Comparative Chart of Vowel Phonemes in Canadian English, General American and RP



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Comparative Chart of Vowel Phonemes in Canadian English, General American and RP



 

CE GA RP Examples
i i к Seat
e, e e e, e set
  ж & sat
i i i sit
зг 3r a: bird, Hurry
эг, a Э э centre, data
a a и dot
a, & (ar)ae а: dance
э э: sort, shawl
Ц и   boot
л л л but
V и и book
ei er ei bake
SI ai ai bike
ли au au now
ou ou ou go
  DI boy
(ir) (ir)1 here
(er) (6Г) еэ there
(or) (ar) ээ more
(иг) (or) иэ sure

1 I»j. lea], [09], Eu»] correspond to the QA дпи СЕ (»), [srj. [srj,


There are three main types distinguished within RP pronuncia­tion; 1) conservative — used by older generation, by certain profes­sions or social groups, 2) the general RP used by the BBC, and 3) the advanced RP, used by young people, or in some circles for prestige purposes.

The main differences between standard and advanced RP are the following:

1) The closing diphthongs are pronounced with the weakened or
lost glide, e. g.

/tel/ instead of /teil/

/ou/ turns into /a:/, e. g. /Ьз:п/ instead of /boim/ /ai/ turns into /a3/ or /a/, e. g. /ba3d/, /bad/ instead of /baid/ /аи/ turns into /aa/, or /a/, e. g. /taa/, or /t<t/ instead of Даиз/ /oi/ turns into /o:/, e. g. /bo:/ instead of /boi/ {tall, call are exceptions)

2) The centring diphthongs are levelled with monophthongs:
/оэ/—/о:/

/ia/, /бэ/ turn into /e:/ or long /ж/, е- g. bared, fared, pared are pronounced as /bs:d/, /fs:d/, /pe:d/

/is/ is opposed to /еэ/ in open syllables, e. g. hear—hair, fearfair. This opposition does not occur before voiceless, or before /1/.

/л/ turns into /a/, e. g. /san/ instead oi /sAn/

3) The glottal stop is used between words and syllables, e. g»
/ni?jehti/, /6i >?a:nt/, /Oet'?eib1/—that table.

4) /r/ is pronounced like the GA retroflex /r/.

Questions

1. What is standard pronunciation? 2. What are the main differ­ences between the RP and GA a) systems of consonants; b) system^ of vowels; c) accentual structure and intonation? 3, What is "advanced" RP?

Exercises

1. Read the words below according to the GA standard.

• farm, bird, sister, leave, let, late, berry, merry, very, Bett у, .bottle* little, city, certainly, that one, mountain, which, what, when, due,1 new, suit, excursion, version, Persia, man, name, noun, nationa^

2. Read the words below

(a) with the vowel /i/ obscured:

will, fill, building, river, spirit, miracle, beer

(b) with the vowel lei lower than the RP /e/:
bell, well, best, lest, nest, hell

jc) with the vowel /el diphthongized /W, /a»/:

bet, get,-detr met,.neck,-check,iet; -Ш


3. Read the words below

(a) with the OA Ы more frönt arid longer than the RP /je/:

ask, dance, last, answer,' half, aunt

(b) with the RP /se/ nasalized before I A, m, n/:
bad, man, land, answer

4. Read the words below according to the GA standard.

hurry PWij, current /*кзтэп1:/, courage /^idg/, worry /lW3ri/„ furrow /'{эгэи/, squirrel />skw3r3l/, stirrup /Ыэгэр/, clerk /кЬЧ?/г derby /Wbi/

5. Read the words below with the /r/-colouring terminally.

winter, perceiver, doctor, mister, sister, Webster

6. Read the words below according to the GA standard-
not, crop, dock, nod, father, palm, balm, calm

7. Read the words below according to the GA standard,

hop, rob, not, lock; doll, solve, on; frog, log, long; law, court

8- Read the words below. Compare the pronunciation of theJRP and GA diph­thongs, of the Jong monophthongs /?:, a/.

gate, date, late, Kate, mate, make; radio, goat, coat; far, formr fare, bare, poor, mare, near, door

9, Read the words below. Mind the tertiary stress differences in RP and OAl

RP GA

'dictionary idictiojnary

iFerbuary >FebrU|ary

'ordinary 'ordinary

'category icateigory

•territory lterri|tcry

'cemetery 'cemetery

'monastery 'monastery

'matrimony 'matrimony

'testimony 'testimony

'necessarily 'necessarily

'ordinarily 'ordinarily

10. Read the words below. Mind the place of primary stress on thejsecond com­
ponent in RP and on the first component in GA compounds.

RP GA

'apple'source 'appleisource

'beefsteak 'beefsteak

'elseiwhere 'elsewhere

ifarraJhouse 'farmihouse

'mean'time 'meanitime

White 'House «White iHouse


J-midf<Jay 'working 'man


'mid|day 'working


11. Read the place names below. Mind a single primary stress in RP and a primary and a tertiary stress in GA.

GA iBirming|ham 'Bloomjbury ^kih

RP

* Birmingham

'Bloombury

gi iDartjinoor 'Moor | gate •Newfoundland 'Peterborough iDhi

(Buckingham

iDartmöor

) Moorgate

'Newfoundland

'Peterborough

'Devonshire

j <Ex(mouth iHampistead 'High|gate ^ll

'Ex moor

'Exmouth

•Hampstead

'Highgate

yj' Man (Chester

'Hollywood

'Manchester

12. Read the GA general questions with a Jailing tone (the counterpart tone
In RP would be rising).

Are you going? Does he care?

13. Read the GA casual requests with the falling tone (this intonation in RP
would suggest a command).

Come in, Sit down. Shut the door. Ojjen the book.


KEY TO EXERCISES

Exercises p. 14

1. witches /witj, -iz/, glasses /glas, -iz/, foxes /ftjks, -iz/, gases /gaes, -iz/V
judges /dgAc^, -iz/, crashes /kraj", -iz/, calves /kaf, -vz/, elves /elf, -vz/, halves
/haf, -vz/, knives /naif, -vs/, leaves /Itf, -vz/, lives /laif, -vz/, loafs /lauf, -vz/,
selves /self, -vz/, sheaves /Jif, -vz/, thieves /6l:f, -vz/, wives /waif, -vz/, wolves
/wulf, -vz/, actresses /Isektns, -iz/, hostesses /Ihaustis, -iz/, mistresses /Imistns, -iz/,
■sculptresses /IskAlptns, -iz/, waitresses /Iweitns, -iz/, lionesses /Harems, -iz/

2. begged /begd/, lived /!ivd/, opened /laupand/, travelled /Itrsevld/, cancelled
/Usensald/, compelled /kamlpeld/, recognized /Irekagnaizd/, arrived /alraivd/,
rained /rerad/, informed /mlfoimd/, stopped /stupt/, wrapped /rsept/, helpedi
/helpt/, asked /a;skt/, discussed /dislkAst/, worked /werkt/, passed /past/, shipped
/Jtpt/, packed /psekt/, looked /lukt/, nodded /InDdid/, permitted /palmitid/,,
waited /Jweitid/, expected /ikslpektid/, invented /inlventid/, rested /Irestid/,.
.loaded /llsudid/, depended /dilpendid/

3. /Ineifcn—Insejanl/, /greiv—Ignsviti/, /pratvauk—pralvukstiv/, /zfcl—
Jzebs/, /sju(:)lprtai—sjulprenrasi/, /alkg.' — alkArsns/, /adlvais—adlvaiz/, /jus —
jt*z/, /haus—hauz/, /ikslkjirs — ikslkjua/, /dilvais—dilvaiz/, /Il^s—bz/,/kiaus —
Krauz/

4. /Jredbrest/ малиновка; /Iblitbe]/колокольчик; /Ibbsfeun/медный купорос;-
/ibmlamz/ авиационные линии, идущие с севера на юг Америки; /lbto|bDtl/
василек; /Iblaekjait/ чернорубашечник, фашист; /Iblsekfeis/ (полигр.) жирный
шрифт; /lba:dzai/ первоцвет; /lbred3n(d)tbAte/ детский, юный, незрелый;
/Ibreikipromis/ не хозяин своему слову, ненадежный человек;/fheviweit/ боксер,
Сорец тяжелого веса; /Iredbuk/ красная книга; /tbluitsbkirj/ «синий чулок»;
/iblumauz/ сорт картофеля; /Iblmkaut/ учащийся в щколе для бедных; солдат;
матрос; /Iblitjbtinit/ крестьянин; шотландец; /Ibtekhaul/^ темница.^, карцер,

