СТИЛИСТИКА АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА



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СТИЛИСТИКА АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА



СТИЛИСТИКА АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА

 

Семестровый курс лекций на модульной основе

с диагностико-квалиметрическим обеспечением

для студентов старших курсов филологических факультетов

Специальность 031001 – Филология

 

 

Ростов-на-Дону


АННОТАЦИЯ

 

Лингвистическая стилистика (лингвостилистика) английского языка как вполне сложившаяся, автономная лингвистическая дисциплина представляет собой межуровневый раздел языкознания. Стилистические явления обнаруживаются на всех без исключения языковых уровнях, поэтому стилистика вбирает в себя основные данные смежных языковедческих дисциплин – фонологии, лексикологии, морфологии, синтаксиса. Лингвостилистика занимается анализом речи и изучением входящих в ее состав, т.е. составляющих ее, единиц различных языковых уровней. В рамках стилистики эти единицы, однако, рассматриваются под качественно иным и новым углом зрения – в плане их функционирования в процессе речевого общения. Таким образом, курс стилистики основывается на теоретических знаниях, полученных студентами по курсам теоретической фонетики, грамматики и лексикологии английского языка. В соответствии с общей логикой поэтапного освоения теоретического материала на отделении зарубежной филологии, стилистика должна изучаться по прохождении названных дисциплин.

Цель курса заключается в кратком изложении современных представлений об основных положениях стилистической теории и рассмотрение ее важнейших разделов:

– теории изобразительно-выразительных средств и стилистических приемов, описывающей стилистические ресурсы разных уровней языка, а также ресурсы их совокупностей;

– теории функциональных стилей, описывающей функционально-стилевое варьирование языка, порожденное его употреблением в разных коммуникативных сферах и ситуациях.


CONTENTS

Module I. Stylistics as a Separate Branch of Linguistics

Lecture 1.1 General Problems of Style and Stylistics

Lecture 1.2 Modern English from the Viewpoint of Stylistics

Lecture 1.3 The English Vocabulary from the Viewpoint of Stylistics

Lecture 1.4 Stylistic Colouring and Stylistic Neutrality. Neutrality and

Norm in Stylistics. Paradigmatic and Syntagmatic Stylistics

Literature

Progress Check on Module I

Topics for Essays

Topics for Independent Individual Work

 

Module II. Lexical Stylistic Means and Devices (Figures of Thought)

Lecture 2.1 Types of Meaning in an Utterance. Devices Based

On the Interaction of Logical and Contextual Meanings

Lecture 2.2 Devices Based on the Interaction of Logical and Nominal

Meanings. Devices Based on the Interaction of Logical and

Emotive Meanings

Lecture 2.3 Devices Based on the Interaction of Primary and Derivative

Logical Meanings. Devices Giving Additional

Characteristics to the Objects Described

Lecture 2.4 Stylistic Use of Set Expressions and Allusions. Stylistic Use

Of Synonyms

Literature

Progress Check on Module II

Topics for Essays

Topics for Independent Individual Work

 

Module III. Syntactical Stylistic Means and Devices (Figures of Speech)

Lecture 3.1 Inversion. Detachment. Ellipsis. Aposiopesis. Parallelism.

Chiasmus. Apochoinu

Lecture 3.2 Suspense. Rhetorical Question. Repetitions. Tautological

Subject. Climax. Anticlimax. Antithesis

Lecture 3.3 Stylistic Means of Combining Parts of the Utterance:

Asyndeton, Polysyndeton, Cumulation. Represented

Speech. Inner Monologue. The Stream of Consciousness

Literature

Progress Check on Module III

Topics for Essays

Topics for Independent Individual Work

 

Module IV. Phonetic Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices

Lecture 4.1 Euphony. Alliteration. Assonance. Onomatopoeia. Metre.

