Principal pecularities of General American vowels.



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Principal pecularities of General American vowels.



Phonetics as a science.

Ph. Is not a separate, independent science. Ph. Is an independent brahch of linguistic like lexecology, grammar and stylistics. It studies the sound matter, its aspects and functions. Ph. formulates the rules of pronounciation for separate sounds and sound combinations.

Through the system of rules of reading Ph is connected with grammar and helps to pronaunce correctly singular and plural forms of nouns, the past tense forms and past participles of English regular verbs (d is pronaunced after voiced cons., t is pronaunced after voiceless cons. Wish-wished, id is pronaunced after t want-wanted, s is pronaunced after voiceless cons., z is after voiced cons. and iz after sibilants (свистящие)).

Sound interchange is another manifestation of the connection of Ph with grammar, e.g. this connection can be observed in the category of number. Thus the interchange of f/v, s/z, th/the helps to differenciate singular and plural forms of such words as basis- bases, and also man-men, foot-feet. Vowel interchange is connected with the tense forms of irregular verbs (sing-sang-sung). Vowel interchange can also help to distinguish between: 1) nouns and verbs (bath-bathe), 2) adj and nouns (hot-heat), 3) verbs and adj (moderate-moderate), 4) nouns and nouns (shade-shadow), 5) nouns and adj (type-typical). Vowel interchange can also be observed in onomatopoetic compaunds (звукоподражательные сложные слова): hip-hop, flap-flop, chip-chop. Consonants can interchange in different parts of speech, e.g. in nouns and verbs (extent-extend, mouth-mouth).

Ph is also connected with grammar through its intonation component. Sometimes intonation alone can serve to single out the logical predicate.( ‘he came home, he ‘came home, he came ‘home). Pausation may also perform a differentiatory function. If we compare 2 similar sentences pronaunced with different places of pause, the meaning will be different.

Ph is also connected with lexicology. It is only due to the presence of stress in the right place, that we can distinguish certain nouns from verbs (formed by convercion): ‘object-ob’ject.

Homographs can be differentiated only due to pronaunciation, because they are identical in spelling: bow(ou луг)-bow(au поклон), row(ou ряд)-row(au шум).

Due to the position of word accent we can distinguish between homonymous words and word groups, e.g. ‘blackbird-black ‘bird.

Ph is also connected with stylistics; first of all through intonation and its components: speech melody, utterance (произнесение) stress, rythm, pausation and voicetember which serves to express emotions.

Ph is also connected with stylistics through repetition of words, phrases and sounds. Repetition of this kind serves the basis of rythm, rhyme and alliteration. The repetition of identical or similar sounds, which is called alliteration, helps to impart ( передавать) a melodic effect to the utterance and to express certain emotions.

Theoretical significance of Ph is connected with the further development of the problem of the study and description of the Ph system of a national language and different languages, the study of the correspondences between them, the description of changes in the Ph system of languages.

Practical significance of Ph is connected with teaching foreign languages, speech correction, teaching deaf-mutes, film doubling.

Principal pecularities of General American vowels.

1. no opposition between historically long and historically short.

2. [i] may be obscured as in rabbit [rэеbэt]

3. [έ] – lower than the RP [e]

4. [эе] – long, mostly nasaliezed, may turn into [e] as in marry, [эе] may be used instead of [a:], ask, past

5. [3] - retroflex какуминальный согласный in medial and terminal position, bird, better

6. [i:] – ‘barred’ препятствовать [i] in sister, horses

7. [a] instead of[o], doll, rob

8. [o]instead of [o:] as in law

9. [Λ] turns into [3r], e.g. [h3ri] – hurry.

10. in GA the distinction between monopthongs and diphthongs is not very consistent последовательный.

 

The branches of Ph. Onomotopoeia.

Onomatopoeia – a combination of sounds which imitate sounds produced in nature, is one more example of the connection between ph and stylistics:jinckle, chatter, babble, crash, bang. The study of Ph phenomena from the stylistic point of view is phonostylistics.

Ph has the following branches: 1) articulatory (physiologocal) and perceptive (auditory); 2) acoustic; 3) functional (linguistic).

Articulatory and perceptive investigation of speech sounds is done on the basis of a good knowledge of the voice and sound producing mechanisms, their structure and work– physiology and psychology.

Acoustic properties of sounds, that is, quantity, or length, tamber,intensity (сила), pitch, temporal factor are investigated by the acoustic and auditory branch of phonetics.

