Responsibilities between vessels

· A power-driven vessel should keep out of the way of a vessel restricted in any way, whether in her ability to manoeuvre, not under command, fishing or sailing.

· A sailing vessel must keep out of the way of all except a power-driven vessel.

· A fishing vessel (when actually fishing) should keep clear of a vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre or a vessel not under command.

· Any vessel except not under command or a vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre should keep clear of a vessel that is constrained by her draught.

· A seaplane should keep clear of everything.

Conduct of vessels in restricted visibility

All ships of any kind should proceed at a safe speed in mist, fog or other such conditions that restrict visibility. They should be ready for immediate manoeuvre. They should stop engines and even go astern if required.

If another vessel is detected on radar, and if there is risk of collision, all ships should take action well in advance. The following actions should be avoided:

- Turning to port for a vessel forward of the beam, except when overtaking.

- Turning towards a vessel abeam or abaft the beam.

Fog signals are highly recommended in such situations. It is also imperative to navigate with extreme caution in fog, especially when other ships are close by and cannot be seen. In case of uncertainty of another vessels movement and if a fog signal is heard ahead, reduce to minimum speed or stop.

IV. Make-up word combinations and translate them:

1) crossing collision 1)____________________________

2) starboard visibility 2)____________________________

3) sailing speed 3)____________________________

4) stern side 4)____________________________

5) alter light 5)____________________________

6) fishing courses 6)____________________________

7) alter vessel 7)____________________________

8) restricted situation 8)____________________________

9) overtaking course 9)____________________________

10) reciprocal vessel 10)___________________________

11) preventing situation 11)___________________________

12) head-on vessel 12)___________________________

V. Read about the responsibilities between vessels (Rule 18). Circle points which are different from the Rule 18:

1. A power-driven vessel underway shall keep out of the way of:

a) a vessel not under command;

b) a vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre;

c) a vessel engaged in fishing;

d) an aircraft;

e) a sailing vessel.

2. A sailing vessel underway shall keep out of the way of:

a) a vessel not under command;

b) a vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre;

c) vessel engaged in fishing;

d) a vessel constrained by her draught.

3. A vessel engaged in fishing when underway shall keep out of the way of:

a) a vessel not under command;

b) a vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre;

c) a power-driven vessel;

d) a boat.