Rhythm. Rhyme

Literature

Progress Check on Module IV

Topics for Essays

Topics for Independent Individual Work

 

Module V. Functional Styles of the English Language

Lecture 5.1 The Notion of a Functional Style. Scientific Prose Style. The

Style of Official Documents

Lecture 5.2 Publicistic Style. The Style of Newspapers. Belle-Lettre

Style

Literature

Progress Check on Module V

Topics for Essays

Topics for Independent Individual Work


Module I. Stylistics as a Separate Branch of Linguistics

Lecture 1.4 Stylistic Colouring and Stylistic Neutrality. Neutrality and

Norm in Stylistics. Paradigmatic and Syntagmatic Stylistics

The essence of stylistic perception of any utterance or text consists in mental confrontation of what one hears or reads with what one knows, that is with one’s previous linguistic experience. To understand a message adequately does not only mean to decipher the senses of separate linguistic units, such as words, morphemes and their combinations, and to put these senses together. It also means to undertake an immediate evaluation of such units from the standpoint of their belonging to either the neutral sphere or stylistically marked/stylistically coloured sphere of the language. The stylistic colouring means the knowledge where, i.e. in what particular type of communication, this or that unit is current. Besides, both the stylistic colouring and neutrality of units may be viewed as a result of their distributional capacities. Under the distributional capacities of the units we mean the possibilities of the given unit to naturally enter combinations with its immediate environment. For example, the form haven’t has nearly a universal distribution while the form ain’t belongs to colloquial, uncultivated speech. This fact is proved by other breaches of well-established rules of grammar such as the use of several negations in one sentence. For example, I ain’t never done nothing.

Stylistically coloured units can be further subdivided into:

o bookish;

o solemn;

o poetic;

o official.

And, on the other hand:

o colloquial;

o rustic;

o dialectal;

o vulgar.

The colouring shows where the unit was coined, where it is being used and where it should not. Does this mean that unlike stylistically coloured units those stylistically neutral are devoid of any connotations? The answer should be no. However the connotations of the stylistically neutral units are innumerable and manifold because such units are used in practically every sphere of possible combinations. For example, the words water, land, husband and many others are stylistically neutral. As a result the connotation of such words becomes indefinite or neutral.

Literature

1. Galperin I.R. Stylistics. – Moscow, 1991.

2. Skrebnev Yu.M. Fundamentals of English Stylistics. – Moscow, 1994.

3. Enkvist, N.E. Linguistic Stylistics. – The Hague, 1973.

4. Esser, J. English Linguistic Stylistics. – Tübingen, 1993.

5. Wales, K. A Dictionary of Stylistics. – London, 1990.

6. Арнольд И.В. Стилистика современного английского языка (Стилистика декодирования). – М., 1990.

7. Балли Ш. Французская стилистика. – М., 1961.

8. Стилистический энциклопедический словарь русского языка / Под ред. М.Н. Кожиной. – М., 2003.

Progress Check on Module I.

To pass this progress check, the student has to give answers to 10 questions. Each correct answer shall be evaluated in 10 points. The total of all correct answers shall then make 100 points.

Questions:

1. What position does linguostylistics occupy among other branches of general linguistics?

2. What is the difference between linguistic stylistics and literary stylistics?

3. What is the difference between the bookish literary language and the colloquial literary language?

4. What is the difference between an expressive means and a stylistic device?

5. Give the general characteristics of the stylistic diversity of the modern English vocabulary.

6. What kinds of old words do you know?

7. What is the place and stylistic value of terminology among other lexical strata?

8. What types of meaning of utterance are considered relevant in stylistics?

9. How can different types of meaning interact within a single utterance?

10. What is the possible result of the above interaction of meanings?

Topics for Essays

1. Development of Stylistics as a Separate Linguistic Branch

2. Schools in Linguostylistics

3. Russian Schools in Linguostylistics

4. Various Theories of Style

5. Syntagmatic and Paradigmatic Stylistics: the Need to Discriminate between Them

 

Stylistic Use of Synonyms

Synonyms in one synonymic group may differ from each other in their stylistic colouring (compare to steal and to pinch) and in emotional evaluative nuances (compare timid and coward). Those synonyms which differ not so much in meaning or in their emotional colouring and which belong to different stylistic types are called stylistic synonyms. Of greatest stylistic value are contextual synonyms which has not been registered as synonyms in any dictionary, which are born as such in a context only. Context saturates a word with such emotional and evaluative nuances and to such a degree that a word loses its logical or dictionary meaning thus becoming a contextual (temporary) synonym. Contextual synonyms help avoid repetition and monotony of speech. They give some additional information thus adding to the preciseness and expressiveness of the utterance. At the same time they reflect a deeply subjective author’s attitude of what he depicts.