The functional properties of phonemes, syllables, accent and intonation are investigated by means of special linguistic methods.

 

Principal pecularities of General American cons – s.

1. voiceless, fricative, labiovelar[ʍ]

2. the GA [r] is more sonorous than the RP [r]. It is retroflex.

3. [l] – predominantly преимущественно dark

4. [t] – short, voiced, intermediate between [d] and [t]

5. glottal stop ?

6. [h] – voiced in intervocalic position, lost initially in unsterssed or weak forms within внутри a phrase.

7. [ju] may change into [t∫, dЗ ] in due, tune

8. [∫] – vocalized in asia

9. nasal twang налет as in man.

 

The articulatory and acoustic aspects of the E speech sounds. the power mechanism. the vibrator mech

 

The articulation of every speech sound and the transition from the articulation of 1 sound to the articulation of another are effected and controlled by the action of the muscles situated in the organs of speech involved. These muscles are activated by impulses sent from the brain. Some linguists such as Щерба and his follower Мутусевич associate the articulatory aspect of speech sounds with their biological aspect. On the one hand, the human brain is the original source of speech, and on the other, it perceives speech sounds coming from the external world.

Speech is impossible without these 4 mechanisms:

1the power mechanism

2the vibrator mech

3the resonator mech

4the obstructer mech

1) The function of the power mech consists in the supply of energy in the form of air preasure and in regulating the force of the air stream. The pow mech includes the following organs of respiration:

1 the diaphragm

2 the lungs

3 the brunchi

4 the windpipe

5 the glottis – the opening between the vocal chords

6 the larynx

7 the mouth cavity

8 the nasal cavity

Inhalation takes place because the chest expends due to the action of the diaphragm and chest muscles. As the result of this expansions the air pressure in the lungs becomes lower than the pressure of the surrounding atmospheric air and the later rushes into the lungs and fills them, so that the pressure is equalized.

Then the diaphragm and the chest muscles relaxed. The lungs are contracted (стянуты), the air pressure in them becomes greater than the pressure of the surrounding atmosphere and the air which is in the lungs rushes out forming a stream which passes through the bronchi, the wind pipe, the glottis and the mouth or hazel cavities. This is exhalation. Thus the process of breathing consists of 2 alternating phases: inhalation, exhalation.

2) The air stream provided by the lungs undergoes import modifications in the upper stages of the respiratory tract. First of all it passes through sets into action vibrator mech. Which is posed (находится) in the larynx. As the air is exhaled from the lungs it is fed under pressure into the larynx through the wind pipe. In addition to constituting the bases of the spectral and pitch components, the vocal cords as part of the vibr mech participate in forming its intensity component as well.

 

 

Sentence stress, or accent

Sentence stress is a greater prominance of words which are made more prominant in the intonational group. The prominance of accented words is achieved through the greater force of utterance and changes in the direction of voice pitch.

The difference between stress and accent is based on the fact that in the case of str, the dominant perceptual component is loudness. In the case of accent it is pitch.

Nuclear sress is the strongest- it carries the most important information. Non-nuclear stresses are subdivided into full and partial. Full stress occurs only in the head of intonational group, partial stress occurs also in the prehead and tail.

Nouns, adj, numerals, interjections, demonstative pronouns, emphatic pronouns, possesive Притяжательный pronouns (absolut forms), interrogative вопросительный pronouns, indefinite pronouns: somobody, someone, something (used as subject), indef negat pronouns: no, none, no one nobody, indef pronouns some, any (expressing quality), deferminatives: all, each, every, other, either, both, proclitics: much, many, a little, a few, notional verbs, auxiliary вспомогательный verbs (negat contracted forms), two-word prepositions, two-word conjunctions, particles:only, also, too, even, just are usually stressed.

The words that are usually unstressed: personal pronouns, reflexive pronouns, relative pronouns, possesive pronouns(conjoint form), indef pronouns: somebody, someone, something, anyone ( used as object), indef pronouns some, any ( when expressing quantity), auxiliary verbs (affirmative form), one-word prep and conjunctions, articles, particles: there, to., modal verbs (contracted forms and general questions are exceptions).

The meaning of the verbs may, should must changes depending on whether they are stressed or unstressed: you may go.

Stress in utterance providethe basis for understanding the content, they help to perform constitutive, distinctive, indentificatory function of intonation.

Assimilation.

