ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

MARITIME BUOYAGE SYSTEM (PART I)



I. Vocabulary. Study the following words and word combinations:

1. sign [saIn] – знак

2. distinctively [dIs'tIN(k)tIvlI] – виразно, ясно

3. shape [SeIp] – форма, фігура

4. to warn [wO:n] – попереджати

5. isolated rock – окрема скеля

6. wreck [rek] – судно, яке потерпіло аварію, затонуле судно

7. to convene [kqn'vi:n] – збирати, скликати

8. to agree [q'gri:] – домовитися

9. to adopt [q'dPpt] – приймати

10. buoyage system – система огородження небезпек

11. to apply [q'plaI] – застосовувати, використовувати, просити

12. obstruction [qb'strAkS(q)n] – перешкода

13. to be subject [sq'bGekt] – підлягати, підкорятися

14. to reverse [rI'vE:s] – протилежний, зворотній

15. flat [flxt] – плоский, рівний

16. lateral mark (buoy) – латеральний знак (буй)

17. cardinal mark (buoy) – кардинальний знак (буй)

18. isolated danger mark (buoy) – знак, що огороджує окрему навігаційну небезпеку

19. to distinguish [dIs'tINgwIS] – розрізняти, відрізняти

20. to define [dI'faIn] – визначати, встановлювати

21. to devise [dI'vaIz] – розробляти, винаходити, вигадувати

22. can [kxn] (buoy) – циліндровий (буй)

23. pillar ['pIlq] – стовп

24. spar [spQ:] – віха

25. topmark – топова фігура

II. Do you remember the following words? Translate them into Ukrainian:

floating – __________________________ traffic – ___________________________ bottom – __________________________ to indicate – ________________________ shoal – ____________________________ rule – _____________________________ previous – _________________________ feature – ___________________________ combined – ________________________ mariner – __________________________ square – ___________________________ top – ______________________________ beacon – ___________________________ band – ____________________________ stripe – ____________________________ conditions – ________________________ to light (lit) – _______________________ particularly – _______________________

III. Read and translate the following text:

Buoys are used by maritime nations as floating traffic signs. Each buoy a mariner sees gives information.

Buoy is a distinctively shaped and coloured float, anchored to the bottom, to mark a location, warn of danger, or indicate a navigational channel. They direct you to safe, deep water, and away from dangers such as shoal water, isolated rocks, wrecks, and reefs.

In 1980 on a conference convened by the International Association of Lighthouse Authorities (IALA), they agreed to adopt the rules of a new combined system, which combined the previous two systems (the Lateral buoyage system and the Cardinal buoyage system) into one system, with two regions (A and B). Buoys in the Lateral system are used to indicate the port and starboard sides of the fairways. Buoys in the Cardinal system are used to indicate how to pass a danger in a certain area.

The System applies to all fixed and floating marks except lighthouses, sector lights, leading lights and leading marks, light vessels and LANBYs (Large Automatic Navigation Buoy). It serves to indicate:

· Sides and centrelines of navigable channels.

· Navigable channels under fixed bridges.

· Natural dangers and other obstructions such as dangerous wrecks.

· Areas in which navigation may be subject to regulation.

· Other features of importance to the Mariner.

Most countries in the world use the IALA-A System, but the IALA-B System is used in North America, Central America and South America, the Philippines, Japan and Korea. One big difference between the two systems is that the colour of the buoys on either side of a channel is reversed.

Region A:

- port marks are red and may have a red flashing light of any rhythm;

- starboard marks are green and may have a green flashing light of any rhythm.

Region B:

- port marks are green and may have a green flashing light of any rhythm;

- starboard marks are red and may have a red flashing light of any rhythm.

Both regions:

- port marks are square or have a flat top;

- starboard marks are conical (or present a triangular shape) or have a pointed top.

Five types of mark (buoy) are provided by the System: Lateral, Cardinal, Isolated Danger, Safe Water and Special marks. Most lighted and unlighted beacons, other than leading marks, are included in the System. The lateral signs in the Region A and B are different, but the other four signs (i.e. cardinal, safe water, isolated danger and special) are common (identical) for these both regions.

Buoys and beacons may be of various shapes and colours.

Colours. Red and green are reserved for Lateral marks, and yellow for Special marks. Black and yellow or black and red bands, or red and white stripes, are used for other types of marks.

