I. Vocabulary. Study the following words and word combinations. Memorize the following charted abbreviation:

1. light (Lt) [laIt] – вогонь

2. lighthouse (Lt Ho) – маяк

3. lightvessel (Lt V) – плавучий маяк

4. fixed light (F) [fIkst laIt] – постійний вогонь

5. isophase light (Iso) – ізофазний вогонь

6. flashing light (Fl) ['flxSIN laIt] – проблисковий вогонь

7. occulting light (Oc) [q'kAltIN laIt] – вогонь, який затьмарюється

8. interrupted light (I) [ˏIntq'rAptId laIt] – переривчастий вогонь

9. alternating light (Al) ['O:ltqneItIN laIt] – змінний вогонь

10. directional light (Dir Lt) [d(a)I'rekSqnl laIt] – спрямований (ведучий) вогонь

11. leading light (Ldg) ['li:dIN laIt] – створний вогонь

12. front light – передній вогонь

13. rear light [rIq laIt] – задній вогонь

14. occasional light (occas) [q'keIZ(q)nql laIt] – вогонь у разі потреби (випадковий)

15. unwatched (unmanned) (U) light [ˏAn'wPC laIt] – вогонь, який не обслуговується (автоматичний)

16. sequence ['si:kwqns] – послідовність

17. frequency ['fri:kwqnsI] – частота

18. light pattern – світловий режим

19. elevation [ˏelI'veIS(q)n] – висота (над рівнем моря)

20. visibility [ˏvIzq'bIlItI] – видимість

21. range [reInG] – дальність дії, діапазон

22. equal ['i:kwql] – рівний

23. duration [djV(q) 'reIS(q)n] – тривалість, період часу

24. to exhibit [Ig'zIbIt] – показувати, виставляти

25. eclipse [I'klIps] – затемнення

26. conspicuous [kqn'spIkjVqs] – видимий, помітний

27. pole [pqVl], post [pqVst], staff [stQ:f] – стовп, віха, опора

28. to erect [I'rekt] – споруджувати, встановлювати

29. band [bxnd] – смуга, полоса горизонтальна

30. stripe [straIp] – смуга, полоса вертикальна

31. flash [flxS] – спалах

32. rate [reIt] – швидкість, вартість

33. appearance [q'pI(q)rqns] – зовнішній вигляд

II. Do you remember the following words? Translate them into Ukrainian:

description – _______________________ to display – ________________________ to ensure – _________________________ to repeat – _________________________ to indicate – ________________________ to represent – _______________________ to determine – ______________________ application – _______________________ dark – _____________________________ concrete – _________________________ beacon – __________________________ mast – ____________________________ shape – ____________________________ solid – ____________________________ brick – ____________________________ circular – __________________________ quadrangular – ______________________ square – ___________________________ triangular – ________________________ rectangular – _______________________ hexagonal – ________________________ octagonal – ________________________

III. Read and translate the following text:

A light characteristic is a graphic and text description of a navigational light sequence or colour displayed on a nautical chart or in the Admiralty List of Lights and Fog Signals with the chart symbol for a lighthouse, lightvessel, buoy or sea mark with a light on it. Lights are used to ensure safe navigation. Different lights use different colours, frequencies and light patterns, so mariners can find out which light they are seeing. There are several types of lights. The main of them are the following:

The fixed light is a light that shines continuously. Its abbreviation is F. All lights are indicated by abbreviation on nautical charts.

The isophase light has a light interval and a dark interval of equal durations. Its abbreviation is “Iso”.

The flashing light is a rhythmic light with a short light interval and a long dark interval and in which the flashes of light are all of equal duration. It is most commonly used for a single-flashing light which exhibits only single flashes which are repeated at regular intervals, in which case it is abbreviated simply as “Fl”. It can also be used with a group of flashes which are regularly repeated, in which case the abbreviation is “Fl.(2)” or “GrFl.(2)”, for a group of two flashes. Another possibility is a composite group, in which successive groups in the period have different numbers of flashes, e.g. “Fl.(2+1)” indicates a group of two flashes, followed by one flash.

A specific case sometimes used is when the flashes are longer than two seconds. Such a light is denoted “long flashing” with abbreviation “LFl”.

A quick light, abbreviated “Q”, is a special case of a flashing light with a large frequency (repetition rate of 50 to 79 – usually either 50 or 60 – flashes per minute). If the sequence of flashes is interrupted by regularly repeated eclipses of constant and long duration, the light is denoted “interrupted quick”, abbreviated “I.Q.” Another distinction sometimes made is between very quick “VQ” (repetition rate of 80 to 159 – usually either 100 or 120 – flashes per minute) and ultra quick “UQ” (repetition rate of 160 or more – usually 240 to 300 – flashes per minute).