Synonyms are realised in the context in different ways. Especially peculiar to the English language are pairs of synonyms whose stylistic function is to intensify the impression.

To run and rule.

To mask and muffle.

To meek and humble.

Such pairs may be rhythmically organised and alliterated.

The stylistic use of synonyms may not be restricted to synonymical pairs only but can extend to synonymical groups. This device may be regarded as a semantical repetition and is named semantical amplification.

He closed, locked and bolted all the doors and windows.

Synonyms may also be realised through synonimical variations. These variations show their meaning which is rather close in different manifestations within one context or text. This way they help avoid repetition and define a notion from different sides or supplies it with definite colouring of emotions.

The words intelligence and mind and intellect may be used substituting each other. The same as the words stories, legends, narrations, sagas, tales, etc.

Being non synonyms, if regarded as literary terms, turn into such in a special text.

The use of synonyms is recommended to create a better style of writing but only within those functional styles which show a definite imaginative character of the author. Fiction, publicistic style, partially newspaper style, but not scientific or style of the official documents.

The English language is especially rich in synonyms. The ability of the writer or speaker to pick out the appropriate word from a series of synonyms gives him a possibility to express his ideas with the utmost precision and emotionally adequately.

Literature

1. Galperin I.R. Stylistics. – Moscow, 1991.

2. Skrebnev Yu.M. Fundamentals of English Stylistics. – Moscow, 1994.

3. Enkvist, N.E. Linguistic Stylistics. – The Hague, 1973.

4. Esser, J. English Linguistic Stylistics. – Tübingen, 1993.

5. Wales, K. A Dictionary of Stylistics. – London, 1990.

6. Арнольд И.В. Стилистика современного английского языка (Стилистика декодирования). – М., 1990.

7. Балли Ш. Французская стилистика. – М., 1961.

8. Стилистический энциклопедический словарь русского языка / Под ред. М.Н. Кожиной. – М., 2003.

9. Москвин В.П. Выразительные средства современной русской речи: тропы и фигуры. Терминологический словарь-справочник. М., 2004.

Topics for Essays

1. The Theory Of Trope in Modern Semiotics

2. Trope, Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication

3. Re-nomination and the Language Sign

4. Re-nomination As A Deliberate Device In Human Verbal Communication

5. Terminology Naming Tropes: Its Genesis and Modern State

Literature

1. Galperin I.R. Stylistics. – Moscow, 1991.

2. Skrebnev Yu.M. Fundamentals of English Stylistics. – Moscow, 1994.

3. Enkvist, N.E. Linguistic Stylistics. – The Hague, 1973.

4. Esser, J. English Linguistic Stylistics. – Tübingen, 1993.

5. Wales, K. A Dictionary of Stylistics. – London, 1990.

6. Арнольд И.В. Стилистика современного английского языка (Стилистика декодирования). – М., 1990.

7. Балли Ш. Французская стилистика. – М., 1961.

8. Стилистический энциклопедический словарь русского языка / Под ред. М.Н. Кожиной. – М., 2003.

9. Москвин В.П. Выразительные средства современной русской речи: тропы и фигуры. Терминологический словарь-справочник. М., 2004.

Topics for Essays

1. Stylistic Figures of Syntactical Replacement

2. The Semantic Value of the Stylistically Elliptiсised Episode

3. The Semantic Value of the Stylistically Detached Episode

4. The Semantic Value of the Stylistically Repeated Episode

5. The Newest Syntactical Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices

 

Literature

1. Galperin I.R. Stylistics. – Moscow, 1991.

2. Skrebnev Yu.M. Fundamentals of English Stylistics. – Moscow, 1994.

3. Enkvist, N.E. Linguistic Stylistics. – The Hague, 1973.

4. Esser, J. English Linguistic Stylistics. – Tübingen, 1993.

5. Wales, K. A Dictionary of Stylistics. – London, 1990.

6. Арнольд И.В. Стилистика современного английского языка (Стилистика декодирования). – М., 1990.