In the process of speech, that is in the process of transition from the articulatory work of one sound to the articulatory work of the neighbour­ing one, sounds are modified. These modifications can be conditioned:

a) by the complementary distribution of phonemes, e. g. the fully back /u:/ becomes back-advanced under the influence of the preceding mediolingual sonorant /j/ in the words tune, nude. In the word keen /k/ is not so back as its principal variant, it is ad­vanced under (be influence of the fully front /i;/which follows it:

b) by the contextual variations in which phonemes may occur at the junction of words, e. g. the alveolar phoneme /n/ in the combination in the is assimilated to the dental variant under the influence of /ð/ which
follows it;

c) by the style of speech: official or rapid colloquial. E. g. hot muffins may turn into

Assimilation is a modification of a consonant under the influence of a neighbouring consonant. When a consonant is modified under the influence of an adjacent vow­el or vice versa this phenomenon is called adaptation or accommodation, e. g. tune, keen, lea, cool.

When one of the neighbouring sounds is not realized in rapid or care­less speech this process is called elision, e. g. a box of matches may be pronounced without [v].

Assimilation which occurs in everyday speech in the present-day pro­nunciation is called living. Assimilation which took place at an earlier stage in the history of the language is called historical.

Assimilation can be:

1progressive, when the first of the two sounds affected by assimila­tion makes the second sound similar to itself, e. g. in desks the sounds /k/ make the plural inflection s similar to the voiceless /k/.

2regressive, when the second of the two sounds affected by assimi­lation makes the first sound similar to itself, e. g. in the combination at the the alveolar /t/ becomes dental, assimilated to the interdental / ð / which follows it;

3double, when the two adjacent sounds influence each other, e.g. twice /t/ is rounded under the influence of /w/ and /w/ is partly devoiced under (he influence of the voiceless /t/.

When the two neighbouring sounds arc affected by assimilation, it may influence: 1) the work of the vocal cords; 2) the active organ of speech; 3) the manner of noise production; 4) both: the place of articula­tion and the manner of noise production.

l)Assimilation affecting the work of the vocal cords is observed when one of the two adjacent соседний consonants; becomes voiced under the influence of the neighbouring voiced consonant, or voiceless — under the influ­ence of the neighbouring voiceless consonant.

In the process of speech the sonorants /m, n, 1, r; j, w/ are partly devoiced before a vowel, preceded by the voiceless consonant phonemes /s, p, t, k/, e. g. plate, slowly, twice, ay. This assimilation is not observed in the most careful styles of speech.

2) The manner of noise production is affected by assimilation in cas­es of a) lateral plosion and b) loss of plosion or incomplete plosion. The lateral plosion takes place, when a plosive is followed by /1/. In this case the closure for the plosive is not released till the off-glide for the second [l]. Incomplete plosion takes place in the clusters a) of two similar plosives like /pp,pb, tt, td, kk, kg/, or b) of two plosives with different points of articulation like:/kt/,/dg/, /db/, /tb/. So there is only one explosion for the two plosives.

3) Assimilation affects the place of articulation and the manner of noise production when the plosive, alveolar /tl is followed by the post-alveolar /r/. For example, in the word trip alveolar 1t1 be­comes post-alveolar and has a fricative release.

Received pron.

Standart pronunciation is the pronunciation governed by the orthoepic norm. It is the pronunciation of educated circles. It is used by radio, television, religionally neutral. The social standart within Britain is the so-called recieved pronunciation. It is the teaching norm at schools and higher learning establishments of the Rus Federation. In Eng we distinguish conservative, general, advanced.

The phoneme [i] is little more open in GA and retracted than in RP. In GA it is often obscured.

The sound [έ]is lower than the RP [e] and resembles походить [эе]

The GA [эе] differs from the RP [эе]: it is used in words in which the letter a is followed by a cons other than r(answer), in GA {e} is used instead of [эе]([keri])

The GA [a] is more front than the RP. In contrast to the RP [a] the GA [a] has a different distribution hop, rob, doll, before [h,g] both [a], [o] (frog).

The total number of the RP and GA cons differ in one phoneme [ʍ]. The rest of the RP and GA inventory of cons phonemes coicides.

The [r] is less sonorous in RP than in GA. The GA [h] is similar to the RP.The GA [h] is frequently voiced in intervicalic position. In words like concave, conclude, enclose, encourage Americans use {n}, the RP speakers – [n], [h].

