CONSONANT PHONEMES. DESCRIPTION OF PRINCIPAL VARIANTS



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CONSONANT PHONEMES. DESCRIPTION OF PRINCIPAL VARIANTS



Strictly speaking, it is impossible to give an exact and detailed description of a sound within the limits of a short definition, because not a single sound is pronounced identically even twice. Sounds un­dergo changes due to the individual manner and even mood of the speaker and due to the complementary distribution in which every sound exists in the language.

The first step to learn a sound is to isolate it. It means that for teaching purposes we single out the principal, or typical variant of the phoneme as a segment of the system, which is conventionally free from any influences. Then a detailed description of this variant should be carried out by means of simultaneous comparison with the sim­ilar sound of the mother tongue. The next stage is the mastering of the sound, which is done by teaching the students to pronounce the sound in a definite set of contexts in which this sound occurs. The

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final stage is to automatize the newly acquired abilities of the stu­dents.

Consonants are best of all learnt if the teacher directs the atten­tion of the students to tactile and muscular sensations of the organs of speech. In teaching to articulate sounds, diagrams and tables are very helpful.

Occluslve Noise Consonant Phonemes (Plosives)/p, b, t, d, k, g/

/P. b/

I.1 In the articulation of /p/ the vocal cords do not vibrate, therefore /p/ is voiceless, but the force of exhalation and the muscular ten­sion is great, /p/ is fort is.

II. The lips are brought together and form a complete obstruction-,,
/p/ is labial, bilabial. In the pronunciation of the Russian /n, 61'
the lips are not spread and they are less tense.

III. The obstruction is broken with a kind of explosion, /p/ is occfif--
sive (plosive, or stop).

(1) In the production of /p/ noise prevails'over voice, /p/ is a noise
consonant.

(2) There is only one place of articulation in the /p/ production, so
it is unicentral.

IV. The air passes out of the mouth cavity, /p/ is oral.

/b/ is pronounced in the similar way, but the vocal cords are drawn together and vibrate, the force of exhalation is not great and the mus­cular tension is not strong, therefore /b/ is voiced — lenis labial, bilabial, occlusive, noise, unicentral, oral.

The English _/p/ is pronounced with aspiration, when it is followed by a vowel in a stressed syllable and not preceded by /s/.

The Russian /n/ is pronounced with­out aspiration. Aspiration is a slight puff of breath, which is heard immediate­ly after the "explosion" is accomplished. That is, when the contact is released, the glottis \s still open, the air escapes from the mouth cavity with a plosion.

The Russian 161 is fully voiced in the initial position, the English /b/ is slightly devoiced. Cf. Billбил. /b/ is fully voiced between voiced sounds.

In the terminal position the Russian 161 can be devoiced almost completely: e.g. гриб /грип/, дуб /дуп/, etc.

The English /b/ is devoiced but slightly: sob, rob, mob.

The English /p,' b/ are never soft, whereas in Russian there are two independent phonemes /n — n7 and /6 — 6'/.'It can be proved by the existence of such pairs as: бил был, пил пыл, etc.

1 The figures I, II, III, IV correspond to the principles of consonant clas­sification (see p. 25).


• Soft articulation of the consonant is called palatalization. Its simultaneous mechanism for /n, 61 closure is the following: as soon as the lips are pressed to form a complete obstruction — primary focus, the front part of the tongue is raised to the hard palate (front secondary focus).

To avoid palatalization of /p, b/ in the initial position when they are followed by front vowels it is advisable to do contrast exercises of the following type:

peel — пыл — пил bill — был — бил


Graphic Equivalents of the /p, b/ Phonemes

/p/ is pronounced when spelt as:

p pen /pen/—перо

pp happy /'haspi/—счастливый

gh hiccough /'Ьклр/—икота

/p/ is not pronounced:

(1) in the following words*.

cupboard /'kAbad/—шкаф, raspberry /'razban/—малина, receipt /nisi :t/—расписка

(2) in Greek words before n, s, t:

pneumonia /njuimaunja/—воспаление легких, pneumatic /njuimae-tik/—пневматический, psalm /sam/—псалом, Ptolemy /ibtemi/ — Птолемей

/b/ is pronounced when spelt as: b be /bi:/—быть bb ebb /eb/—убывать

/Ь/ is not pronounced after m and before t:

lamb /lsem/—ягненок, plumber /1р1лтэ/—водопроводчик, comb /kaum/—гребень, bomb /bum/—бомба, debt /det/—долг, doubt

/daut/—сомнение, subtle /'sAtl/—тон­кий, хитрый

А л/

I. /t/ is voiceless fortis, /d/ is voiced lenis;

II. lingual, forelingual, apical, alveolar;

III. occlusive (plosive, or stop)
(1) noise, (2) unicentral;

IV. oral.

The English /t/ is pronounced with aspiration, the Russian hi is not aspirated, see /p/.