ауптвахта; /Iblaäkrnss/ реквием

5, /stil/ неподвижный, спокойный; /sti:l/ сталь; /pml/ лужа, /pul/ тянуть;
/,fip/ корабль; /j"Ifр/ овца; /sit/ сидеть, /sfct/ место; /til/ наполнять, /Ш/ чув­
ствовать; /liv/ жить, /liiv/ покидать; /il/ больной; /1:1/ угорь; /slip/ ошибка,
/slip/ сон; /sei/ продавать, /seil/ продажа; /Imudl/ модель, /Irraudi/ модальный;
/so:/ пила, /sau/ так, таким образом; /IpauhJV польский, /IpühJ/ лоск, глянец;
/дм/ охрана, стража, /gaid/ проводник, гид; /W8:6/ ценность, значение, /W3:s/
Худший, еще хуже; /tiu-9/ правда, /tiixs/ перемирие; /bAt/ за исключением,
кроме, /Ьа9/ ванна; /breD/ дыхание, /bredG/ ширина; /Idaian/ дневник, /Idean/
маслобойня; /sjuit/ удовлетворять, /swtt/ свита; /paltreul/ патруль, /ipetr(s)l/
венаин; /теэ/ мэр, /Imeid-sa/ майор; /raut/ бунт, волнение, /rust/ маршрут

8. Rhythm.

9. То give particular importance to the word think.


_, . i0; (a) Tne sounds /s, J/ are repeated to express the idea of sea movement. Thls„\hIIPe helPs to Practise their differentiation.

(b) The sounds /u, ae, i, л/ are repeated in the rhyme to practise thei* pronunciation and differentiation.

.11. /bau-wau, mJiE-mjur, grAnt-grAnt, skwi:k,;tuihu:, kau-kau, kwffik-kwffikrmu;/. Onomatopoeia.

Control Tasks p. 17 3

s/; riotroutroute /raiatrautmt/; 7. bea /^Л1Ь1Э''; 8-, year—ear /js:(jis)—ia/; 9, quay—queue /kis—kj.is/t 10. admit — admittance /adlmit-adlmibns/; II. affect-effect /elfekt-ilfekt/t 12. draught-drought /draft—draut/,- 13. hair—hare—heir/hea—hea—ea/j 14. pour—poor —

4. very— vary /Iveri — Ivean/; 2. personal —personnel /Ipaisnal — tpa:saln el1/;
tf. suit—suite/sjujt—swH/; 4. patrol—petrol /paltraul—Ipetral/; 5, mayor—major
/теэ- imeidsa/; 6. riot-rout-route /Iraiat—raut-mt/; 7. bear-beer
/^8ЭЬ1Э'; 8 /j(j)/ 9 /kikj/ 10 dit


'227


paw /ря— риэ—рх/; 15. courage—carriage /Ikindg—Iksciij/; 16. inquire — acquire /mlkwais—elkwaia/

6. wolves /wulf, -vz/, wives /waif, -vz/, lives /laif, -vz/, leaves /li:f, -vz/,
knives /naif, -vz/, sheaves /jfcf, -vz/, halves /hccf, -vz/, selves /self, -vz/, elves
/elf, -vz/, loaf /lauf, -vz/, calves /kaf, -vz/, echoes /lekau, -z/, potatoes
/palteiteu, -z/, hostesses /lhaustas, -iz/, tigresses /Itaigras, -iz/, bases /ibeisis, -Iz/,
theses /löfcsu, -fcz/, crises /Ikraisis, -i:z/, analyses /alnselasis, -fcz/, men /msn—men/,
feet /flet—fit/, geese ДИ8—gfcs/, mice /maus—raais/, baths /ba:9, -8s/, houses
/haus, -iz/, classes flalas, -iz/, boxes /bioks, -iz/, dishes /dij, -iz/, inches /ratj", -iz/,
phenomena /fclnomman, -э/, foci /Ifaukas, -sai/

б./эи—"D,3-9/;/ei—a.z—s/;/3—9/;/tu—u, z—s/; /v—S/; /i—«,v—f/; /v-f/; /v-f/

7. /fmsilt—inlsAlt/ оскорбление—оскорблять; /lübdgikt—abtdsekt/ пред­
мет—возражать; /lautgau — lauttgau/ уход, выход—превосходить; /Iprudjus —
praldjt»/ продукция—предъявлять; /lsAbd3ikt —sabldgekt/ предмет—подчинять,
покорять; /lautgreuO — lautlgrau/ отросток—перерастать; /lautiei —autflei/ издер­
жки, расходы—тратить, расходовать; /laut(l)9reu—autlörau/ извержение—бро­
сать дальше (кого-л,); /Ipreznt—pnlzent/ подарок—преподносить, дарить;
/Iprsutest—' praltest/ протест—протестовать; /itoimsnt—talment/ мучение—
мучить

8. Alliteration, rhyme, rhythm.

9. Through the repatition of the sounds /ju:, ei, ai, A/, syllabification and
pausation.

Exercises p. 33

8. In the articulation of /p, t, k/ the vocal cords are taken apart and do not vibrate. In the production of /b, d, g/ the vocal cords are drawn close together and vibrate. In the /p, t, k/ articulation the force of exhalation is much greater than that in the production of /b, d, g/, therefore /p, t, k/ are voiceless fortis and /b, d, g/ are voiced lenis.

4. In the articulation of /m, n, rj/ the soft palate is lowered. In the articu­
lation of /ij/ it is not only lowered, but forms a complete obstruction with
the back part of the tongue. The air escapes through the nasal cavity.

5. In the articulation of /b/ the noise is produced when the flow of air
breaks the complete obstruction formed by both lips, /b/ is an occlusive plosive
stop noise consonant. In the articulation of hi the noise U produced when the
flow or air passes through the incomplete obstruction formed by the lower lip
and the edge of the upper teeth, hi is a constrictive noise consonant. In the ar­
ticulation of/tf/ the noise is produced by the flow of air first breaking a complete
obstruction between the tip of the tongue and the teethridge and almost imme­
diately passing through the narrowing formed between the tip of the tongue
and the teethridge, /tf/ is occlusive-constricttve, or affricate.

6. In the articulation of /w/the active organs of speech are the lips, which
form a round narrowing. In the articulation of /j/ the active organ of speech is
the middle part of the tongue which is raised to the hard palate and forms a
narrowing with it, through which the air goes out rather freely. In the articu­
lation of /h/ the walls of the glottis are slightly contracted when the air goes out
through it almost without any friction, /w/ is bilabial, /j/ is medlo-lingual,
/h/ is glottal.

8. The place of articulation (focus) in the production of /s/ (lenis) its be­tween the teethridge and the front part of the tongue. There is groove-shaped depression in the front part of the tongue, through which the air passes with friction: it passes through a round narrowing. The place of articulation (focus) in the production of III is between the lower iip and the edge of the upper teeth. The air passes through this narrowing with friction. The narrowing in III ar­ticulation is more or less flat.


10. /Iptpl/, /Ipeipa/, /lpa:p3S/, /Ipusabl/, /put/, /pens/, /Ipiti/, /pua/, /Iptsiz/, /pst/, /Ipeni/, /t«k/, /taim/, /taun/, /taiz/, /items/, /tuk/. /Iteeksiz/, /hl/, /itfctjaz/, /ta:nd/, /Itsutl/, /tus/, /tm/, /Unz/, /to:ts/, /kauid/, /Ikeaful/, /kcu/, Дик/, /IkAirad/, /küst/, /kist/, /Iksmpas/, /lke:tli/, /Ikutwig/, /IkAraits/, /)кл1э/

Exercises p. 44

4. Cardinal vowel No. 1 is pronounced with the position of the tongue
higher than for the Russian accented /и/ in such words as пили, били, лили.

Cardinal vowel No. 2 is pronounced with the position of the tongue narrower than for the Russian /e/ in the words месть, тесть.

Cardinal vowel No. 3 is similar to the Russian /э/ in the words ахо, это.

5. For instance: /t—d/bit—bid, bat—bad, debt —dead; /k~g/ duck —dug,
Dick —dig, tuck — tug; /т—д/ кот—код, вот—вод; /к—г/ док—дог; /с—з/
кос—коз, рос—роз.

