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Traffic separation schemes (TSS)



A very important rule that covers areas of the oceans that have been internationally agreed to have a TSS covering them. A TSS is, essentially, a “road map” marked on a navigators chart, which shows roads (or lanes), the lane a ship must take when going in a given direction and how she must behave within the TSS. The TSS coverage areas are usually areas of high traffic density; hence this attempt to “regulate” the traffic. Ships are not bound to use the TSS all the time, but whenever they do or are in the vicinity of a TSS, they must follow Rule 10.

When navigating in a traffic separation lane follow its direction and, if practicable, keep clear from the separation zone or line.

Normally join or leave at entrances, but when doing it from the sides the “attack angle” should be as close to the lane as possible.

If crossing a traffic lane is unavoidable, the crossing shall be done at an angle as close as possible to 90 degrees to the lane, presenting a full profile to ships within the lane. The aim should be to cross as quickly as possible.

Vessels with a length over 20 metres are recommended to use available traffic lanes instead of inshore traffic zones, but vessels under 20 metres of length and sailing vessels may in all circumstances use the inshore traffic zones.

Entering the separation zone is only allowed when crossing, joining or leaving the lane, in case of emergency or when fishing inside the zone is intended.

Navigating at the ends of the separation should be performed with caution.

Anchoring in a traffic separation scheme or near its termination should be avoided.

Vessels that are not using the scheme shall avoid it by as wide a margin as practicable.

Vessels engaged in fishing shall not impede other traffic.

Vessels with a length of less than 20 metres and sailing vessels shall not impede other traffic.

Vessels that are engaged in maintenance or in underwater work, with restricted manoeuvrability may carry out the operation at their own will.

IV. Make-up word combinations and translate them:

1) insufficient rule 1)____________________________

2) large density 2)____________________________

3) avoid work 3)____________________________

4) reduce size 4)____________________________

5) narrow bearing 5)____________________________

6) sailing speed 6)____________________________

7) traffic vessel 7)____________________________

8) safe channel 8)____________________________

9) underwater manoeuvrability 9)____________________________

10) important information 10)___________________________

11) restricted speed 11)___________________________

12) take collision 12)___________________________

V. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Щоб уникнути зіткнення необхідно зменшити швидкість чи змінити курс.

______________________________________________________________________

2. Щоб встановити безпечну швидкість, необхідно брати до уваги наступне: стан видимості, осадку судна, стан вітру та течій. – ____________________________

______________________________________________________________________

3. Постановка на якір в системі розділеного руху заборонена.

______________________________________________________________________

4. Якщо ви пливете вздовж вузького каналу, ви повинні триматися правої сторони. – __________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

5. Будь-яке судно повинно уникати постановки на якір у вузькому проході.

______________________________________________________________________

6. Вітрильник не повинен перешкоджати руху будь-якого іншого судна, яке рухається у вузькому каналі. – _________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

VI. Grammar. Rearrange the words below to make a correct sentence:

1. be, signs, displayed, warning, must.

______________________________________________________________________

2. ship, side, the, will, which, moor?

______________________________________________________________________

3. prohibited, mobile, use, the, phones, of, is.

______________________________________________________________________

4. poor, fog, there, because, the, is, visibility, of.

______________________________________________________________________

5. to, altering, tanker, course, is, starboard.

______________________________________________________________________

VII. Grammar. Choose the correct word:

1. __________ signals are used in case of emergency?

a) Where b) What c) When

2. __________ is her full manoeuvring speed?

a) Whose b) What c) Why d) How many

3. __________ crew are there on this vessel?

a) How long b) How much c) How many d) How old

4. __________ propellers has your vessel got?

a) How long b) How many c) How d) How much

5. __________ is the latest information about the storm?