The English /t, d/ are never soft, whereas in the Russian language


there are two independent phonemes: h/ and /т7, /д/ and /д7. It can be proved by the existence of such minimal pairs, as:

брат — брать дома — Дёма

The English /t, d/ are apical: the tip of the tongue is against the alveolar ridge, the Russian /т, д/ are dorsal: the blade of the tongue touches the upper teeth, the tip being passive and lowered.

To avoid palatalization of the English/t, d/ in the initial position, when they are followed by front vowels, it is advisable to do contrast exercises of the following type:

ты —tea /ti:/ тим —Tim /Um/ дик—Dick /dik/ тын—tin /tin/ тиф —teeth /ti:8/ дед—dead /ded/ тик—tick /tik/ дим—deem /di:m/ дел—dell /del/

Graphic Equivalents of the /t, d/ Phonemes

/t/ is pronounced when spelt as;

t take /teik/—брать

tt better /'bete/—лучше

ed stopped /sbpt/—остановился

th Thames /temz/—Темза, Thomas /ibmss/—Томас, Thomson

/ifomsn/—Томсон, Anthony /laentsni/—Энтони, Esther/lesta/—

Эстер

/t/ is not pronounced: (1) in the following words:

often /b:fn, Ып/—часто, Christmas /iknsmas/—рождество, boats­wain /ibsusn/—боцман, soften /Ып/—смягчать, bankruptcy bk/—банкротство, chestnut /itJesnAt/—каштан

(2) in words ending in -stle, -sten:

listen /ilisn/—слушать, hasten /'heisn/—спешить, castle /ikasl/ — замок, ostler /'usla/—конюх

(3) in French borrowings:

restaurant /irestro:rj/—ресторан, mortgage /1тэ:дк1з/—закладная, закладывать, trait /trei, treit/—черта, bouquet /ibukei/—букет

/d/ is pronounced when spelt as:

d do /du:/—делать

dd add /sed/—добавлять

ed begged /begd/—просил

ddh buddhism /'budizm/—буддизм

/d/ is not pronounced in the following words:

handkerchief /ihsenkatjif/—носовой платок, handsome красивый, Guildford /tgilfsd/—Гилдфорд, Windsor Виндзор


/к, g/

I. /к/ is voiceless fortis, /g/ is voiced lenis;1

II. lingual, backlingual velar — the back part of the tongue is pres­
sed against the soft palate, or velum;

II. occlusive (plosive, or stop)

(1) noise, (2) unicentral; IV. oral.

The English /k/ is aspirated, see /p/, /t/.

The Russian /k/ is pronounced without aspira-
/ tion: кино, куль.

W- ._/ The Russian /r/ is fully voiced in initial posi-'M^^Sl ti01} .an{* devoiced almost completely in the final p/if Д position: год, рог.

S The Russian/к', г7 are pronounced with a more

^ С (\ advanced position of the tongue, the central part of

—^ (\ the tongue is pressed against the juncture of the hard

and soft palate — palatalization.

To avoid palatalization of the English /k, g/ it is advisable to do exercises of the following type;

акын — кино -= keen кило — keel кипа — keep

To observe the correct degree of aspiration of /p, t, k/ the following exercises are recommended:

1. Strongest aspiration in initial position, before a long vowel or
a diphthong:

tie, toe, party, taper, coat, tart, patter, cape

2. Less strong aspiration is manifested in the devoicing of /1, r,
w, j/ after /p, t, k/:

pray, proper, creep, try, quick, pleat, crow, clip, clean, queen

3. Less strong aspiration is manifested before a short vowel:
pity, bick, cut

4. Practically no aspiration:

 

(a) after /s/: stop, spit, score, sport, scope;

(b) in the final position: top, pit, cope, port, coke

Graphic Equivalents of the /k, g/ Phonemes

/k/ is pronounced when spelt:

k keep /ki:p/—-держать, иметь с before а, о, и:

can /kaen/—мочь, быть в состоянии, coat /lout/—пиджак»

пальто, cut /kAt/~порез

* Since only the first classificatory principle of the consonants /k, g/ i» different, principles П, III, IV are given for both.


с in terminal position:

music /'mjuzik/—музыка ck black /blsek/—черный, lock /bk/—замок ch in a number of Latin and Greek words:

chemist /'kemist/—-химик, character /'kserskta/—характер,

anchor /'эепкэ/—якорь, scheme /ski:m/—план, проект qu quick /kwik/—быстрый, banquet /'bserjkmt/—банкет cqu acquaintance /a'kwemtsns/—знакомство cc account /s'kaunt/—счет в банке sc sceptic /'skeptik/— скептик x=/ks/ except /ik'sept/—исключать, exhibition ^eksi'bijgn/ —

выставка gh hough /hok/—поджилки

/k/ is not pronounced:

(1) before n in initial position: knife /naif/—нож

(2) in the following words:

indict /m'dait/—обвинять, -victuals /'vitlz/—съестные припасы, muscle /'шлз1/—мускул

/g/ is pronounced when spelt;