П. The beginning of the articulation of (k—u>/ coincides with that of /i — u/


/ф/ (e) /did—did/ /dd

12. (a) /si :m—sins/ /mi:l—mil/ /mi:n—mins/ /sli.-p-slip/ /Ibst — list/ (c) /ttm—tim/ /Ш-fil/ /bto—ф

/

/3—dgtm/ /IfMin—Ifilirj/ /fct-it/ /slits—sits/ (g) /Itv-lw/ /Iffcve—Ihfti/ /Iblikan—bil/ /tj-fck—tjm/ /btt—bit/

33. (a) /bed—b£ed/ /9en—Эаеп/ /tplenti—plasn/ /els—Iffilis/ /Itete—dsede/

(c) /frentj1-—ran/ /pens—psents/ /Ibenal—Ibawau/ /Itwenti —twffin/ /I mem—Imaetg/

(e) /ded—deed/ /leni —tjelrs/ /IJeb-Jal/ /)men — Imasrid/ /Ihenn —lhaepi/

<fi) /Iheti-hajt/

/Isentral—Isaandi/ /ltjev»t-lt,fenl/ /Iraem—rneep/ /ivesl—Ivsljus/ /leldah — lenkfts/

t4. (a) /kam—клт/ /ISa—1глтп/


(b) /riid—nd/

/Stfel — Stil/

/krfck—knk/ /slfct—sht/ /sfck—sik/ (d) /sfcn—sm/ /Idtb—Idina/ /htt—hit/' /bbt—bit/

(f) /f!:Z—fiz/

/mt—mist/ /Jffcz—9is/ /sttp—stik/

(h) /ht—him/ /Glim—9in/ /sfets—sits/

/Sti:p —Stlf/

/Jptpl-pit/

(b) /hed—had/

/ten—tsen/

/(eft—Ised/

/let—siaek/

/sillekt—nllseks/ (d) /end—and/

/Sen—Seen/

/leniwei—Ifsmih/

/bed—bsek/

/Ihelpin — Ihspi/ (f) /ten—tsen/

/men—man/

/sed—ssed/

/bed—bsed/

/t Jest-t Jap/ (h) /lern —teokjbs/

/bet—bffik/

/Iplenti—iplffltfo:m/

/fiej-flffij/

(b) /ant—Unda/ /had—Hundred/



/dak —/ /'baskit—э'Ьлу/ /lak—flAf/ (d) /dan—dAn/ /bat —bAt/ /kat—kAt/ /matf — mAtf/ (f) /lhadli —!плш/ /1гаЭэ—rAbd/ /last—lAk/

/ban— IbAtn/ /Iak-Uk/ /Iklasiz— IbAsiz/

(c) /Imaval — 1шлш/ /l<tf—IIavIi/ /past —IpAzhrj/ /'makit—тлд/ /last—Плпаэп/

(e) /fanld —1лЗэг/ /Imasta — ImAgki /Istatid — IsUdi/ /lldlt

fh) /am—1аЗэ/ /lhadli —Ih/ /Istatid—istAdid/ /matf—nutf/ /haf—strAk/

/last—l (g) /frans—frAnt/

/lhabaz—IrjAndnd/

/adlvccntids—al Ьллг/

/haf—tut/

/post—bAt/ (i) /stffl—stAn/

/kamt—клт/

/had—Jut/

/Itccgit—|tApans/

/mask —inAst/

/tl;m—ten—tsen/ /hid—hed — hjed/ /lift—left-ted/ /lit—let—tek/ /m tn—Imem—
/torn—te:n—teen/ /кж1—кз:1—kffii/ /bad—bs:d—bsed/ /tjktj:trJtj
/jjr /ss—S3:—sad/ /Ikj— Ik3:tn—kset/

15. /bid-bed-bffid/
/nd—red—rat/
/mil—men—man/
/std—sed—saad/
/pit—pet—pat/
/bfct—bet—bast/

16. /э:1-з:1—Jffil/
/ko:t—ka:t—ka
/wD;k—W3 :k — waek/
До:-fa: —fat/
/wim—wä:m—twsen/
/то:—lms:si—таэп/
/Ian—1зт—lsed/

[Control Tasks p. 57

2. The allophones of the It! phoneme are for example: labialized in: rockr roof, rook, raw; devoiced in: present, practice, problem, protract; affricated in: tree, trim, troop, try, drain, dry, drop, draw; single tap in; throw, throng, three­pence, thrust.

3. As a result of palatalization in the Russian language consonants alwy
occur аз soft phonemes and the vowel phonemes turn to the /j/+V positional"
allophone of the vowel phoneme.

4, The examples may, for instance, be as follows: complementary distribu­
tion of /u/: pool, food, shoe, youth, cool, who, stoop, tube, hoof, booth, boot, rouge,
duke.
(Each word is given as an example of different /u/ environment, which
cannot be observed in other words.); contrastive distribution of /u/: book—beak,
foot—fit, book—back, book—beck, book—bark, put—pot, put—port;
free varia­
tion in the pronunciation of the words: decapitation /fäiiktepitteij'an, dUjksept-
Iterjan/, deciduous /dilsldjuas, dtlsidjwgs/.

Exercises p. 62

1. Work of the vocal cords: voiceless fortis vs. voiced lenis: pin—bin, pack—back, pie—bye, tie—die.

Ш


Active organ of speech and the place of articulation; labial, bHabial vs. Singual forelingual apical alveolar; penten, been—dean; labial bilabial vs. lingual backlingual: pole—coal, bait—gait; labial, labio-dental vs. labial bi­labial: fee—we, feltwell; labial, labio-dental vs. pharyngal:/ee—he; lingual, »forelingual apical vs. lingual forelingual cacuminal: sob—rob, sealreal, .■sole—role, siprip, sightright.

Manner of noise production: occlusive vs. constrictive: pitycity, paysay, pallsail, pole—sole, peelseal.

Voice or noise prevalence: occlusive noise (plosives) vs. occlusive sonorants i(nasal): pine—mine, debtnet, kickNick; constructive noise (fricatives) vs. •constrictive sonorants: fell—well, those—rose, soulrole, siprip, sight—right.

The number of noise producing foci: unicentral vs. bicentral: fellwell, fee—we.

The shape of the narrowing; constrictive with a flat narrowing vs. constric-iive with a round narrowing: failsail, feesee, footsoot, fatsat, fell—sell-

3. fa) The force of articulation rather than the presence and absence of
■voice: /p— b, t — d, к — g/,

(b) Manner or noise production: occlusive /p/ vs. constrictive HI, It — s/,
/d — z/.

Active organ of speech: bilabial /p/ vs. backlingual /k/, backlingual /k/ vs. forelingual apical /t/.

(c) Manner of noise production: occlusive /t/ vs. occlusive-constrictive /t|Y
or /d/ vs. /ds/; constrictive /J7 vs. occlusive-constrictive /tf/.

(d) Place of articulation and the nurober of foci: interdental /6/ vs. apical
Я/, alveolar /z/ vs. palato-alveolar /3/, alveolar /5/ vs. palato-alveolar /J/.

Manner of noise production: plosive /t/ vs. constrictive /3/.

(e) Position of the soft palate: oral noise /b/ vs. nasal sonorant /m/, or /d/
vs. /n/, or /g/ vs. /n/.

4. The sub-minimal pairs: marry measure, genre jar, teasure
ledger. All the other pairs are minimal.

Control Tasks p. 63

1. (a) man — nap, coming — cunning, seem — seen; (b) wield — yield,
wail — Yale; (c) pat — cat, supper — succour, leap — leak

2. (a) less — yes, drew — due, clue — cue, rung — young; (b) tame —
«ame, rudder — rugger, sinner — singer, bitter — bicker, bad — bag» bat —
hack, day«,- gay

3. (a) pine — fine, bee — thee, came — lame; (b) fare — chair, work —
jerk; (c) boat — moat, seek — seen, kick — king, deed — need, vain — lane,
sick—sing; <d) fare — chair, thine —wine, vain — lane; (e) thine — wine,
lame -~ same

5. /I, r, j/ after /p/ are devoiced; after /t/ the position of the tongue for hi
in try is not so cacuminal and hi is affricated; /i/ after It/ in tube is devoiced;
/w/ after It/ in twelve is devoiced; /1, r, I, w/ after /k/ are devoiced in clean, cream,
cue, quite.