7. Балли Ш. Французская стилистика. – М., 1961.

8. Стилистический энциклопедический словарь русского языка / Под ред. М.Н. Кожиной. – М., 2003.

9. Москвин В.П. Выразительные средства современной русской речи: тропы и фигуры. Терминологический словарь-справочник. М., 2004.

Topics for Essays

1. Phonetics, Graphics and Style

2. Euphony, Rhythm and Rhyme as Style-Forming Devices

Scientific Prose Style

From the lexical point of view, the most conspicuous feature here is the obligatory use of terms, specific for this or that branch of science. Naturally, a purely scientific utterance also includes words of the general vocabulary, but always in their direct logical meaning. This tendency is stipulated by the requirement to avoid any ambiguity in both expression and perception of the utterance. Scientific prose is characterized by a complete absence of dialectal words. We may find here selective usage of personal pronouns (first person plural is preferred to first person singular and second person is hardly ever used).

In syntax scientific prose is governed by logical reasoning, hence characterized by a strictly logical sequence of sentences and clauses and consequently by a developed system of connective elements such as so, thus, hence, therefore, firstly, secondly, etc. Impersonal passive constructions are considered more appropriate in the scientific style because it tends to be absolutely objective, precise, devoid of any individuality. It aims at the most generalized form of expression. Common are such structures as: it should be noted that, it is commonly recognized that, it is common knowledge that, it should be pointed out, it has to be assumed, to summarize briefly, as indicated above, etc.

The other peculiarities of scientific prose are: the use of quotations provided with references, the use of footnotes which conclude the ideas not directly associated with those in question but helping to reason them.

A scientific book, paper, collection of works, lecture may be intended not only for specialists in the given field, but also for a larger audience, which is little if at all acquainted with a subject. In such a case the result is popular scientific paper aimed at popularizing scientific knowledge.

 

Newspaper Style

English newspaper dates back to the 17th century as the first English newspaper named “The News of the Present Week” appeared in 1622.

Newspaper deals with newspaper printed matter but not everything printed in newspapers automatically belongs to this style.

The main communicative aim here is to impart information. This is achieved by brief news items and communiqués, reports, articles, advertisements, announcements, obituaries, etc.

Though most of the vocabulary used in newspapers is neutral and common literary so that it could be understood by the majority of reader or by the target readers, there are some peculiarities in this respect.

Newspaper language is characterised by a rather ample use of economic and political terms as well as abstract words. Newspaper clichés and phraseology are often employed here.

Conciseness of forms and expressiveness being the major objectives of this style demand a great number of abbreviations, which can denote people’s posts, sometimes geograohical names, famous political figures, writers, etc:

Qbc – Quebec, JFK – John F. Kennedy, JC – Jesus Christ, GBS – George Bernard Shaw

Clipped forms are also characteristic:

H-bomb, Lib – Liberal party

As any newspaper is sensitive to everything new, neologisms frequently first come into being on its pages.

The basic peculiarities of the newspaper style can also be found in its syntactical structure. The syntax here may be complicated as the whole contents is sometimes conveyed in one or two sentences.

Among the most striking peculiarities is an extremely wide range of the headline patterns. The language of newspaper headlines has many times been the subject of a thorough scrutiny for linguists.

Here we may come across ellipsis, chiasmus, interrogation, rhetorical questions. Unusual are the semantic (functional) links between the headlines and the article text.

Of special importance is the graphical organisation of lines and letters in a headline. Punctuation marks, especially dash, are widely used. The language of this style presents a combination of different vocabulary strata. It’s extremely rich in stylistic means, both lexical and syntactical.

 

Belles-lettres Style

This style has three subdivisions or sub-styles:

1) style of poetry

2) style of emotive prose

3) style of drama

The function of belles-lettres style is twofold:

a) to inform and communicate facts and ideas to the reader

b) to affect the reader emotionally

As regard to the poetry the order should be reverse.