(1) g before a, o, u, before a consonant and in terminal position i

go /дэи/—ход, ходьба, good /gud/—добро, благо, game /geim/— игра, leg /leg/—нога, significant /sig'mfikant/—значительный

(2) but also in the words:

get /get/—доставать, girl /дз:1/—девочка, gild /gild/—золотить,

give /giv/—давать, gig /gig/—кабриолет

gg egg /eg/—яйцо

gu guard /gad/—охрана

gh ghost /gaust/—привидение

x = /gz/ examine /ig'zeemm/—рассматривать, осматривать

/g/ is not pronounced:

(1) before n in initial and final positions:

gnat /nset/—комар, feign /fem/—притворяться, gnaw /no:/ — грызть, sign /sain/—знак

(2) when spelt as:

ng singer /'sing/—певец, tongue /Urj/—язык gm in the Greek words such as:

diaphragm /idaisfrsem/—диафрагма, paradigm /Ipseredaim/ —

пример, образец, phlegm /flem/—мокрота; хладнокровие,

but phlegmatic /fleglmaetik/ . ,t-Ä%j gh high /hai/—высокий, sigh /sai/—вздыхать, plough /plau/ —

пахать, light /lait/—свет


Questions

1. Is it possible to give a detailed description of a sound within the limits of a short definition? 2. What are the ways to learn a conso­nant? 3. To what classificatory groups do the phonemes /p, b, t, d, k, g/ belong according to the I, II, III, IV principles? 4. What is the difference between the English and the Russian occlusive consonant phonemes from the viewpoint of the tongue and the lips position? 5. What is palatalization? Is it a phonemic feature in English? 6. What is the difference between the English /p, t, k/ phonemes and the Russian /п, т, к/ phonemes from the viewpoint of voice-breath dis­tinction? 7. Prove that softness of consonants, in Russian is a pho­nemic feature. 8. How are the phonemes /p, t, k; b, d, g/ repre­sented in orthography?

Exercises

1. Define the consonant phonemes /p, t, k/.

2. Define the consonant phonemes /b, d, g/.

3. State articulatory differences between the English /p, t, k/ and the Russian

/n, t, к/.

4. State articulatory differences between the English /b, d, g/ and the Russian

/б, д, r/.

*5. Transcribe the words and read them. Observe the degree of aspiration: (a) the strongest, (b) less strong, (c) practically no aspiration.

(a) keep, pieces, teachers, people, purpose, curtain, turned, curly,
car, courts, parts, pause, take, time, ties, tears, cold, total, care, peer­
ing;

(b) till, kissed, tin, pity, penny, tell, tennis, Pendelton, campus,
Cambrian, taxi, put, took, cook, currents, colour, pumped, republic,
covered, tons, possible, cost, college, toss;

(c) spent, stay, stone, study, stick, started, splendid, experience,
extensively, basket, cleaning, explain, place, plan, classes, plain, creek,
crept, crop, platform, act, kept, looked

*6. Transcribe these words and read them. Avoid palatalization of consonants before the front and mixed vowels.

/p/ people, pay, permanent; /t/ eating; /k/ camp, kitchen; /b/ bil­liards; /d/ different, idea; /g/ get, again, girls

/b/ goes

/p/ pieces, repaired, purpose; ft! tears, take, turned; /b/ been, big, bed, back, both; /d/ idea, decided, didn't, day; /g/ get, guessed, girls, going

/p/ picture, period, expect, pair; til fifteen, instead, artist; /k/ keep, basket, vacation, campus; /b/ be, beside, embarrassing; la/ stu­dy, depths, days, Daddy; /g/ giggle, gets, girls, go


/p/ pink, experience, penny, pale; /t/ tin, wanted, take-, turned; /k/ drinking, came, candid, curly; /b/ been, beacon, bit, bad, Burton; /d/ condition, nodded, idea; /g/ give, get, girls

/p/ especially, pattern; /t/ still, potatoes, tulip; /k/ keep, occasion­al, can, occupy; /b/ be, sugar-beet, backbone; /d/ Dee, deer, muddy, dirt; /g/ gives, longest, regular

/p/ appealing, paid, pupils, perfect; /t/ teach, stick, Tuesday, tears; /k/ keep, looking, carriage, cold; /b/ be, obeyed, back, boat; /d/ indeed, dinner, duly, date; /g/ given, guessed, again, ago

/p/ planning, pit, repaid, passenger; /t/ stiff, city, grotesque, turns; /k/ keep, breaking, carriage, cold; /b/ being, best, back, Burlow; /d/ deal, ditties, dear, dead; /g/ getting, gave, go.

*7. Transcribe these words. Say how the /p, t, k; b, d, g/ sounds are represent­ed in spelling. Point out the letters which represent the mute sounds IP, t, k; b, d, g/.

happy, hiccough, cupboard, pneumonia, lamb, plumber, bomb, Thomas, Christmas, listen, whistle, bouquet, handkerchief, Wind­sor, chemist, anchor, banquet, except, muscle, ghost, gnaw, sign, tongue, diaphragm, sigh, plough, eight

Occlusive Nasal Sonor ants /m, n, rj/

In the /m, n, g/ phonemes only the second principle of classifica­tion is different.