The shape is an important feature as colours cannot be distinguished in some light conditions. Five basic shapes were defined when the System was devised: Can (cylindrical), Conical, Spherical, Pillar and Spar.

Buoys may be lit and they may have topmarks.

Buoys are not only distinguished by their shapes and colours, but also by their topmarks (daymarks). Can, conical, spherical and X-shaped topmarks are the only topmarks used. On pillar and spar buoys the use of topmarks is particularly important.

Lights. Where marks are lighted red and green lights of the IALA System are reserved for Lateral marks and yellow lights for Special marks. White lights, distinguished one from another by their rhythm, are used for other types of mark.

Marks may also carry unique markings of letters and numbers; these may be used to identify the mark as one indicated on a nautical chart.

IV. Make-up word combinations and translate them:

1) nautical water 1)____________________________

2) flat beacon 2)____________________________

3) conical buoy 3)____________________________

4) special channel 4)____________________________

5) lighted top 5)____________________________

6) deep rocks 6)____________________________

7) red nations 7)____________________________

8) isolated bands 8)____________________________

9) spar chart 9)____________________________

10) navigational shape 10)___________________________

11) shoal marks 11)___________________________

12) maritime water 12)___________________________

V. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following words and expressions:

1. латеральна система огороджень – _______________________________________

2. кардинальна система огороджень – _____________________________________

3. вказувати правий бік фарватеру – _______________________________________

4. форми буїв – ________________________________________________________

5. плавучий знак – ______________________________________________________

6. небезпечне затонуле судно – ___________________________________________

7. червоний проблисковий вогонь – _______________________________________

8. білі вертикальні смуги – ______________________________________________

9. вогонь будь-якого ритму – _____________________________________________

10. більшість країн світу – ________________________________________________

VI. Give antonyms to:

Eastern – ______________________________________________________________

Outer – ________________________________________________________________

Difficult – _____________________________________________________________

Shallow water – _________________________________________________________

Horizontal – ____________________________________________________________

Here – ________________________________________________________________

Less – _________________________________________________________________

Always – ______________________________________________________________

VII. Give synonyms to:

Vessel – _______________________________________________________________

Shoal – ________________________________________________________________

Starboard – _____________________________________________________________

Left – _________________________________________________________________

VIII. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Цей буй пофарбовано в червоний колір.

______________________________________________________________________

2. Що огороджують ці буї? – Ці буї огороджують мілину.

______________________________________________________________________

3. Чи є там швартовні бочки? – Ні, там немає швартовних бочок.

______________________________________________________________________

4. Як огороджена мілина? – Мілина огороджена віхами.

______________________________________________________________________

5. Буї можуть мати топові знаки.

______________________________________________________________________

6. Буї можуть бути різні за формою та кольором.

______________________________________________________________________

7. Буї вказують сторони суднохідних каналів.

______________________________________________________________________

8. Для спеціальних знаків використовується жовтий колір.

______________________________________________________________________

9. Білий конічний буй встановлений на глибині 10 футів.

______________________________________________________________________

10. Сферичний буй, який пофарбовано у білі та зелені горизонтальні смуги, встановлений в 2 кабельтових в південному напрямку від острову St. Anne.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

IX. Self-assessment questions:

1. What are buoys?

2. What are buoys and beacons used for? What do they mark?

3. Why is the buoyage system necessary?

4. What systems is the buoyage system divided into?

5. What are buoys in the Lateral system used to indicate?

6. What are buoys in the Cardinal system used to indicate?

7. What is the difference between the buoys of IALA-A and IALA-B systems?

8. What do you know about the shapes and colours of buoys and beacons?

9. How are buoys and beacons painted?

10. What topmarks do you know?

11. What colour light are special buoys fitted with?

 

 

UNIT 5

MARITIME BUOYAGE SYSTEM (PART II)

I. Vocabulary. Study the following words and word combinations:

1. edge [eG] – межа, край

2. to pass [pQ:s] – проходити

3. above [q'bAv] – вище

4. below [bI'lqV] – нижче

5. opposite ['PpqzIt] – протилежний

6. to mean [mi:n] – позначати, мати на увазі, означати

7. to be fitted with – бути обладнаним чимось

8. attention [q'tenS(q)n] – увага

9. bend [bend] – вигин, згин (річки)