a) Why b) What c) When

VIII. Self-assessment questions:

1. What does Rule 5 cover?

2. What must the lookout be able to do?

3. What is a safe speed?

4. What must be considered when setting the safe speed?

5. What must be used to determine the risk of collision?

6. What actions should be performed by vessels to avoid collision?

7. What side must vessel keep in a narrow channel?

8. May the vessel anchor in a narrow channel?

9. What is a TSS?

10. What rule must you follow when navigating in a TSS?

11. How should you cross a traffic lane?

12. What should be avoided in the TSS?

13. What vessels shall not impede other traffic in a TSS?

14. What vessels may carry out the operation in a TSS?

 

UNIT 10

CONDUCT OF VESSELS IN SIGHT OF ONE ANOTHER

AND IN RESTRICTED VISIBILITY

I. Vocabulary. Study the following words and word combinations:

1. agreement [q'gri:mqnt] – згода, угода

2. prudent ['pru:d(q)nt] – доцільний, розсудливий

3. specified ['spesIfaId] – встановлений, передбачений, точно визначений

4. head-on situation – ситуація зближення суден, які рухаються назустріч один одному

5. to assume [q'sju:m] – приймати, передбачати, припускати

6. reciprocal course – протилежний курс

7. obligation [ˏPblI'geIS(q)n] – обов’язок, зобов’язання

8. enough [I'nAf] – достатній

9. ability [q'bIlItI] – можливість, здібність

10. except [Ik'sept] – виключати

11. seaplane ['si:pleIn] – гідролітак

12. to proceed [prq'si:d] – слідувати, йти

13. mist [mIst] – легкий туман, серпанок

14. to detect [dI'tekt] – виявляти

15. imperative [Im'perqtIv] – необхідний, вкрай необхідний, вимога

16. uncertainty [An'sE:t(q)ntI] – невпевненість, невизначеність, сумнів

17. to keep out of the way – поступитися дорогою

II. Do you remember the following words? Translate them into Ukrainian:

responsibility – _____________________ overtaking – ________________________ to go astern – _______________________ beam – ____________________________ intention – _________________________ to exist – __________________________ the give way vessel – _________________ conduct – __________________________ to alter – ___________________________ in advance – ________________________ abaft the beam – ____________________ immediate – ________________________ visible – ___________________________ the stand on vessel – _________________

III. Read and translate the following text:

The learning objectives of this lesson are:

· The “rule of the road” when two vessels are passing each other.

· The responsibility between these vessels.

· The conduct of vessels in restricted visibility (Note that night is not considered bad or restricted visibility for the Colregs).

Overtaking

If a vessel is approaching another vessel from behind, within the theoretical sector of the forward vessel’s stern light, it is considered as an overtaking vessel, and it must give way in all circumstances until the other vessel is finally passed and clear. It can overtake on either side.

The overtaking zone:

Leave to port:

Leave to starboard:

Sound and light signals are prudent to indicate to the vessel which side the intention is to overtake on. The vessel being overtaken will signal agreement with specified sound/ light signals, foghorn and/ or light.

Head-on situation

In case of a head-on situation between two power-driven vessels, both shall alter course to starboard (right) and pass on the port (left) side of the other. A head-on situation exists by night if both red and green sidelights are visible. And if there is doubt about the situation, it shall be assumed that it is a head-on.

Port to Port (preferred)

 

Leave to Starboard (if in agreement)

Crossing situation

In case of a crossing situation between two power-driven vessels, the one that has the other on its starboard side shall give way and avoid crossing ahead of her.

The “stand-on” vessel must maintain its course and speed.

The “give-way” vessel can alter speed or alter course, or indeed, a combination of the above.

If both vessels are head on (on reciprocal courses) each will alter course to starboard and keep out of the way of the other.

Action by “give-way” vessel

When a vessel has the obligation to give way, it shall do it in good time and as distinctly as possible.

Action by “stand-on” vessel

The vessel with right of way – or stand-on vessel – shall maintain its course and speed.

However, when it is clear that the “give-way” vessel is either not taking any actions or not doing enough for preventing a collision, then the “stand-on” vessel must act.

In such a situation, the “stand-on” vessel shall not alter its course to port.





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