/m/ is labial, bilabial: the lips are slightly pressed together, form­ing a complete obstruction.


\

In! is lingual, forelingual apical, alveolar: the tip of the tongue touches the alveolar ridge.

/rj/ is backlingual, velar: the back of the tongue touches the soft palate or velum.

All the other principles (I, III, IV) are similar.

I. in the articulation of /m, n, rj/ voice prevails over noise, so they
are sonor ants;

II. see above;

III. /m, n, rj/ are occlusive (plosives, or stops);

IV. /m, n, g/ are nasal: because the soft palate in the articulation of
/m, n, rj/ is lowered and the air passes out through the nasal cav­
ity.


. The English Im, n/ are longer than the Russian /м, н/ and louder in terminal positions; cf.:

doom /du:m/ — дум /дум/ balm /bam/ — бам /бам/

The pronunciation of the English /rj/ presents difficulties for Rus­sian students. There is no similar sound in the Russian language, /rj/ is articulated by the back part of the tongue, which is pressed against the soft palate and thus a complete obstruction is formed for the flow of air through the mouth cavity. It passes out of the nasal cavity. The tip of the tongue and the middle part of the tongue do not participate in the articulation of this sound. To prevent possible mistakes, care should be taken (a) to watch the position of the tip of the tongue, which is to be lowered, (b) to pronounce the final /rj/ as one sound.

Jt is advisable to do the following exercises:

1. kg—kg—kg—kg—gg—grj—grj—grj—dn—dn—dn—dn

2. sigggnig 3. sirj—säen—sog —saq
P^Döira sigz—saegz—si>nz,—элп
brigggrjig sig—saerj—sion—sat)

fflKKWl

4. /o — gk/

6m —ftrjk sab —sAgk Ihserp (ihsegga)— raen—rsegk 'sirjirj—isigkirj

5. /n —a.1 6. ingin_aut
sirj —sin sAn —SAn ibnrjirj_aut
raerj—raen дюд — дш idirjig^aut
haeg—haend 'nbin—'гюЬш 'sirjig^aut

Graphic Equivalents of the /m, n, n/ Phonemes

/m/ is pronounced when spelt:

m meat /mi:t/—мясо mm summer /'элтэ/—лето mb comb /kaum/—гребень mn autumn /loitam/—осень

/n/ is pronounced when spelt:

n no /пзи/—нет

пп dinner /'dina/—обед

en written /'ntn/—написанный

on button /IbAtn/—пуговица

/n/ is not pronounced in the words:] damn] /daem/—проклятье, solemn /isulem/—торжественный;

/rj/ is proijmoufced when spelt: ng long /ltln/—длинный, strong /strorj/—сильный nk sink /sink/—раковина

ing writing /iraitirj/—писание, reading /'riidirj/—чтение ngue tongue /tArj/—язык


/n/ is pronounced, when ng is immediately followed by a vowel <with the exception of the degrees of comparison of adjectives, where /g/ is pronounced), cf.:

younger /fJAgga/, longer /'bnjs/, singer /'sinja/, but: getting •on /igetuj vun/, peering anxiously /'piano ^flkjash/, working in the garden /iwsrkin in оэ »gocdn/, coming out /'клпид xaut/

In such combinations, the uvula takes part in the articulation of the sound /rj/.

/ncf/ /9/1

younger 'getting von

longer 'peering »anxiously

singer 'working in the vgarden

'coming kout

In the words: English, England, mingled, hungry the sounds /gg/ are represented in spelling by the letters ng.

Questions

1, Why are the /m, n, r/ phonemes referred to sonor ants? 2. What is the difference between /m, n, r/ from the viewpoint of the active ■organ of speech (II)? 3. What are the ways to teach students the Eng­lish consonant phoneme /rj/? 4. What is the difference in articulation between the English /m, n/ and the Russian /м, н/? 5. How are the sounds /m, n, r/ related to orthography?

Exercises

1. Define the sounds /m, n, n/.

2. State the articulatory differences between the English /m, n/ and the Rus­
sian /м, я/.

S. Describe the position of the tongue In the articulation of the English /m, n, q/. 4. Read these words and spell them. Translate them into Russian.