 

 

Syllable.

The syllabile as a unit is difficult to define, though native speakers of a language are usually able to state how many syllables there are in a particular word.

According to J. Kenyon the syllable is one or more speech sound, forming a single uninterrupted unit of utterance. The syllable can be a single word:hair, a part of a word: table, a part of the grammatical form of a word:disable.

The syllable can be analysed from the acoustic and auditory, articulatory and functional points of view. Acoustically and auditorily the syllable is characterized by the force of utterance, or accent, pitch of the voice, sonority and length, that is by prosodic features.

Auditorily the syllabic is the smallest unit of perception. A syllable can be formed by a vowel: (V); by a vowel and a consonant: (VC); by a consonant and a sonorant (CS).

V — types of syllable called uncovered open, err

VC — types of syllable called uncovered closed, eat

CVC — types of syllable called covered closed,pit

CV — types of syllable called covered open,

G. P. Torsuyev suggests a differentiation of the following Russian types of syllabic structures:V type- fully open, CVC type-fully closed, CV type- initially covered, VC type- finally covered. The structure of English and Russian syl-s is similar.

The peak of the syl is formed by a vow or a sonorant. The cons which precede the peak and follow it are called slopes. The cons[h] never begins, [w] never terminates the syl. Syllable-forming sonorants in the combinations of the CS type are terminal /m, n, l/.

The combinability of syl forming sonorance is the following: [l] combines with all con-s exept [Ө,ð]. The sound [n] combines with all cons exept [m,h, n]. [m] combines only with [s,z,p, Ө,ð]

The distribution of consonants in the syllables of the CSC type is characterized by the following features: initial consonants may be repre­sented by the peak sonorants may be represented by /n, m, l/; final consonants are repre­sented by

The distribution of consonants in the syllables of the CSCC type is characterized by the following features: the initial consonant may be rep­resented by The peak of syllable is repre­sented by the sonorants [n,l], they are immediately followed by /t, d, s/; final consonants are represented by

The syllables of the CSVSCC type: entrants /'entrЭnts/, emigrants /'emigrЭnts/, minstrels /'minstrЭls/, hydrants /'haidrЭnts/ can be pro­nounced without (V)|— CSSCC type.

Russian terminal sonorants do not form syllables with consonants, which precede them.

Final clusters in English are much more complex than initial ones. They express different grammatical meanings: plurality, tense, number, e.g. texts, mixed, glimpsed.

The structure of the Russian syllable is characterized by more com­plex and numerous initial clusters, they represent grammatical prefixes, e.g. вскрикнуть, всплакнуть, взрыв, кстати.

Stress

Any word spoken in isolation has at least one prominent syllable. We perceive it as stressed. Stress in the isolated word is termed word stress, stress in connected speech is termed sentence stress. Stress is indicated by placing a stress mark before the stressed syllable: /'/.

Stress is defined differently by different authors. B. A. Bogoroditsky,
for instance, defined stress as an increase of energy, accompanied by an
increase of expiratory and articulatory activity. D. Jones defined stress as
the degree of force, which is accompanied by a strong force of exhala­
tion and gives an impression of loudness. H. Sweet also stated that stress
is connected with the force of breath.


Word stress can be defined as the singling out of one or more sylla­bles in a word, which is accompanied by the change of the force of utterance, pitch of the voice, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the sound, which is usually a vowel.

In different languages one of the factors constituting word stress is usually more significant than the others. According to the most impor­tant feature different types of word stress are distinguished in different languages.

1)If special prominence in a stressed syllable or syllables is achieved mainly through the intensity of articulation, such type of stress is called dynamic, or force stress.

2)If special prominence in a stressed syllable is achieved mainly through the change of pitch, or musical tone, such accent is called musi­cal, or tonic. It is characteristic of the Japanese, Korean and other orien­tal languages.

3)If special prominence in a stressed syllable is achieved through the changes in the quantity of the vowels, which are longer in the stressed syllables than in the unstressed ones, such type of stress is called quanti­tative.

4)Qualitative type of stress is achieved through the changes in the quality of the vowel under stress.

English word stress is traditionally defined as dynamic, but in fact, the special prominence of the stressed syllables is manifested in the En­glish language not only through the increase of intensity, but also through the changes in the vowel quantity, consonant and vowel quality and pitch of the voice.

