeJlbHO

HH3KHX TeMnepaTYpax npeCCOBaHHH (.UO 900-1000 °C) HCnOJih3YIOT

MeTaJIJIHlJeCKHe npecc-<t>opMhI HJ )l(aponpo4HhIX cnJiaBoB, ttanpHMep Ha OCHOBe HHKeJIH H MOJIH6,UeHa; paCIIIHpHeTCH npHMeHeHHe npecc­

<t>opM H3 TYfOnJiaBKHX OKCH,UOB, CHJIHKaTOB H .llPYrHX XHMHlJeCKHX

coe,UHHeHHH. )J,JIH npe.uoTBparueHHH B3aHMO,UeHCTBHH npeccyeMOfO MarepHaJia c MarepuanoM npecc-<t>opMhI BHYTPeHHIOIO noeepxttoCTh nocJie,UHeH noKpbIBaIOT KaKHMH-JIH6o HHepTHbIMH COCTaBaMH ()l(H,ll-

9• 259


 

 

M..... N I M..... N    
M..... N I M..... N    
     
     
     
 

 

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