10. junction ['GANkS(q)n] – злиття річок

11. point [pOInt] – вершина

12. uninterrupted [ˏAnIntq'rAptId] – безперервний

13. submerged [sqb'mE:Gd] – занурений у воду, підводний

14. vicinity [vI'sInItI] – поблизу, біля

15. to keep clear of – триматися на відстані від

16. sufficient [sq'fIS(q)nt] – достатній

17. landfall buoy – буй, що позначає підхід до гавані

18. sphere [sfIq] – сфера, куля

19. apparent [q'pxrqnt] – помітний, очевидний

20. spoil ground – місце звалища ґрунту

21. recreation zone – зона відпочинку

22. to indicate ['IndIkeIt] – вказувати, показувати

II. Do you remember the following words? Translate them into Ukrainian:

mark – ____________________________ top – ______________________________ purpose – __________________________ direction – _________________________ shoal – ____________________________ depth – ____________________________ flash – ____________________________ shape – ____________________________ wreck – ___________________________ cross – ____________________________ to exhibit – _________________________ to permit – _________________________ to prohibit – ________________________ entrance – _________________________ obstruction – _______________________ band – ____________________________ stripe – ____________________________ occulting – _________________________ isophase – _________________________ distinct – __________________________

III. Read and translate the following text:

Lateral marks

A lateral buoy (or lateral mark), as defined by the International Association of Lighthouse Authorities, is a sea mark used in maritime pilotage to indicate the edge of traffic lanes and channels. Distinct shapes, colours and numbers are used to distinguish between the port and starboard sides of channels. A channel is the route a ship must pass for safety. It is an area in the entrance to a port which has deeper water levels and is clear of any obstruction below the sea.

Region A is also called red to port, because red buoys are on the port (left) side of the channel and green buoys are on the starboard (right) side when entering a harbour (reverse when departing). The ship must pass between them for safety, keeping the red buoy on her port side and the green one on the starboard side.

Region B is exactly the opposite, and is remembered as red to starboard, which means that green buoys mark the port (left) side of channel and red buoys mark the starboard (right) side of channel.

For easy identification, the shapes of the buoys in both regions are different, as can be seen from the diagrams. The topmarks (the small shape at the top of each buoy) are also distinctive and different. Port-hand marks carry can-shaped topmarks, and starboard-hand marks carry conical topmarks, when fitted. When the buoys are can- or conical-shaped themselves they are not fitted with any topmarks.

At night, the lights on each buoy are different as well. When exhibited, red and green lights are used for Lateral marks. Lighted Lateral marks used for certain purposes have lights with specified rhythms: Composite Group Flashing (2+1) for Preferred Channel marks; Quick or Very Quick for New Danger marks. Other Lateral marks may have lights of any rhythms.

Cardinal marks

A cardinal mark is a sea mark (a buoy or other floating or fixed structure) used in maritime pilotage to indicate the position of a hazards and the direction of safe water. Cardinal marks indicate the direction of safety as a cardinal (compass) direction (north, east, south or west) relative to the mark. The Mariner is safe if he passes N of a North mark, E of an East mark, S of a South mark and W of a West mark.

Cardinal marks may be used to:

- indicate that the deepest water in an area is on the named side of the mark;

- indicate the safe side on which to pass a danger;

- draw attention to a feature in a channel such as a bend, junction, branch, or end of a shoal;

- draw attention to a new danger such as a grounded ship.

Topmark. Cardinal buoys are fitted with two black cones.

Colours. Black and yellow bands are used to colour Cardinal marks. The position of the black band, or bands, is related to the points of the black topmarks.

Shape. Cardinal buoys are pillar- or spar-shaped.

Light. White lights are exhibited from Cardinal marks which are lighted. Their characteristics are based on a group of quick flashes which distinguish them as Cardinal marks and indicate their quadrant.

Point of interest Topmarks Colours Lights
North Points up Black band above yellow band Uninterrupted
South Points down Black band below yellow band 6 flashes in a group followed by a long flash
West Points inward Black band with yellow bands above and below 9 flashes in a group
East Points outward Black bands above and below yellow band 3 flashes in a group

Isolated Danger marks

An Isolated Danger mark, as defined by the International Association of Lighthouse Authorities, is a sea mark used in maritime pilotage to indicate a hazard to shipping such as a partially submerged rock in the immediate vicinity of the buoy. Ships should keep clear of it.

Topmark. The isolated danger buoy carries two black spheres (balls), disposed vertically.