All the three sub-styles have quite a number of common features. But in spite of that each has individual characteristics as well.

The element of emotion is definitely higher in poetry where the author reveals his feelings directly. Unlike poetry the number of colloquial elements will be larger in drama where the oral type of language is widely employed since the form of plays is basically that of dialogs.

While observing this last feature one should also bear in mind that the functional styles not infrequently interact with one another and with colloquial speech on the other hand.

Emotive prose may amply use the elements from other functional styles, those of official documentation, scientific prose, publicistic speeches and newspapers. As far as colloquial speech is concerned, it remains an integral component of the belles-lettres style. It’s naturally used in plays, dialogues of stories, novels. Elements of colloquial speech, when used in fiction, help portray a character through his speech, but such elements are hardly possible in the author’s narrative proper.

 

Literature

1. Galperin I.R. Stylistics. – Moscow, 1991.

2. Skrebnev Yu.M. Fundamentals of English Stylistics. – Moscow, 1994.

3. Enkvist, N.E. Linguistic Stylistics. – The Hague, 1973.

4. Esser, J. English Linguistic Stylistics. – Tübingen, 1993.

5. Wales, K. A Dictionary of Stylistics. – London, 1990.

6. Арнольд И.В. Стилистика современного английского языка (Стилистика декодирования). – М., 1990.

7. Балли Ш. Французская стилистика. – М., 1961.

8. Стилистический энциклопедический словарь русского языка / Под ред. М.Н. Кожиной. – М., 2003.

Progress Check on Module V.

To pass this progress check, the student has to give answers to 10 questions. Each correct answer shall be evaluated in 10 points. The total of all correct answers shall then make 100 points.

Questions:

1. Can you give the general notion of a functional style?

2. Can you name the principal formal features of the scientific prose style?

3. Can you give the sub-styles within the scientific prose style?

4. Can you name the principal formal features of the style of official documents?

5. Can you give the sub-styles within the style of official documents?

6. Can you name the principal formal features of the publicistic style?

7. Can you give the sub-styles within the publicistic style?

8. Can you name the principal formal features of the newspaper style?

9. Can you give the sub-styles within the newspaper style?

10. What are the principal formal features of the belle-lettres style?

 

Topics for Essays

1. Classification Of Functional Styles: A Comparative Study

2. Mixture Of Styles And Its Effects

3. Distinctive Linguistic Features of Functional Styles

 

СТИЛИСТИКА АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА

 

Семестровый курс лекций на модульной основе

с диагностико-квалиметрическим обеспечением

для студентов старших курсов филологических факультетов

Специальность 031001 – Филология

 

 

Ростов-на-Дону


АННОТАЦИЯ

 

Лингвистическая стилистика (лингвостилистика) английского языка как вполне сложившаяся, автономная лингвистическая дисциплина представляет собой межуровневый раздел языкознания. Стилистические явления обнаруживаются на всех без исключения языковых уровнях, поэтому стилистика вбирает в себя основные данные смежных языковедческих дисциплин – фонологии, лексикологии, морфологии, синтаксиса. Лингвостилистика занимается анализом речи и изучением входящих в ее состав, т.е. составляющих ее, единиц различных языковых уровней. В рамках стилистики эти единицы, однако, рассматриваются под качественно иным и новым углом зрения – в плане их функционирования в процессе речевого общения. Таким образом, курс стилистики основывается на теоретических знаниях, полученных студентами по курсам теоретической фонетики, грамматики и лексикологии английского языка. В соответствии с общей логикой поэтапного освоения теоретического материала на отделении зарубежной филологии, стилистика должна изучаться по прохождении названных дисциплин.

Цель курса заключается в кратком изложении современных представлений об основных положениях стилистической теории и рассмотрение ее важнейших разделов:

– теории изобразительно-выразительных средств и стилистических приемов, описывающей стилистические ресурсы разных уровней языка, а также ресурсы их совокупностей;

– теории функциональных стилей, описывающей функционально-стилевое варьирование языка, порожденное его употреблением в разных коммуникативных сферах и ситуациях.


CONTENTS



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