The occulting light is a rhythmic light with a long light interval and a short dark interval and in which the intervals of darkness (occultations) are all of equal duration. Its abbreviation is Oc/Occ. In other words: it is an interrupted light. Like a flashing light, it can be used for a single occulting light that exhibits only single occultations which are repeated at regular intervals, a group (Oc(3)) or a composite group (Oc(2+1)).

All lights are mostly of white (W), red (R), blue (Bl/Bu/b), green (Gr), violet (Vi) and yellow (Y) colour. In case a light changes its colour it is called alternating.

The alternating light, abbreviate “Al”, is a light which shows alternating colours. For example, “Al WGR” shows white, green and red lights alternatively.

The Morse code light is a light in which appearances of light of two clearly different durations are grouped to represent a character or characters in the Morse Code.

The applications of the types of light are determined by the fact whether a light is conspicuous or not. The most conspicuous light by far is the flashing light. Therefore it is always used to indicate danger. The least conspicuous light is the fixed light. Therefore it should merely be used to illuminate an object or an area.

Lights are exhibited from different conspicuous structures, such as towers, poles, posts, buoys, beacons, staffs, masts and lighthouses.


A lighthouse is a structure exhibiting a light (a major light). This light serves as an aid to navigation. Lighthouses are always conspicuous.

They are built on land and at sea. In most cases lighthouses are erected on solid foundations.

Lighthouses vary in shape. They can be circular, pyramidal, quadrangular, square, cylindrical, triangular, rectangular, hexagonal and octagonal. They are built of stone, brick, concrete, iron, steel, wood, etc.

Lighthouses are painted white, yellow, red, etc. Sometimes they are painted in horizontal and vertical stripes of different colours (a band is a horizontal line; a stripe is a vertical line). The lights may be fixed, flashing, occulting, alternating, group-flashing.

When leading lights are exhibited, the front light is always lower than the rear light.

Lightship, a distinctively marked vessel anchored or moored at a charted point, to serve as an aid to navigation.

IV. Study the table:

Navigational Light Characteristics

Light pattern Chart abbrev. Description
  F. Continuous fixed light.
______ ______ ______ ______ Fl. Flashing. Light shorter than dark.
___ ___ ___ ___ Occ. Occulting. Dark shorter than light.
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ _ Iso. Isophase. Equal amounts of light and dark.
___ _ _ ___ _ _ ___ _ _ ___ _ _ Gp.Fl.(3) Group flashing. In this case, groups of three.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Gp.Occ.(2) Group occulting. In this case, groups of two.
___ _ __ _____ _ __ _____ _ __ Gp.Fl.(2+1) Composite group flashing.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Qk.Fl. Quick flashing 50 or 60 per minute.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ V.Qk.Fl. Very quick flashing 100 or 120 per minute.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____ _ _ _ _ Int.Qk.Fl. Interrupted quick flashing.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ______ _ _ _ _ _ _ Int.V.Qk.Fl. Interrupted very quick flashing 100 or 120 per minute.
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ _ Alt. Alternating. Changing colour. In this case white and red.
  • The period of a light is the length of time taken (in seconds) to complete one full cycle. E.g. 10s is a period of ten seconds.
  • The height (in metres) of a light above “mean high water springs” (MHWS) is denoted by a small m. E.g. 15m indicates a height of fifteen metres.
  • The range (in nautical miles) at which a light can be seen in good visibility is denoted by a capital M. E.g. 25M indicates a range of twenty five nautical miles.
  • The colour of a light is usually denoted by the first letter. e.g. R is red, G is green.
Example. A light marked on a chart as 'Gp.Fl.(3)20s 15m 25M' would indicate, a light flashing in groups of three every twenty seconds at a height of fifteen metres above MHWS that could be seen at a distance of twenty five nautical miles in good visibility.

V. Find in the text above the English equivalents for the following words and expressions:

1. ізофазний вогонь – ___________________________________________________

2. постійний вогонь – ___________________________________________________

3. морська карта – ______________________________________________________

4. вогонь Морзе – ______________________________________________________

5. показувати (виставляти) вогонь – _______________________________________

6. проблисковий вогонь – _______________________________________________

7. змінний вогонь – _____________________________________________________

8. вогонь, що затьмарюється – ___________________________________________

9. добре видимий (примітний) – __________________________________________

10. дуже швидко проблисковий вогонь – ____________________________________

VI. Decipher the following abbreviations of lights, using the example.

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