Stress difficulties peculiar to the accentual structure of the English language are connected with the vowel special and inherent prominence. In identical positions the intensity of English vowels is different. The highest in intensity is /a:/, then go

The quantity of long vowels and diphthongs can be preserved in pretonic and post-tonic position in English.

All English vowels may occur in accented syllables, the only excep­tion is which is never stressed. English vowels tend to occur in unstressed syllables. Syllables with the syllabic /1, m, n/ are never stressed.

Stress can be characterized as fixed and free. In languages with fixed type of stress the place of stress is always the same. For example in Czech and Slovak the stress regularly falls on the first syllable. In Italian, Welsh, Polish it is on the penultimate syllable.

In English and Russian word-stress is free, that is it may fall on any syllable in a word. Stress in English and in Russian is not only free but also shifting. In both languages the place of stress may shift, which helps to differentiate different parts of speech, e.g. 'insult to in'sult, `import — to im'port.

When the shifting of word-stress serves to perform distinctive function. V. Vassilyev terms this suprasegmental phonological unit form dis­tinctive accenteme, when it serves to distinguish the meaning of differ­ent words, the term is word-distinctive accenteme.

Stress performs not only distinctive function, it helps to constitute and recognize words and their forms.

A polysyllabic word has as many degrees of stress as there are syllables in it. American and English phoneticians give the following pattern of stress distribution in the words examination, opportunity.

They mark the strongest syllable with primary accent with the numeral 1, then goes 2, 3, etc.

American descriptivists (B. Bloch, G. Trager) distinguish the follow­ing degrees of word-stress: loud /'/, reduced loud /^/, medial /`/, weak, which is not indicated. H. A. Gleason defines the degrees of stress as primary /'/, secondary /^/, tertiary /`/, weak /~/. H. Sweet distinguishes weak /~/, medium, or half-strong /:/, strong and extrastrong, or em­phatic stress /;/.

V.A. Vassilyev, D. Jones, R. Kingdon consider that there are three degrees of word-stress in English: primary — strong, secondary — partial, weak — in unstressed syllables. For example: certification

Most English scientists place the stress marks before the stressed syl­lables and don't mark monosyllabic words,

Some American scientists suggest placing the stress marks above the vowels of the stressed syllable, e.g. blackbird They place the stress marks even on monosyllabic words, e.g. cat, pen, map.

 

Intonation

Intonation is a complex unity of non-segmental features of speech: 1. melody, pitch of the voice; 2. sentence stress; 3. temporal characteristics (duration, tempo, pausation); 4. rhythm; 5. tamber. Intonation organizes a sentence, determines com­municative types of sentences and clauses, divides sentences into intona­tion groups, gives prominence to words and phrases, expresses contrasts and attitudes. The two main functions of intonation are: communicative and expressive.

There are two main approaches to the problem of intonation in Great Britain. One is known as a contour analysis and the other may be called grammatical.

The first is represented by a large group of phoneticians: H. Sweet, D. Jones, L. Armstrong, and others. According to this approach the smallest unit to which linguistic meaning can be attached is a sense-group. Their theory is based that intonation consists of basic functional "blocks".

Thе grammatical approach to the study of intonation was worked out by M. Halliday. The main unit of intonation is a clause. Intonation is a complex of three systemic variables: tonality, tonicity and tone, which are connected with grammatical categories. Tonality marks the begin­ning and the end of a tone-group. Tonicity marks the focal point of each tone-group. Tones can be primary and secondary. They convey the attitude of the speaker. Halli­day's theory is based on the syntactical function of intonation.

The tone unit is one of the most important of intonation theory. The interval between the highest and the lowest pitch syllable is called the range of a sence group. The higher the pitch, the wider the range. The change of pitch within the last stressed syllable of the tone group is called a nuclear tone. It may occur not only in the nucleus, but extend to the tail terminal tone.

Sweet distinguishes 8 tones: level, high rising, low rising, high falling, low falling, compound rising, compound falling, rising – falling- rising. Palmer has 4 basic tones, 2 additional and describes coordinatory tonal sequences and subordinating tonal sequences. Vasiliev gives 10 tone units. He distinguishes moving and level tones. Moving tones can simple, complex, compound. Level tones can be pitched at high, mid and low level.