6m —9irj rsen—глд winz —wirjz win—wig SAn—элг| iteikn—iteikin sin —sirj глп —глп

*5. Transcribe these words, read and translate them into Russian.

yarn—young son—sung

thin—thing clean—cling

give in—giving not thing—nothing

drive in—driving go in—going

come in—coming own—owing

1 The practice of such combinations helps to obtain a nasal-fvowel with­out a plosive.

/~/ — знак назализации /—/ — знак долготы


sane — saying break in — breaking look in — looking

*6. Transcribe these words. Underline /rj/ with a single line, /rjg/ with tw& lines, /g/ with a wavy line.

bring, lungs, England, younger, anything else, nothing of the-kind, willingly, taking it, mingled, sleeping, thing, hungry, fishing, morning, driving on, longer, younger, getting on, spring, seeing a friend off, clasping in both hands

*7. Transcribe these words and use them to explain the /m, n, g/ relation to orthography.

writing, reading, going, gone, when, sung, hungry, sunk, thing, thick, hanger, hanker, rang, rank, comb, autumn, English, mingled

Constructive Noise Consonant Phonemes (Fricatives) /s, z, f, v,

e. a, h, j, 5/


I. /s/ is voiceless fort is, /z/ is voiced lenis;

II. lingual, iorelingual, apical, alveolar: the tip of the tongue rises
to the alveolar ridge, the sides of the tongue form a closure against

the upper side teeth;

III. constrictive, noise, unicentral with a round
narrowing;

IV. oral.

The /s, z/ phonemes are pronounced with a round narrowing or a groove, which is formed with the tip and the blade held close to the alveo­lar ridge. The sides of the tongue are raised forming a short and narrow groovelike or "round" depression — narrowing. The Russian /с, з/ are pronounced with the blade of the tongue close to the upper teeth (round narrowing). The tip of the tongue is passive and lowered (dorsal position).

Graphic Equivalents of the /s, z/ Phonemes

/s/ is pronounced when spelt:

s speak /spkk/—говорить

ss pass /pas/—проход, путь

с before e, i, y: certainly /'sertnli/—конечно, непременно, circle /'S3:kl/—круг, cynik /isinik/—циник

sc scene /si:n/—место действия (в пьесе, романе и т. д.), scis­sors /isizaz/—ножницы, scythe /saiö/—коса (серп), coalesce /kaualles/—соединяться, abscess /'sebsis/—нарыв

,78


seh in the word schism /sizm/—раскол, ересь ces in the middle of the word Leicester /'lesta/ tz in quartz /kwo:ts/—кварц

/s/ is not pronounced:

(1) in the words:

isle /ail/, island /laibnd/—остров, aisle /ail/—коридор, проход, Grosvenor /igrauvna/—Гросвенор

(2) in French borrowings:

corps /кэ:/—корпус, chamois /'Jaemi/—замша /z/ is pronounced when spelt:

z zeal /zi:l/—рвение, puzzle /'рлг1/—трудный вопрос

s if terminal or followed by vowels or voiced consonants:

houses /'hauziz/—дома, husband /'hAzband/—муж, walls /wo:Iz/—

стены, socialism /'saujghzm/ — социализм

ss in the words:

dessert /diiza;t/—десерт, dissolve /diizwlv/—растворять, hussar

/hu i zee/—гусар, p ossess /рэ' zes/ — владеть, scissors /' sizaz/—ножницы

If, v/

I. /f/ is voiceless fort is, hi is voiced lenis;

II. labial, labio-dental: the lower lip makes a
light contact -with the upper front teeth;

III. constrictive, noise, unicentral with a flat
narrowing;

IV. oral.

The narrowing between the upper teeth and the lower lip is flat or slit type.

Care should be taken not to devoice /v/ in terminal position. Cf.i

rove /rsuv/—ров /роф/ of /»v/—шов /шоф/

Graphic Equivalents of the /f, v/ Phonemes

/f/ is pronounced when spelt:

f fork /fo:k/—вилка

ff off /o(:)f/—более удаленный, дальний

ph physics /Ifiziks/—физика

pph sapphire /isaefara/—сапфир

ugh enough /i'nAf/—достаточный, laugh /lerf/—смеяться, cough

/fo:f, Ы/—кашлять, draught /draft/—сквозняк, tough /Ы/—

твердый, rough /глх/—грубый, неровный

/f/ is not pronounced in the words:

halfpenny /1Ье1р(э)ш/—полпенса, lieutenant Am. /lju:itenant/ and marine /la'tenant/, but: /lefitenant/—лейтенант


/v/ is pronounced when spelt:

v view /vju:/—вид f of /Dv/—от, о, об (preposition) ph nephew /'nevju/, but also /'nefju/—племянник, /'sti:vn/—Стивен


Stephen


/9, S/


I. II.

/9/ is voiceless fortis, /Ö/ is voiced lenis; ... lingual, forelingual, apical, interdental; III. constrictive, noise, unicentral with a flat or slit narrowing:

the air escapes over the whole surface of the tongue;

'There are no similar sounds in the Russian language. The place of incomplete obstructions is between the tip of the tongue (which may be slightly projected for /6/) and the rear of the upper teeth.

Energetic articulation oi /ö/ may also be interdental. It is usually post-dental with the tongue position a little behind the front teeth.