VI. Are the following statements true or false?

1. Rule 19 applies to vessels in sight of one another.

2. A vessel aground may in addition sound an appropriate gong signal.

3. A vessel at anchor shall at intervals of not more than one minute ring the bell rapidly for about 15 seconds.

4. Short blast is a blast of about one second’s duration.

5. Every vessel should navigate with extreme caution until danger of collision is over.

6. A power-driven vessel shall not have her engines ready for immediate manoeuvre.

VII. Fill in the gaps using prepositions given below:

1. You are not complying _____ traffic regulations.

a) in b) on c) with

2. You are proceeding _____ a dangerous speed.

a) at b) in c) on

3. The vessel broke adrift and collided _____ another vessel.

a) with b) in c) on

4. All vessels are advised to keep clear _____ this area.

a) on b) at c) of

5. I am manoeuvring _____ difficulty. Keep clear of me.

a) for b) of c) with

6. Both vessels were equipped _____ operational radars.

a) by b) with c) in

7. I am not _____ command at the moment.

a) in b) about c) under

8. You are advised to alter course _____ starboard.

a) to b) for c) by

9. What was the main cause _____ the collision last week?

a) for b) of c) to

10. We have to right to cross her way ahead. We shall alter the course so that the ship may pass by _____ our port side.

a) on b) at c) of

VIII. Self-assessment questions:

1. Is night considered restricted visibility?

2. What is an overtaking vessel?

3. How should vessel indicate her intention to overtake on?

4. What must two power-driven vessels do in the case of a head-on situation?

5. What shall the stand-on vessel do?

6. What shall the give-way vessel do?

7. What must two power-driven vessels do in the case of a crossing situation?

8. What kind of vessels should a power-driven vessel keep out of the way?

9. What signals are recommended in restricted visibility?








I. Vocabulary. Study the following words and word combinations:

1. verification [ˏverIfI'keIS(q)n] – перевірка

2. substantially [sqb'stxnS(q)lI] – істотно

3. primarily ['praIm(q)rqlI] – спочатку, попередній

4. issue ['ISu:] – положення, пункти

5. loose gear [lu:s gIq] – незакріплені механізми

6. to be aimed [eImd] (at) – бути націленим на

7. multipath ['mAltIpQ:T] – багаточисельний

8. composition [ˏkOmpq'zIS(q)n] – склад

9. concern [kqn'sE:n] – турбота, стурбованість, увага, відношення

10. to decipher [dI'saIfq] – розшифрувати

11. invaluable [In'vxljub(q)l] – неоцінимий

12. judgement ['GAGmqnt] – думка, рішення

13. pertinent ['pE:tInqnt] – відповідний, доречний

14. amended [q'mendId] – виправлений (з поправками)

15. relevant ['relIv(q)nt] – відповідний

16. to comply with [kqm'plaI wID] – відповідати, відповідати вимогам

17. unattended [ˏAnq'tendId] – без нагляду

18. to hinder ['hIndq] – заважати, перешкоджати

19. seamanship ['si:mqnSIp] – морська справа, морська практика, майстерність судноводіння

20. to affect ['xfekt] – впливати

21. core subject – основне питання

22. leadership qualities – командні якості

23. unmanned machinery spaces (UMS) – машинне відділення з безвахтовим обслуговуванням

II. Show your competence on the following points:

1. What International Conventions were adopted for providing safety at sea? By whom? When?

2. What Rules are to be observed while keeping watch?

3. What are the main positions of STCW aimed at?

4. How is STCW deciphered?

5. What provides safe navigation?

III. Read and translate the following text:

Prior to each voyage the Master of every ship shall ensure that the intended route from the port of departure to the first port of call is planned using adequate and appropriate charts and other nautical publications necessary for the intended voyage containing accurate, complete, and up-to-date information which are of permanent or predictable nature, and which are relevant to the safe navigation of the ship.

Verification and display of planned route

When the route planning is verified taking into consideration all permanent information, the planned route shall be clearly displayed on appropriate charts and shall be continuously available to the officer-in charge of the watch who shall verify each course to be followed prior to using it during the voyage.

Deviation from planned route

If a decision is made during a voyage to change the next port of call of the planned route, or if it is necessary for the ship to deviate substantially from the planned route for other reasons, then an amended rule shall be planned prior to deviating substantially from the route originally planned.

Principles applying to watchkeeping generally

The Master of every ship is bound to ensure that watchkeeping arrangements are adequate for maintaining a safe navigational watch. Under the master’s general direction, officers of a navigational watch are responsible for navigating the ship safely during their periods of duty, when they will be particularly concerned with avoiding collision or stranding.

An officer in charge of a navigational watch is the master’s representative and is primarily responsible at all times for the safe navigation of the ship and for complying with the International Regulation for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972.

Watch arrangements

When deciding the composition of a navigational watch, which may include appropriate qualified ratings, the following factors shall be taken into account:

1. At no time shall bridge be left unattended.

2. Weather conditions, visibility and whether there is daylight or darkness.

3. Proximity of navigational hazards which may make it necessary for an officer in charge of a navigational watch to carry out additional navigational duties.

4. Use and operational conditions of navigational aids such as radar or electronic position-indicating devices and other equipment affecting the safe navigation of the ship.

5. Whether the ship is fitted with automatic steering.

6. Whether there are radio duties to be performed.

7. Unmanned machinery spaces (UMS) controls, alarms and indicators provided on the bridge, procedures for their use and limitations.

8. Any unusual demands on a navigational watch that may arise as a result of special operational circumstances.

The success of any passage demands on such key factors: the state of the vessel and her equipment, the competence, experience, knowledge and leadership qualities of the master, and the crew.

Those intending to put to sea in charge of a vessel have a duty to all on board, and as part of the safe passage plan, to gather as much information about the predicted weather is possible, and apply their own judgement on the conditions to be expected.

Local knowledge can be invaluable.

Good seamanship starts in port. Check and double-check that cargo-securing arrangements are in place before putting to sea, and that any loose gear has been properly secured.

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