Exercises pi 67

1. (а) /в—ж/. Both are back vowels, but /13/ is an open vowel of broad variation and /a:/ is a mid vowel of broad variation.

(b) /e—se/. Both vowels are front, but /e/ is a mid-open vowel of narrow
variation and /se/ is a low (or open) vowel of broad variation.

(c) /9: — d:/, /3:/ belongs to the group of central mid-open vowels of narrow
variation, /0:/ belongs to the group of back, fully back mid-open vowels of
broad variation.

(d) /ш— u/, Both vowels belong to the group of back high vowels, but /ш/
belongs to the subgroup of narrow variation and is fully bade, whereas /u/belongs
to the subgroup of broad variation and is a back-advanced voweL


(e) /se—ei/, /ее/1 is a frönt open vowel o! broad variation. The nucleus of the diphthong /ei/ is /e/ which is a front mid-open vowel of narrow variation.

m /я—эи/. /о:/ is a raid fully back vowel of broad variation. The nucleus of the diphthong /эй/ is a central mid-open vowel.

3. (а) /и—ai/, /эй—аи/; (b) /в—еэ/

4. The phonemes /fc,ei, ac.a:/ in the first row of each column are the longest,
they are shorter in the second, and the shortest is the third row.

5. Stability of articulation.

Control Tasks p. 68

1. (a) /t—e—a/ bead—bed—bad, deed —dead—dad; (b) /аг —э:—a/
cab—curb—cub, bad —bird—bud, tan—turn—ton, hat—hurt—hut

2. cart—card Boz—bars don—down
wart—what caught—cot cord—cod

3. {a) known — noun, phoned — found, hay — high, bay — buy, no —
now, hoe — how, tape — type

(b) hear — hair, beer — bear, ear — air, fear — fair, rear — rare, tear — tear

Exercises p. 74

5. (a) kJ:p, ipi-siz, Itl-ffaz, Ipfcpl, Iparpas, Iksitn, ta:nd, lka:li, k<t, kxts,.
pats, pKz, teik, taim, taiz, tiaz, keuld, Iteutl, ksa, Ipranrj;

(b) til, kist, tin, Ipiti, Ipeni, tel, Items, Ipendsltan, Iksempes, Iksembnan,
Iteksi, put, tuk.'kuk, IkArants, 1кл1э, pAmpt, nlpAblik, IkAvad, tAnz, Ipnsrbl,
k-ost, Ikulidj, tos

(c) spent, stei, staun, IstAdi, stik, Istatid, (splendid, ifcslprerrans, iks'tensivh,
Ibaskit, Iklismrj, ikslplem, pleis, р!азп, Iklasiz, plem, krfck, krept, кгир, Iplaitfwm,
a3kt, kept, lukt

6. Iptpl, pet, Ipa:msn3nt', Ittiq; kamp, Ikitjan; Ibiljsdz; Iditarsnt, aildia; get,
algein, ga:lz >

ipsigativ, lepildemik; lkEeps]u:Iz; bed; ibeta; Idifrant

lpi:siz, pens, Ipeitferz; Itventi, Isikslttn, Itainirj; Ikeafli; beidz, big, (Anbilltvablr Idifrsnt, daunt; Iginrz, Igivirj, gauz

Ipiisiz, nlpead, Ipaipss; tiez, teik, te:nd; btn, big, bed, bsek, Ьэи8; aildia, dilsaidid, Ididnt, dei; get, gest, geilz, Igsuirj

Iptktjg, (ptanad, ikslpekt, pee; Kifttfcn, misted, Icttsst*, ktp, Ibaskit, vslkeijent
Iksempes; Ы, Wsaid, imjbserasinj IstAdi, depös, deiz, Idsedr; Igigl,, gets, дз:1г„
дэи ,

pirjk, ikslpranans, Ipe^i, peitj tin, Iwnntid, teik, ternd; Idrinkirj, keim,. Iksandid, lfce:li; btri, Ibiikan, bit, basd, Iba'.tn; kanldi^gn, Inwdid, aildra; giv, get, ga:Iz

islpejeli, Ipsetan; stil, pölteiteuz, Itjielip; kbp, glkeisenl, kaen, lukfupai; bt,. IJugabM, Ibakbaun; dt; dra, imAdi, da-.t; givz, Uuggast, Iregiulö

ЫрЫщ, peid, Ipjurplz, Ip3:fikt; t!:tj\ stik,- ltju;zdi, tiaz; ki:p, llukirj, Iksrid3, keuld; bt, albeid, bask, baut; mldfcd, Idim, ldju;h, deit; Igivn, gest, algen, .algaU'

Iptenin, pit, nlpeid, Ipaesmd33; stif, Isiti, greulteak, ta:nz; ktp, Ibreikin, kserid3, ksuld; Ibbin, best, bsek; 1Ьз:1эи; di:l, Iditiz, die, ded; tgetirj, geiv, gaui

7. Ihffipi, Iliikap,' IkAbad, |nju(:)lmaunJ8, 1ащ, 1р1лтэ, bum, Itpmas,
Ihsn, Swtsl, Ibukei, lh?arjkatfif, iwmza, Ikemist, laarjks, Ibsnkwit, iklsept, I
gaust, no:, sain, 1лп, Idaisfrsem, sai, plaü, eit

Exercises p. 77

6. jan—jAn. пряжа—молодой
'бт—6in тонкий—вещь
Igivlra—Igivirj уступить—riaжертвование
ldraiv'mw.ldraivirj Ъ


1клщ1т— 1клтщ приходить—приход

sah—ял о солнце—пропетый

klfcn — klm чистый—прилипать

inutlBirj — 1плШд не вещь—ничто

(дэЫгп— Igauirj входить — отъезд

эип— 1эшд собственный—долг

sein — IseiiQ нормальный—пословица

< brerk/in — I breikrg врываться—торможение

Uuklm—llukirj быстрый взгляд—смотрящий

6. brig, 1ллг, 'iggland, IJAgga, Iem8in els, lnA6irj av 9a' Ikamd, Iwihrjli,
tteikirj it, Imiagld, Isttpig, 6io, UiArjgn, Ifijirj, Imocmrj, Idramrjl вп, Пигщэ, IJAOgs
Jt !юп, sprig, Isfcirj э Ifrend Inf, Iklaspirj га 1Ьэи9 Ihsendz

7. Iraitirj, frtdirj, Igamrj, gtm, wen, sAg, Налддп, sAk, Btrj, Öifc,ihaerja,
, rsQk, kaum, 1э;Ьт, liogiij, Imiggld

Exercises p. 84

4. thin — sin тонкий — грех thick — sick толстый —> больной thought — sought думал — искал Forth — force вперед — сила mouth — mouse рот — мышь thumb — some большой палец — какой-нибудь worth — worse ценность — худший thick — tick толстый — тикать thought — taught думал — учил three — tree три — дерево seethe — seize кипеть — хватать lathe — laze токарный станок — безделье then — den тогда — логово though — dough хотя — тесто seethe — seed — смятение — семя heath — heat пустошь — жара both — boat оба — лодка forth— fought вперед — боролся clothe — close одевать — закрывать breathe — breeze дышать — бриз there — dare там — визов other — udder другой — вымя worthy — wordy достойный — многословный months месяцы

the eighth zone восьмая зона withstand противостоять clothes одежда sixth шестой is thin тонкий it's this это who's that кто это

6. faund^ieauzand, fa:st—63:st, fat—9si, Irk—Or*, fmz—6inz, def—depö

II. o:l—hal весь— зал 1Э—hia ухо—слышать aut~-haus внешний —дом at—hat искусство—сердце at—hut следовало бы —горячий is—hiz есть—его aust—haus выгонять—-дом it—hit это—удар il—hil больной —холм sez—1иев как—имеет


sed -— hged добавить—имел and —hsend и—рука am—ham рука—вред adz—hasndz добавляет—руки еэ—иеэ воздух-—волосы

14. sheep, sheet, sheen, ship, should, shook, shed, shell, shake, shave, shade, shame, shape, shy, shine; election, condition, delegation, competition, organiza­tion, station, pleasure, leasure, decision, vision, occasion, measure

16. П, Jtp, jAt, fij, brjij, lam;, Jfi/ra, Ispejal. Isteijsn, Ijusual
(р1езэ, Jup, 'Juga, Jud, Паз/, IbntiJ, linglij, laenkjas, Isenkjash, islpejali,
1к lkl