There are several mistakes the Russian stu­dents make in the articulation of /0, Ö/: they substitute /s, f/ for /Э/ and /z, v/ for /5/ and similarly the Russian /с, ф/ for /Э/ and /в, д/

1. To avoid the°r/f/ for /9/ articulation care should be taken
to observe the position of the lower lip, which should be lowered
from the edge of the upper teeth so that the lower teeth can be

Cupti

2. To avoid the /s/ for /9/ articulation the tip of the tongue
should be slightly projected between the teeth.

3. To avoid the /z/ for /Ö/ articulation observe the second rec­
ommendation and make the vocal cords vibrate to produce the
voiced consonant /9/. , ,. ,. , ЛЛЛГП

4. To avoid the /v/ for /Ö/ articulation observe the first recom­
mendation and make the vocal cords vibrate to produce the voiced
consonant /of. n „, . , . nUn

The substitution of /s, f, z, v, t, 1, d/ for /Э, Ö/ leads to pho­nological mistakes because they are different phonemes, ü ven below are contrast exercises, which may be helpful for distinguish­ing between /s, z, t, d/ and /9, Ö/.


/9/ vs. /s/

thick—sick mouth—mouse thumb—sum worth—worse


/e/ vs. /t/

thick—tick thought—taught three—tree heath—heat both—-boat fourth—fort



/Ö/ vs. /z/ /9/ -vs. /d/

seethe—sees then—den

lathe—laze though—dough

cl othe—close seet he—seed

breathe—breeze there—dare

other—udder

worthy—wordy

The exercise given below can be done to improve the pronuncia­tion of /6, ö/ in difficult combinations.

/S/ + /6/ this thing, sixth

/Z/ + /6/ his thumb

/S/ + /3/ pass the

/z/ + /5/ is this

/6/ + /s/ + /5/ Smith's there

/Ö/ + /z/-i-/Ö/ soothes them

Graphic Equivalents of the /6, 5/ Phonemes

/9, ö/ are always spelt th:

thick /6ikA—толстый, thin /0in/—тонкий, there /Зеэ/—там, with /wi5/—с (preposition)

/h/

I. voiceless fortis;

II. glottal;

III. constrictive, noise, unicentral, with a flat narrowing;

IV. oral.

The /h/ phoneme is pronounced when a strong stream of air is passing through the open glottis.

The articulators are in the position for the following vowel sound. A strong stream of air produces friction both at the glottis and throughout the vocal tract.

The lip and tongue position is that of the following vowel. In phonetic terms, /h/ can be considered a type of voiceless vowel. There are as many allophones of /h/ as there are vowels in English, which follow it,

Russian students often use the backlingual Russian /x/ instead of the glottal /h/. To avoid this mistake it is advisable to do contrast exercises of the following type;

хил —hill хала—hull худо—hood холл—hall хитр—heet

Graphic Equivalents of the /h/ Phoneme

/h/ is pronounced when spelt:

h how /hau/—как, hill /hil/—холм, hate /heit/—ненависть wh who /hu:/—кто, whom /hu:m/—кому


/h/ is not pronounced:

(1) in initial position:

hour /'am/—час, honest /'onist/—честный, honour /1опэ/—честь, heir /69/—наследник, heiress /'еэгк/—наследница

(2) in medial position:

exhaust /igizorst/—выпуск, выхлоп, exhibit /igizibit/—экспонат, vehicle /'vitikl/—■ автомобиль

(3) In the word shepherd /'Jepad/—пастух

IU 5/

I. HI voiceless fortis, /3/ voiced lenis;

II. lingual, iorelingual, apical, palato-alveolar, with a strong outer
lip-rounding and protrusion which contributes to the graver
character of the hiss as opposed to the sharper friction of /s, z/;

III. constrictive, noise, bicentral, with a front secondary focus,
with a flat narrowing;

IV. oral.

In the articulation of the /J\ g/ phonemes the tip and the blade are raised to the teethridge, forming a narrowing with the back of the alveolar ridge—primary focus. The front of the tongue is raised in the direction of the hard palate, forming the front secondary focus. The sounds /J, 5/ are soft or slightly palatal- jzed. The Russian/ш':, ж':/ are softer. They are spelt щ, жж as in: щель, дрожжи.

The Russian /ш, ж/ are hard sounds. They are produced with a back secondary focus and have the /ы/ colouring. To avoid the pronunciation of the Russian /ш':, ж':/ for the English /J1, 5/ it is useful to do a contrast exercise of the following type:

шип—J"i:p шит —Ji:t ложе—' шин—J"i:n кожа—'mesa тоже—' шик—Ji:k

Graphic Equivalents of the /J", 5/ Phonemes

/// is pronounced when spelt:

g jg/р ss assure /э^иэ/—уверять si Asia /leiJV—Азия, Persia /1рз:|э/—Персия sion after consonants: pension /'penjty—пенсия, version /lva;Jn/—перевод; версия ssi session /'se/n/—сессия, mission /'mr/n/—миссия

sh she /Ji:/—она sugar /ijuga/—сахар assure /э^иэ/увер


ti ration /iraejn/—паек, notion /'nsujn/—понятие se nausea /'пэфэ, ino:sis/—тошнота ci suspicion /sasipijn/—подозрение се ocean /isuj'n/—океан

sci + a vowel in the middle of a word after the accented syllable: conscience /iktm^ans/—совесть, conscientious/ iknnji'enj'ss/— добросовестный, честный

sch schedule /ij*edju:l/ (/iskedju:l/j4/ra.J—опись; расписание ch in French borrowings:

machine /maijirn/—машина, chivalry /'J'rvsln/'—рыцарство,

champagne /Jaem'pem/—шампанское, chaise /Jeiz/-— почтовая

карета x = /kJ7 in accented syllables:

luxury /ilAkJari/—-роскошь, anxious /lEerjkJss/—беспокойный

but in unaccented syllables—/gz/:

luxurious /kg'zjuams/—роскошный, anxiety /sen(g)'zaiati/—

тревога, беспокойство

/5/ is pronounced when spelt:

g regime /rei^v.m/—режим, rouge /ru:g/—румяна

su pleasure /'plega/—удовольствие

si decision /di'sigan/—решение

zi glazier /igleigs/ (more often /igleizis/)—стекольщик

zu azure /isegs/—голубой, лазурный

ti transition /trsen's^n/—переход; переходный период

zh Zhukov /i3uknv/—Жуков

Questions

1. To what classificatory groups do the /s, z, f, v/ sounds belong according to the I, II, III, IV principles of consonant classifica­tion? 2. Why are the /s, z/ consonants considered to be unicentral with a round narrowing? 3. What is the difference in articulation of the English /s, z/ and the Russian /c, s/? 4. Why are the /i, v/ consonants considered to be unicentral with a flat narrowing? 5. What is the articulatory difference between the English /f, v/ and the Russian /в/? 6. What are the graphic equivalents of the consonants /s, z, f, v/? 7. To what classificatory groups do the /9, Ö, h, J\ if sounds belong according to the I, II, III, IV prin­ciples? 8. Why is it difficult to master the pronunciation of /9, 8/? 9. Why is it difficult to master the pronunciation of /h/? 10. Why do the sounds /J, 5/ belong to the subgroup of bicentral with a front secondary focus? Compare them with the Russian /ш, ж, ш':, ж':/.

11. What are the difficulties in mastering the /J1, 3/ pronunciation?

12. What are the graphic equivalents of the consonants /8,9, h, J\ 3/?

Exercises

1, Define the consonant phonemes Is, z, f, v/.

2. State articulatory and phonemic differences between /s — z/, /f — v/,

/s — f/, /z — v/.


3. Define the consonant phonemes /9, Э/.

*4. Read these words, spell them and translate them into Russian.

0m —sin 9ik —tik hi:0 —hi:t mAn8s

9ik — sik 6o:t — to:t Ьэио —baut Öi eitQ zäun

9o:t —so:t 9ri: —tri: fo:9 —fo:t wiä_stjend

fo:9 —b:s si:6 —si:z klauB—kbuz kteuöz

mau8—maus leiö—leiz bri:B—bri:z siks0

блт —sAm 6en —den оеэ —des iz 6m

wa:9 —W3:s бэи —dau Uda —'Ada its 6is
si:6 —si:d iwa:5i—iw3:di huz 6set

*5. Transcribe these words and read them.

found—thousand fought—thought F i nns—th ings first —thirst free —three deaf —depth

6. State the articulatory differences between /6 — s/, /9 — t/, /9— f/, /9 — z/,
Id — v/, /d-d/, /ö — 1/.

7. Prove by minimal pairs that /0 — s/, /8 — t/, /6 — z/, /d — d/ are dif-
.. fcrent phonemes.

8/ Define the consonant phoneme /h/.

9. State articulatory differences between the English /h/ and the Russian /x/.

10. Read these words. Mind the pronunciation of /h/ as a pure sound of breath,

help, hall, house, here, hand, harm, heard, hold, head, hear, hot, hills, high, whole, he, his, has, him, 'hardship, 'holiday, 'horror, ho'tel, ihuman, 'happy, behind, ihither'to, 'heather, 'hand­some, 'hardly, 'horses, 'Henry, 'Holland, 'Hubert, iHelen *U. Transcribe toesej words. Translate them into Russian and read them.

all—hall ought—hot it —hit and —hand

ear—hear is —his ill —hill arm —harm

out—house oust —house as —has adds—hands

art—heart add—had air —hair

12.' Define the^consonant phonemes /J1, 3/.

13. Describe the bi central position of the tongue in the production of the noise /J, 3/ sounds.

*14. Read these words. Spell them and translate them orally into Russian.