Colours. Black with one or more red bands are the colours used for Isolated Danger marks.

Shape. Isolated danger marks are pillar- or spar-shaped.

Light. A white flashing light showing a group of two flashes is used to denote an Isolated Danger mark.

Safe Water marks

A Safe Water mark is a sea mark used in maritime pilotage to indicate the end of a channel. It is used to indicate that there is navigable water (safe water of sufficient depth) all round a mark. Such a mark may be used as a centerline, mid-channel or landfall buoy, or to indicate the best point of passage under a fixed bridges. A ship can pass any side of it.

Topmark. The safe water buoy is fitted with a single red sphere.

Colours. Red and white stripes are used for Safe Water marks.

Shape. Spherical, pillar or spar buoys are used as Safe Water marks.

Light. A white light, occulting (more light than dark), or isophase (equal light and dark), or showing a single long flash every 10 seconds.

Special marks

A special mark is a sea mark used in maritime pilotage to indicate to the Mariner a special area or feature, the nature of which is apparent from reference to a chart. Special marks can indicate: anchorage areas, mooring areas, pipelines, spoil ground (an area where dredged material is deposited); cables; recreation zones.

Topmark. The special buoy carries a yellow cross.

Colour. Yellow is the colour used for Special marks.

Shape. They may have any shape but they must not conflict with those used for the other marks.

Lights. A yellow light is used. The rhythm may be any, other than those used for Cardinal, Isolated Danger and Safe Water marks. The following are permitted examples: group occulting; flashing; group flashing with a group of 4, 5 or 6 flashes; composite group flashing.

IV. Study the picture.

V. Make-up word combinations and translate them:

1) green water 1)____________________________

2) sea rock 2)____________________________

3) maritime buoy 3)____________________________

4) landfall zones 4)____________________________

5) fixed ship 5)____________________________

6) spoil light 6)____________________________

7) recreation vicinity 7)____________________________

8) yellow flash 8)____________________________

9) grounded buoy 9)____________________________

10) cardinal cross 10)___________________________

11) submerged mark 11)___________________________

12) immediate pilotage 12)___________________________

13) safe bridge 13)___________________________

14) lateral ground 14)___________________________

15) long buoy 15)___________________________

VI. Find the appropriate description of the different types of buoys in the table:

1. Cable buoys (special)   2. Landfall marks     3. Wreck buoys   4. Middle ground buoys   5. Quarantine buoys (special)   6. Spoil ground buoys (special)     7. Isolated danger buoys a) mark anchorages for vessels waiting for permission from port authorities and customs to enter harbour. They are of any shape but yellow in colour. b) show the position of any cables and prohibit anchoring in the area. They are of any shape but black in colour. c) show the middle of a main channel of the fairway. Any shape except cone, can or sphere. The colour is black and white or red and white vertical stripes. d) mark safe water of sufficient depth and indicate that you are approaching the coast. They are pillar, spar or spherical shape and are fitted with a white light. e) show the position of wreck dangerous for shipping. They are painted green. f) They are fitted with a white light, may be pillar or spar-shaped and show separate dangers for navigation. g) show where dredges or barges may drop their refuse. They may be of any shape, the colour is black and yellow vertical stripes.

VII. Choose the option that does not belong to the group:

1. lifebuoy, lifejacket, lifetime, lifeboat

2. cable, rope, funnel, line

3. berth, bollard, pier, quay

4. aid, assist, obstruct, help

5. midship, bow, stern, bottom

6. order, question, instruction, command

7. speedy, quick, fast, slow

8. faultless, incorrect, mistake, error

9. move, push, pull, stop

10. channel, river, mountain, ocean

VIII. Self-assessment questions:

1. What lights may be exhibited from Lateral buoys?

2. How is the starboard side of the fairway indicated in the A-system?

3. How is the port side of the fairway indicated in the A-system?

4. How is the position of the danger indicated?

5. What will give the navigator information regarding the vessel’s position in reference to the position of the danger?

6. How are the North Cardinal buoys indicated?

7. How are the South Cardinal buoys indicated?

8. How are the West Cardinal buoys indicated?

9. How are the East Cardinal buoys indicated?

10. What colour light are isolated danger marks fitted with?

11. What do safe water marks mark?

12. What lights are used on Safe Water buoys?

13. What are the yellow spherical buoys used for?

14. What are the spherical buoys painted in vertical stripes used for?

 

CHAPTER II





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