16, pas, isertnh, Isimk, sai3, liest?, ail, lhauziz, IhAzband, di!z9:t,

Ifiziks, Issfata, ilnAf, draft, lef I tenant, mevju(:}, Imseoju:, lgac]zws:9i, ig

Ivuik], IJepad, I Jugs, aljira, Ivsijan, Inaujan, Isaujal, Ik on Jans, IJivaln, tfeiz,
^ 1р1езэ, dl 1

Exercises p. 90

2. right, ride, ripe, cry, crisis, price, gray, bread, read, reap, reason, reach,
ridge, risk, friend, France, ring, rod, ran, rang, rot, wrong, great, try, rule,
roof, room, red, rest, ready, press, present, rash, rag, treason, written, row,
road, present

3. reits, red, ram, reust, raund, rsuz, lreko:d, iregj-ula, Ireilwei, 1глшп, Inalr,
Imsari, Inuend, frendz, Ikrasau, draiy, Ipraisiz,. tr», draund, Idresig, IwAri, Ifwid,
fhAndnd, Iterapritfa, Ikssnd, Ipiarrad, Iburaud, IkArents, tdifrent, Iflva, IkAmfst,
lhi;9a, W3:ld, almenka, istgslret, Imtidn, Inrats, 1тд(?э, wa:, Iwran, Istneri, 1кз:Ь„
IkAlad, Ineva, fa, Iststn, Ifiga, W3:k, da:z, pat, h:, ka

5. /ля, ju:fl, ja:, je:, jet, Ijestadi, ljust tu, njnz, Ihjuansn, mju(:)lziam, sju:ft
fjtt, rilvjus, ju;zd, Ikaepsjuiiz • ■ -

9. The English /r/ is a cacuminal sounds the Russian /p/ is a trilled one.
/U is pronounced with the middle of .the tongue raised not so high as for

the Russian /й/, which results in the more "noisy" character of the /ft/ articu­lation.

/1/ is "light", it is pronounced with the front secondary focus. The Russian /л/ is pronounced with the back secondary focus,

/i/ is "dark" because it is pronounced with the back secondary focus. The Russian /л'/ is veiy "soft" which is the result of the front secondary focus in its articulation.

/w/ is biiabial and bicentral, it is pronounced with the back secondary focus. The Russian /в/ is labio-dental and unicentral.

10. For instance: ел—ель, пол—Поль, кол—коль.

11. /W—v/, /e—ae/, /fc—i/, /re—e/ are separate phonemes.

12. Jes, alpmjen, Unjan, jttlnait, mjut, Injtute, Ijuarap, Isju(;)id5, wud, to:k,
fauk, bctm, llinkan, witf, wahs, Ikwaia, hu:z, talwo:dz, sad

Exercises p. 93

2» ЛГ» dg/ are pronounced as* indivisible clusters of two sounds and represent single phonemes ДГ/ and /dj5/. The combinations /tr, dr, ts, tz, te, dflf/ consist °3/ end6nt phonemes each: /V+АЛ /d/+// /t// /t/+// /i/+/6A

3. chin, check, chess, chain, China, child, rich, much, chop, watch, chalk,
coach, Jim, jinn, Jimmy, age, page, change, Jenny, Jack, Jane, George, Germany,
June

4. tfj:p, tJ4:k, pf, t/m, Itjfflnl, IdsentI, ld3ent!i, dgstmz, Istreindge,
ritf, witf, sAtf, mAtf, lAntf, WDtf, eidg, p«d3, ladj, lkDlid3, Ibtids,


Imaentfista, itnaänjulfsektj'araz, mldpimant, 9!remd3mant, mlgeidjmant, diltstft, Itempritfa, Inselfaral

6. tfaild, Ineitfa, Ikwestfen, Irait/as, Imtstfif, d50i, dsem, djips, п, lbAd3it, апиМз, Igrsendäa, Isauld33, Id

Control Task p. 105

(a) sit-down, read^,text 1, writedown, next^,time, glad^to see you,
what^can I do, like^to have it, what^.country, good^,time, tea and^cake,

don't_Jike, I'd.__ like, mashed^potatoes, mustard_p lease, got^to eat, that^pub,

■work_now, difficult^to deal, silk^dress, but_good, hit^nose;

(b) repeat^the noun, in^the noun, atwthe blackboard, clean_the board,
online seventh, rounds,the city, and^the guest, on^this, on^,the boy's plate,
just^thirsty, tell^the girl;

(c) will^you read louder, will^you please, will^you tell^rae, tell^,the girl

Exercises p. 115 I.

, (a) si:, wi;, trt, Ы:, mi, hi, ft;

(b) sl;m, rfcd, klfcn, sfcn, dtl, lpi:pl, IbziIi;

|(c) tjfcp, swi:p, tftf, trtt, lfcst, krtk, wik

2. $Ъ, lv, IkDnkrfct, ftt, mit, nts, nlsfcv, faltfcg, IfcsBiit, kfc, kfc

3. m, il, big, wirjgz, pit, stik, klifs, зрпц, Bio, sik, nst, Isih, Ibtldtg, ig
kig, lbu|[E, Igimz, Ikvli, Ibizi, Imimts, tgauin, ldij"[z, btlgmz, Iknhds, Iwimin,

kalmit, lrna:si, ibritsn, Iwtndau, Imtsiz, Isimptamz, Jhtrlidi, Imtnstid, iklsaitid, '(в), Iheziteit, Ipnvilid3, Ikntisizm, ilnitnt, Imedsin

4. did, lid, IglEdli, IfrMi, lirjks, 1клп^, Ivilidj, IwdJiz, lrLK3is, Ibuksiz,
, Ikrpiz, llaudid, Ifatmtin, Ibiskit, Ifraidr, sl:y, lletis, Iftjnd, lfo;fit, 1квн

5. bed, sed, help, tel, ]et, hed, Items, Iwe3a, Imemba, lleta, drest, (sets,
piij, Ismwei, lenvid, 1р1езэ, Ifrendh, Idresirj, Idessht, Iseprit, Iheziteit, raailself,

nlmemba, inldevs, hau I tel, misted, fat get, illevn

6. rsd, get, tent Isevn, hed, ded, et, 9э temz, Ibercal

7. glsed, baad, plsen, kasn, swaem, bl©ok, drajgk, sakt, sset, Ifaensi, Iglsadli,
IJsetau, Iffidid, Isepkjas, Ibsedli, itraeJik, Шагрэп, Idsadi, Isffidms, bilgsen, iglzaekth,
ilmsedjm, vslkaebjularr, IpraugrEem, Isaenwid3tz, imBenjulfselctfaz, Ibsslkara, Isseknfais

8. Iksen, laempl, hav, Isaeman, plsed, Jsemlpem, laebssluitli, laebstrakt, I

9. ck, ba:, fa;, ka, a:m, ask, ka:d, past, fam, hctf, po:t, lads, frctns, gras,
dak, gad, peck, stctt, sma;t, Ia:st, ha:d, niisk, Idccnsin, Ibctskio, IIcuFei], 1гсеоэ,
lhadlj, Ihaiba, Ictnsa, leftist, Ifaä9, Ibaskit, lldasiz, la:t[klz, la:k|ein{d)3(3)I,
dilpatja, mllctdj, stllaist

10. ma-st, lansa, la:st, ta, pit, lcuf, Ibakh, lhafad, hat

11. un, nod, wuz, rod, wiont, двп, d3Db, tot, Ion, sun, 1ЬвЭэ, Ibunit,
fdukta, (müdl, Ihiostal, ionist, Inudid, Ibudi, lufa, Ihnland, Iruki, Isphd, Ikaemit,
lükjupai, Ikotid3[z, Iprüsparas, d3[lumitn, Ifnlsuitt, Ihulidi, iWDznt, lsi:n \vi

12, hüt, Ision, Ifwm, Ikwohbi loümaritek, Iso:sid3, 'по1к1з, j'pt

13. тз:, dro:, o:l, кэ:1, bo:, ÖDit, ho:s, to:k, so:t, bo:t, d3s:d3, Jo:, b:\mz,
d lwo:ta, Ivraikin, 1тэ:ти, bilfo:, 1э:1зэи, lekspo:ts, rmlpoitans, bau»,

, b:kistra, lo:[talgeSa, af tko:s, rfo:t[lfo:

14. port, fo;t, flo:, do:, kD:st ko:t, fo:, рэ:, гэ:, wo:, bro:d, bo:tf гз:0, :1, jo:n, pa:, 9э:


15. gud, rum, wud, kuk, fut, tuk, put, sut, Juk, lukt, Ibujrz, imanjulfäektjaz,
Iwudn, Ikudnt, Iwudnt, Iwudland, Irestful, Iwuman, I put laut, I put Itm, gud I bar}
Ijiffitjroli, tnkalpitjuleit, Iksafli

16. put, puj1, pul, Iwustid, wulf, luk, stud, tuk, kud, j"ud, Ikurra

17. flu, Ztt, tit, hu:, tlS, JUS, jtS, fju:, tru, /u:d, SlMl, skis], jufl, mU:V, ГЦ:Г,

h]u:d3, nju:, Ijusuah, Isbsslicth, Inju(:)lmaunj3, Immvirj, Isevinju:, тртэ Ibjurfiful, rilvju:, irumd, Isjusaid, Ivffilju:, Iregjitla, Ipju^lz, Ihjttmsn, Iktltjj

18. blu:, md, ml, d3«:n, kitl, turn, gru:p, wund, bru:z, bru:, malnurva

19. tjun, Ihjunra, jits, kju:, Itjuzdi, sjust, Injista, fju-., Ibjir-tt, hjuz

20. WAn, глп, kn, jAn, bAs, fflAtJ", tAn, JAO, клт, 1лЭэ, 1злшэ, г
1шл9э, э1плЭэ, IkArgnts, tjAkl, IwAn, lhAndrad, 1пл8ц), 1галш, IfAm, Ikvli,
IkAntn, IkAtnpas, mAst, d3Ast, ItrAbl, IwAndaful, IwAndslaend, mlstrAkta, [intra-
IdkJ Ii

21. mAst, An!d3Ast, d3Ads, ШлтЬлд, dAz, frAnt, э1тл5/1тлш, flAd, ikApJ,

TAf, Uf

22. wa:, hsid, wa:d, lws:kaz, ISarti, sta:, ta:nd, lte:nnj, lbs:tn, hs:, J3:z, iba:bu,
ga:lz, ba:dz, wstk, Itaiki, lka:tn, fa:st, ws^d, wa:s, 1|э:1эк, Isa'.tnh, W3:6, da:t,
lpa:fikt

23. sts:, iffla:tl, lka:nl, Ьз:д, Iwarks, lta:na, ns;s, !a:

24. glgen, bUtjj]» slbaut, alkros, elbei, glpDn, falget, sslpraiz, [sigalret, ipikaldili, kgnlfes, pslhseps, salpauz, kanldijan, pglsent, hslself, ts ipli:z, ta 'step, Ээ Isüg, ta Idu;, te IfiJ, 0э lga:lz, 1рв:щэпэп1, Iprnbebli, Ifamsli, iwAndalsend Iwudlsnd, idekareit, ighmarm, Imsenijists, Idesalit, Irekagnaiz, Itrsevls, Ibselksni

Exercises p. 134

1. (a) When preceded by /w, I, 0, s, d, tf, r, j, h, m, n/ the /i:/ phoneme is pronounced: as labialized in /wi:/; with the labiodental, position. for /f/ in /Ifi:v9/; with the interdental position of the tip of the tongue in /6i:m/; with the apical constriction (round narrowing) in /si:/; with the apical occlusion for /d/ in /di:l/; with the cacuminal position of the tip of the tongue for /r/ in Ihy.pzl; with the palatal position of the bulk of the tongue for /j/ in /ji:Id/; with the glottal (pharyngal) narrowing for /h/ in /hi:/; as nasalized after /m, n/ in /mi:lz, mi:, ni:dnt/.

(b) When followed by / b, v, Э, t, 1, J1, tf, к, д, m, n/ the /i:/ phoneme is pronounced:1 with the bilabial release in /gri:b/; with the labio-dental release in /li:v/; with the interdental release in /Ji:6, bri:S/; with the apical occlusion in the final stage in /i:t, fi:l/; nasali'ed before /m, n/, with the velar closure in /bi:k, Itg/; retracted.

tongue in /fiJV; with the interdental position of the tip of the tongue in /Girjks, 9irj/; with the apical position of the tip of the tongue in /dsd, sit, lift/; as retracted in /Igiva/; with the cacuminal position of The tip of the tongue in /ntJV; as retracted Jn /kil/; with the glottal (pharyngal) narrowing for /h/ in /hid/.

(b) the /r/ phoneme is pronounced: as nasalized in /him/;2 with the labio­dental release in /if, hv/; with the interdental release in /mi6, wiS/; with th&

1 That is the first stage and the beginning of the medial stage of the vowel are affected.

a Thai is the final stage 'is affected.


apical release in /iz, bil/; as nasalized in /tin/; with the palato-alveolar position of the tip of the tongue in the final stage in /паз/; as retracted in /pik, big/.

Control Tasks p. 136

1. Vowel No. I /i:/, quantitative changes: it is the longest in: sea, we, tree,, he. It is shorter in: easily, meals, fever. It is the shortest in: cheaper, sleet, speaker, teach, keep, sheep.

The quality of the vowels depends on the articulatory characteristics of the consonants which precede or follow them. E. g. in sea I'v.l is modified under the influence of the forelingttal, apical, alveolar, voiceless, fortis, constrictive* /s/; in we — under the influence of the bilabial, constrictive sonorant /w/; in meals — the nasal, bilabial, occlusive sonorant /ml; in cheaper — the lingua], forelingual, apical, palato-alveolar, voiceless fortis constrictive/t]/; in tree — the lingual, forelingual, cacuminal, post-alveolar, constrictive sonorant h/;. in fever ■— the labial, labio-dental, voiceless, fortis, constrictive IV; in sleet — the lingual, forelingual, apical, alveolar, constrictive "light" /J/; in speaker — the labial, bilabial, voiceless, fortis, occlusive /p/; in he — the pharyngali (glottal) voiceless fortis, constrictive /h/; in teach — the lingual, forelingual, apical, voiceless fortis, ocelusive III; m sheep — the lingual, forelingual, apica]„ palato-alveolar voiceless fortis constrictive Ц1. Etc.

Control Tasks p. 143 1.

/ei/

A. (1) a) pay, make, pain, weigh, way, waste, pale, Wales, paint; b) face;;
(2) b) lake, lay, day, late, lain, David, sane, taken; c) shape; d) rain, ray; (4^
game, case, gave.

B. (I) a) game, famous, able, shape; b) David, gave; (2) b) again, pain, case„
rain, late, -waste, pale, sane, Wales, face; c) age; (4) make, lake, ache, taken-

/au/

A. (1) a) boating, poker, motor, poet, motive; b) foe; (2) a) though; b) don't,,
total, social, son, nose, noticed; c) shoulder, jokes; d) road, bureau; (3) yolk;.
(4) go, gold, cosy; (5) hope, hotel, hold.

B. (1) a) hope; b) over; (2) a) both; b) boating, hotel, hold, only, follow,
road, shoulder, gold, don't, old, cold, motor, poet, motive, total, nose, cosy,,
noticed; c) social; (4) poker, yolk, jokes.

Г/ai/

A. (1) a) why, wild, mild, while, my, Michael; b) profile; (2) b) die, nine,,
silence, side, like, climb; d) right, rise, bright; (4) kind, kindly, kite; (5) high.

B. (1) a) climb; b) wife; (2) b) kind, wild, mild, nine, while, silence, profile,,
right, side, kindly, isles, eyes, idea, quite, bright; (4) like, Michael.

/au/

A. (1) a) pound, mouth; b) found; (2) a) thousand; b) south, now, down,,
sound, loud; d) round, drown; (4) couch; (6) how.

B. (2) a) south, mouth; b) drown, out; thousand, down, round, pound,,
found, loud; c) couch.

/01/

A. (1) a) boy, point; (2) b) soil, employ, noise; c) join, enjoy, joint; t; (4) i b)

() ) y, poit; (2) b) oil, employ, d) destroy; (4) coin.

B. (2) b) join, point, coin, soil, noise, joint.

/»/

A. (I) a) Crimea; b) severe; (2) b) dear, near, idea, museum; (3) year; (5)
here.

B. (1) museum; (2) b) accordeon, ears, real, realize, period; d) weary.

23?