The tonetic units, that constitute the total tone pattern are the following: unstressed and half stressed syllables preceding the 1st stressed syllable constitute the prehead of the intonation group; stressed and unstressed syllables up to the last stressed syllable constitute the head, body or scale of the intonation group; the last stressed syllable, within which fall or rise in the intonation group is accomplished, is called the nucleus; the syll marked with the nuclear tone may take a level stress; the syll – s (or one syll), that follow the nucleus, constitute the tail.

The most important part of the intonation group is the nucleus, which carries nuclear stress. Acc to the changes in the voice pitch preheads can be following: rising, mid and low. Scales can be: descending, ascending and level.

If one of the words in the descending scale is made specially prominent, a vertical row is placed before word made specially prominent in the text - accidental rise. This type of scale is called upbroken descending scale.

The falling tones convey completion and finality, they are categoric in character. The rising tones are incomplete and non – categoric. Of all level tones mid level is used most frequently. The level tones may express hesitation and uncertainty.

 

 

Phonetics as a science.

Ph. Is not a separate, independent science. Ph. Is an independent brahch of linguistic like lexecology, grammar and stylistics. It studies the sound matter, its aspects and functions. Ph. formulates the rules of pronounciation for separate sounds and sound combinations.

Through the system of rules of reading Ph is connected with grammar and helps to pronaunce correctly singular and plural forms of nouns, the past tense forms and past participles of English regular verbs (d is pronaunced after voiced cons., t is pronaunced after voiceless cons. Wish-wished, id is pronaunced after t want-wanted, s is pronaunced after voiceless cons., z is after voiced cons. and iz after sibilants (свистящие)).

Sound interchange is another manifestation of the connection of Ph with grammar, e.g. this connection can be observed in the category of number. Thus the interchange of f/v, s/z, th/the helps to differenciate singular and plural forms of such words as basis- bases, and also man-men, foot-feet. Vowel interchange is connected with the tense forms of irregular verbs (sing-sang-sung). Vowel interchange can also help to distinguish between: 1) nouns and verbs (bath-bathe), 2) adj and nouns (hot-heat), 3) verbs and adj (moderate-moderate), 4) nouns and nouns (shade-shadow), 5) nouns and adj (type-typical). Vowel interchange can also be observed in onomatopoetic compaunds (звукоподражательные сложные слова): hip-hop, flap-flop, chip-chop. Consonants can interchange in different parts of speech, e.g. in nouns and verbs (extent-extend, mouth-mouth).

Ph is also connected with grammar through its intonation component. Sometimes intonation alone can serve to single out the logical predicate.( ‘he came home, he ‘came home, he came ‘home). Pausation may also perform a differentiatory function. If we compare 2 similar sentences pronaunced with different places of pause, the meaning will be different.

Ph is also connected with lexicology. It is only due to the presence of stress in the right place, that we can distinguish certain nouns from verbs (formed by convercion): ‘object-ob’ject.

Homographs can be differentiated only due to pronaunciation, because they are identical in spelling: bow(ou луг)-bow(au поклон), row(ou ряд)-row(au шум).

Due to the position of word accent we can distinguish between homonymous words and word groups, e.g. ‘blackbird-black ‘bird.

Ph is also connected with stylistics; first of all through intonation and its components: speech melody, utterance (произнесение) stress, rythm, pausation and voicetember which serves to express emotions.

Ph is also connected with stylistics through repetition of words, phrases and sounds. Repetition of this kind serves the basis of rythm, rhyme and alliteration. The repetition of identical or similar sounds, which is called alliteration, helps to impart ( передавать) a melodic effect to the utterance and to express certain emotions.

Theoretical significance of Ph is connected with the further development of the problem of the study and description of the Ph system of a national language and different languages, the study of the correspondences between them, the description of changes in the Ph system of languages.

Practical significance of Ph is connected with teaching foreign languages, speech correction, teaching deaf-mutes, film doubling.

Principal pecularities of General American vowels.

1. no opposition between historically long and historically short.

2. [i] may be obscured as in rabbit [rэеbэt]

3. [έ] – lower than the RP [e]

4. [эе] – long, mostly nasaliezed, may turn into [e] as in marry, [эе] may be used instead of [a:], ask, past

5. [3] - retroflex какуминальный согласный in medial and terminal position, bird, better

6. [i:] – ‘barred’ препятствовать [i] in sister, horses

7. [a] instead of[o], doll, rob

8. [o]instead of [o:] as in law

9. [Λ] turns into [3r], e.g. [h3ri] – hurry.

10. in GA the distinction between monopthongs and diphthongs is not very consistent последовательный.

 



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