/89/

A. (I) a) parent, anywhere, bare, despair, pair. Mary; b) various, farewell;
(2) a) there; b) stare, stairs, dare; (4) care, square, carefully.

B. (1) b) carefully; (2) b) stairs; d) parents, various, Mary.

/U9/

A. (1) a) poor, moor; (2) b) tour, during; c) sure, usual.

B. (2) b) usual; d) during, Europe,

2. sauÖ, smlsiak, (stremdgli, falsiliteitid, Iwamdirj, риэ, Ifrafeuin, Imlaiz, 4mauta, lhaitn, palteitauz, lamralnait, IQiata, Id3uanst, Imsen, Imaikal, lamdgilau, ■Jd3em fsa, ml dormant, Itaifbid, ljuarsp, с|иэ

Exercises p. 152

1. a) /le/ before the mediolingual sonorant /j/ is a a advanced variant of
the fully back /le/, the back part of the tongue moves forward closer to the
position for the mediolingual /j/,

b) /e/ before the dark /1/ is more open.

c) /k, g/ followed by /le/, /!:/ are slightly rounded. They are slightly pal­
atalized before Д/, /se/.

d) /Pit.g/ followed by /vu/, /ж/ are labialized, /p, t, g/ palatalized^efore /i:/.

 

2. Alveolar /t, d, n, 1/ become dental followed by /Э, 9/.

3. Post-alveolar /r/ becomes alveolar after /6, S/, /r/ is devoiced preceded
% Ih i. t, 6/, labialized followed by /d:, k/.

4. In (a) /d, g, g/ are non-labialized, in (b), (c) /d, 3, 1, g/ are labialized
'.followed by /w/»

5. Sonorants /w, j, 1, r/ are devoiced most noticeably in the initial clusters
Up], pr, tw, tr, kw, kl, kr/ when followed by a stressed vowel. In the clusters
M' tJ» kj, И. fr, fj, 9r, Öj, Öw, sw, si, sj, sm, sn/ devoicing is less noticeable.

8. Assimilation of place in final alveolars:

a)/I/ to /p/ b)/d/ to /b/ c)/t/ to /k/
/braip blui/ /0з:Ь pat/ /jak keik/i
/dap bo:d/ /heb boi/ /braik grtn/

/waipwoj"/ /reb rai:t/ d)/d/ to /g/ /hctb walk/ /haig kssj/ /heg ge:l/

e) In/ to /o/ f) /s/ to /J/

/in Iktudif/ /Ikrismoj IJüpin/

/'sArj glcusiz/

g) reciprocal assimilation before /j/

/igetfa: Ikaut/ /Iwauntja*/

/ai Ih3:d5üi kAmlm/ /Ikudntju-/

/IbleJ Jtt/ /IJudntJiE/

/tkbu3 зэ: ibuks/ /Ikantjus/

) /Э/ is assimilated, following /n, 1, s, z;

/in пэ 1ко;пэ/ /Iwots ss Ipumt/ /IkI la Ibuks/ /Iwesz za ibrednaif/

■9. a) /kief Ipeeldt/ /1Ьлд Itelafaun/

/weis Ipeipa/ /,n ntf ifedsUfs/

ftfl L?LLz/ /lnd3 Iserfes/ /Ibaö Оэ Jbeibi/ /idaiv biflau/

ftf*l Lstr?bnz/ /ld Ife/


b) /Itrap bai/ /kJauZ l

/lkra>k iputs/ /IbffcöIdJpli/

/idAb Ifitm/ c) /Islaem 9э Ida:/

/Iheabrem Iskfcm/

/istrirj Imjuizikl instranrant/

Control Tasks p. 155

10. (I) Aspiration in all English words beginning with /p, f, k/. No aspi­ration in Russian words beginning with /п, т, к/.

(2) Short English vowels are not affected by loose GV transition in /top/,
/pit/, /Ipepa/, etc.—close CV transition.

a) Russian soft initial /т, с, д, p/ result from the loose CV transition in
тина, сила, день, ряд, etc. «

(3) Labialization with the lip protrusion in: бук, дуло. Labialization with
no lip protrusion in: топь, поле, Коля, роль, лом, ток, соль, поли, ком. English
consonants followed by /о:, u:/ are pronounced with slight labialization (no lip
protrusion).

1). (1) lateral plosion: curdled, muddle, needless, mottled, at last, red tight* huddle, good looks;

(2) nasal plosion: Britain, oughtn't, admit, madness, witness, partner, cotton,
great number, sudden, captain, at night;

(3) loss of plosion: actor, begged, what kind, back to back, big books, slept,
top coat, black goat, ripe cheepe. • v

12. /a/—more back in /ka/; /j/ —more high in /lpju:ta/;" /t/ more back In Д

13. Care should be taken 1) to avoid regressive voicing or devoicing of the-sounds given in bold type: /laenikdaut/,- /Ibatfdej/, /Iblakbsd/, /Imedsm/, /10» Ibuk/, /llets Igou/, /Iwuts оэ Itaira/; 2) to pronounce alveolar /s, z, 6, 1/ as-dental, since they are followed by-the interdental /9, Э/: /stksö, hiz Win, Ipcts-Ззт, liz Iflaet, fif8sf Isimös löea, lsu:3z öam, ttel 9эт, Im 9э/.

Exercises p. 163

1. с, с, с, eau, ou, ough

3. Graphemes Phonemes Letters

b-a-o-b-a-b /Ib-ei-a-b-as-b/ b-a-o-b-a-b

v-e-s-t /v-e-s-t/ v-e-s-t

d-u-l-y /ld-jui-1-i/ d-u-I-y

sh-i-p Я-1-Р/ s-h-i-p

d-i-sh /d-i-J/ d-i-s-h

aw-E-u-1 /la-f-u-1/ a-w-f-u-1

d-aw-n /d-a:-n/ d-a-w-n

1-igh-t /1-ai-t/ 1-i-g-h-t

h-igh /h-ai/ h-i-g-h

w-or-k /w-3:-k/ w-o-r-k

ar-ch-a-i-c /a-lk-ei-i-k/ a-r-c-h-a-i-c

ai-r-y /lea-r-i/ a-i-r-y

1-au-gh /1-cc-f/ 1-a-u-g-h

w-a-tch-ed /w-D-tJ-t/ w-a-t-c-h-e-d

4. <r> = /r/ in rait, alfreid, prei, trai, tven, drai; <our>==/ua/ in tourT
<ear>=/ra/ in tear.

5. <ed> indicates the past indefinite morpheme -ed which is pronounced*
ft, id, d, d, id, t, d, d/.

6. psekt, bad, реэ, frank, weg, IweSa, sl;n, bs:8, Isfchrj, ssul, bsa, preir rein, peil, еэ, farad, pemz, tfcz, pi:s, ffct, wit/, die, bau, bred, rait, pra,


3>!:tj\ hra, far, teil* nidil, sAri, bfct, breik, meiz, wi:k, IkArsnt, Isferral, vein, sei, -seil, Ikumphnrentr'hea, bb, sfc, mit, hi=l, fea, sent, raud, tfcrn, ho:s, Iben, gert, ■plem, kl:

договор «-1 упакованный, под запором — засов, пара — подрезать, Стричь — груша, франк — искренний, носить — где, погода — ли, сцена — увиденный, койка — рождение, потолок — скрепленный печатью, подош­ла — душа, голый — медведь, просить, умолять — добыча, дождь — цар­ствование, ведро — бледный, воздух — наследник, оштрафованный — на­ходить, старания, труды — оконные стекла, чай — дразнить, мир — кусок, подвиг — ноги, колдунья — который, дорогой — олень, гнуть — сук, хлеб — воспитанный, правый — писать — обряд, церемония, ровня — дам-■<5а, пляж — бук, слышать — здесь, мех — пихта, ель, рассказ — хвост, мужской — почта, солнце — сын, бить — свекла, ломать — тормоз, куку­руза — лабиринт, слабый — неделя, смородина — течение, серийный — овсянка, кукурузные хлопья, тщетный — вена — флюгер, продавать — ■ячейка, парус — продажа, комплимент — дополнение, волосы — заяц, голубой — дул, море — видеть, мясо — встречать, исцелять — пятка, плата за проезд — ярмарка, цент — посланный — запах, ехал верхом — дорога, бригада — кишеть, хриплый — лошадь, ягода — хоронить, во­рота —походка, ясный — самолет, ключ — набережная

7. (а) me-ter, ca-ring, beau-ty, sour-Iy, sure-ly, tea-cher, cry-ing, six-ty;
i(b) pray-s; praise, child-'s, read-able, mis-rule, penni-less, un-known, dis-like,
im-mortal, ir-rational

8. Mute (r), (e) indicate historical length or the diphthongal nature of the
preceding vowel phonemes (second columns a); (nn), (ss), (tt), (rr) indicate the
short character of the preceding vowel phonemes (second columns b).

9. Эйбел, Эндрю, Эни, Болдуин, Бернард, Дороти, Эстер, Джеральд,
.Хыого, Аира, Джин, Джереми, Кит, Лайонел, Мейбл, Марта, Пий

Control Tasks p. 164

1, face, Eac-ing, nic-er, choic-est, гас-y, princ-ess, age, rag-ing, 1 arg-er, urg-ent, bu!g-y, burg-ess, rage-cl, change-ling, outrage-ous, face-d, nice-ly, huge-ly, engage-ment, change-able


b)

c)
cu-ring fires cured o-ccurred stir-ring stirred pi-ning pined wor-ker wor-king worked tho-rough-ly cul-ture na-tion cit-y red-der chee-ring

2. a) cur-ing fire-s cheer-less cure-d oc-curr-ed stirr-ing stirr-ed pin-ing pine-d work-er work-ing work-ed thorough-ly cult-ure nat-ion cit-y redd-er cheer-ing

3. ai=/er, еэ е, г, э/; /eid, ffesri, /streit/; au = /o:, cc/r/lagast, sd:s, Ы, *!■/; ay, ei = /ei/; /«Ml«, Ьегз/; ее, ео — /%!/: /freit, wei/.


/Ikjua-nrj/

/1Еа(1)эг/

/Itjia-lis/

/kjuad/

/alka:d/

/Ista: -no/

/sterd/

/lpai-шп/

/pamd/

/Ik/

/IW3:-kirj/ /W3>kt/

/ША-Г8-11/

/IkAl-tJa/

/Inei-Jan/

/Isit-i/

/lred-э/

/Itfra-nn/

sed, Ifauntin, (poitnt, Ivilan/; aigh=/ej/: =/i, e/: /Ipfcpl, Jerepans, 'jlepad/; eigh =


4. sealing, ceiling, ceiling; soles, sole, sole, soul, soul; bare, bear, bear, 'bear, bear; pair, pear, pair; write, right, right, right; vain, vain, vanes, vein, vein


Exercises p. 177

1. (I) CVC, СГС; (2) CVCC, СГСС; (3) CVCCC, СГССС; (4) CSVS, CSVS,
ССГС; (5) CV, СГ; (6) CCV (CSV), ССГ; (7) VC, ГС; (8) CCCV (CCSV), СССГ;
(9) VCC (VSG), ГСС'ПО) VCCG (VSCC), ГССС; (11) CCSVSC, СССГСС; (12)
CVC (V) SCC, СГСССС; (13) CCCVC (CCSVS), СССГС; (14) CSVCC (CSVSC),
ССГСС; (151 CCVCCC (CSVSCC), ССГССС

2. (a) lpf>pJ, Ibjtc-gl, Isse-tfal, Itrai-fl, In-äm, lei-pnl, ib-kwal, Шэе-рэпг,
Imai-blz, Ips-tanz, idrse-gnz, Is:-d3ant, Isai-vant, ili-snd, Ihe-raldz, le-randz,
Jpsa-rents, Itaan-d39nts, Ipei-Jants, iskse-falds

(b) CV — CS, CV — CS, CV — CVC, CV — CS, V — CSVS, V — CSVS, CV — CVSC, SV — CSC, CV — CVSC, CSV — CSC, V — CVSC, CV — CVSC, SV — CSC, CV — SVSCC, V — SVSCC, CV — SVSCC, CVC — CVSCC, CV — CVSCC, CV-CVSCC, CCV-CVSCC

3. 2, 2, 4, 4, 2, 4, 3, 5, 3, 4, 3, 4, 6, 2, 3, 5, 6

 

7. Syllables Syllabographs
W3:k work
  ■wor-king
1\уз:-кэ wor-ker
pamd pined
Ipai-mq pi-ning
Jsta;rlij stir-ring
Э-lljgid o-ccurred
kjuad cured
(tfis-lis cheer-less
lkjua-пл cu-ring
f tfta-rtrj chee-ring
lfa(i)9-ni] li-rtng
lred-(d)a red-der
(net-Jan na-tion
ikAt-tfa cul-ture
J9A-r9-Ii tho-rough-ly

Control Tasks p. 178

1. (a) at, aunt, elks, asks, ebbed

(b) took, lifts, texts, clenched, tip, struck, strays, thrust, bet, fact, fret,
price

(c) pray, straw, boy, pea

(a) ил, от, астр

(b) рад, ЗАГС, горсть, скетч, взрыв, всласть, сфинкс, чувств, сон, Минск,
гипс, здесь, злак

(c) мгла, кто, та, что

2. а) Ь) | «) Ь) I а) Ь) I а) Ь) | а) Ь) I а) Ь) I а) Ь)
st|lm|bk|ms|sk|gv|tp etc.

3. IkAm-fe-ta-bl, Ik-o-hds, bi-ffad, graund, Ikt-tfan, fpaen-trr, IstA-dr, isev-ral,
tAp-lstsaz, lbsd-ru:m, Inaisa-rr, 1Ьа9-гшт, Ifai-m-tfa, Imai-dan, 9un, illek-ltn-si-ti,
Idsae-njue-n, lfeb-шэ-п, Is-gast, sap-ltem-Ьэ, эк-lteu-ba, nau-lvem-ba, di-lsem-Ьэ,
Iwen-zdi,' Itju-zdi, 10s:-zdi

4. pa-rents, fire, piu-ral, гц-ral, din-ner, mar-ry, dis-ap-pear, speak-ing,
writ-ing, play-ing, walk-ing, stand-ing, pas-sing, break-fast, po-ta-toes, to-rna-
toes, cof-fee, cab-bage, ba-na-nas, ber-ries, pud-ding, pears, beer, shop-pmg,
iron-ing, house-work, mis-take, fish-ing

5. an aim for it; a blacked eye; not a tall; that stuff; I saw her eyes; the way
to cut it; I saw the meat; white shoes; might rain; keeps ticking; grade A


9-182


241'


Exercises p. 136

1. лишенный помощи, неотчужденный, неизменный, невооруженный,
неаспирированный, нечистый, противоциклонный, антинациональный, не­
уплата, иногородний, без остановок, бывший министр, вновь открывать,,
реорганизовать, перепаковать, оплаченный заранее, писать с орфографиче­
скими ошибками, неправильное применение, плохое правление, неправильно,
цитировать, положить не на то место, одетый слишком просто, младший офи­
цер, малонаселенный, вице-адмирал, вице-консул, предыстория, ультрасов­
ременный

2. красивый, старомодный, злой (раздражительный), рассеянный, с не­
покрытой головой, домашнего изготовления

 

4. яблоня, свидетель, рассвет, день рождения, овчарка, наволочка,,
школьник, чемодан, расписание, чернильница, прическа, домашняя хозяйка,,
всё, камин, (радио)вещание, авторучка, любой

5. бабочка, вновь прибывший, растяпа, кузнец, мужское пальто (ши­
нель), самолет, василек, соусник, масленка, закладка для книг

6. классная доска — черная доска; дрозд — черная птица; сейф — проч*
ная коробка; переутомиться — сверх работы (задания); лютик — желтая
чашка; высокий комод (бокал на высокой ножке) — высокий мальчик

Control Tasks p. 188

1. lair-raid, Ibirdcage, Icoalmine, Iteapot, Iwashstand, Imail-bag, ldance-|rnu-
sic, (grandfather, I hand | writing, Ishop [keeper, Uadybird, loffice-boy, Iwaiting-room,
I dinner-1 jacket, Itape rejcorder, I labour exchange, IgrornidUloor, Iknee-ldeep, Icross-
Iquestion, Iflat-lfooted, Ishop-lwindow, hot-iwater-|bottle, waste-lpaper-jbasket,
Ipost-lgraduate, Ivice-1 chancellor, Isecondhand

2. l£ebs(a)nt—ablsent отсутству



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