Ji:p Jip ;ed Jeiv Jeip Ji:t Aid Jel J"eid .fai fun Juk Jetk Jeim Jam

iilek.Cn (bmpa'tijan 1р1езэ 'vi3n
ksnidi^n p:g8nai'zei,r9n '1езэ g'keign
ideh'geijn 'steijn di's^n 'тезэ

*15. Transcribe these words and read them.

she, sheep, shut, fish, brush, Irish, fishing, special, station, usual, usually, pleasure, shop, sugar, should, flash, British, English, anxious, anxiously, especially, Angelo, occasion, occasional


*16. Transcribe these words. Use them to explain the /s, z, f, v, 8, 9, h, J1, 3A relation to orthography,

pass, certainly, cynic, scythe, Leicester, isle, houses, husband, dessert, hussar, physics, sapphire, enough, draught, lieutenant, neph-•ew, Matthew, Galsworthy, exhaust, vehicle, shepherd, sugar, as­sure, version, notion, social, conscience, chivalry, chaise, regime, pleasure, decision, azure

Constrictive Sonorants (Approximants) /r, j, 1, w/

In the articulation of these consonant phonemes voice prevails over noise, therefore all of them are sonorants. They fall into three groups: median /w, r/, lateral /1/, and palatal /j/.

/r/

I. sonorant;

II. lingual, forelingual, cacuminal, post-alveolar;

III. constrictive, median, unicentral;

IV. oral.

The tip of the tongue is curled behind the back slope of the teeth­ridge. This position of the tip of the tongue is called post-alveolar, or cacuminal. If it is curled still further — retroflexed position. The air passes out of the mouth cavity through the median line: along the lowered front and the bunched-up back of the tongue, then through the narrowing formed by the tip and the r back slope of the teethridge. This passage is rath­er wide, so voice prevails over noise and the sound produced is a sonor ant. The main body of the tongue has lateral bunching: the sides of the tongue are in close contact with the back teeth and the palate. (In the/r/ production the tip and the blade oi the tongue are not so tense as in the articulation of the Russian/ж/ apical.)

The similar Russian sound /p/ (apical sonorant) is characterized by a different manner of the production of noise: the tip of the tongue vibrates in the flow of air and interrupts it repeatedly forming mo­mentary obstructions against the teethridge. The Russian sound /p/ is rolled, or trilled.

To pronounce /r/ in the proper way care should be taken to hold the tip of the tongue placed in post-alveolar position while breathing the air out of the mouth cavity.

Combinations /r + ai/ are most simple, they should be practised and learnt first: right /rait/, bright /brait/, try /trai/, dry /drai/, grind /gramd/; only after that, other combinations are to be practised.

Graphic Equivalents of the /1/ Phoneme

/r/ is pronounced when spelt:

г red /red/—красный

rr merry /'men/—веселый


wr write /rait/—писать rh rhythm /пЗт/—ритм

/r/ is not pronounced at the end of the word and before a vowel:

star /sta/—звезда, first /fe:st/—первый, door /do:/—дверь, farm /fa:m/—ферма

/r/ is pronounced at the end of the word if it is followed by another word with an initial vowel:

before I go /biifo:r__,ai 1дэи/—прежде чем уйти

By analogy this "linking" /r/ intrudes sometimes into the pro­nunciation of such combinations as:

drama and music, India and Pakistan, law and order, area of agreement

The intrusive /r/ should be avoided.

In the American pronunciation It! is retroflexed, the tip of the tongue is curled further back behind the back slope of the teethridge and the vowels which precede /r/ acquire the It/ colouring. The re­troflexed allophone of the /r/ phoneme has the symbol Ц1< It is pro­nounced with noticeable lip-rounding and protrusion.

bird /ba:d/ /b3;jd/ firm Дз:т/ /fs-.jm/ Lord /b:d/ /lo:jd/

/J/

I. spnorant;

II. lingual: medi о-lingual, palatal;

III. constrictive, median, unicentral;

IV. oral.

A. C. Gimson calls it a "semi-vowel" because it is pronounced as "a rapid vocalic glide on to a syllabic sound of a greater steady dura­tion." г The tongue immediately glides from the position for /jV to that of the following vowel, this second element of the glide is more promi­nent than the first, e.g. /jes/.

In the articulation of /j/ the front part of the tongue is raised to the hard palate but not so high as to produce much friction. The tip of the tongue is lowered. The air passes out of the mouth cavity along the central, median part of the tongue, the sides of the tongue are raised.

Care should be taken to avoid much noise and not to make the tongue tense when /j7 is articulated, especially in initial position:

yes, yield, yard, you, youth, yawn, yellow

1 Gimson A. C. Op. cit,— P. 207.


'"The Russian Ш is pronounced with more friction, which is the result of the higher position of the front part of the tongue to the hard palate.

Graphic Equivalents of the (\[ Phoneme

/j/ is pronounced when spelt:

у yes /jes/—да, yield /ji:Id/—уступать, yeast /ji:st/~дрожжи i opinion /a'pmjsn/—'Мнение, onion /'лщэп/—лук, familiar Дэ'пн-

lja/—знакомый u in initial position:

union /'ju:nj3n/—союз, unite /ju:'nait/—объединяться, use /]u:s/—польза, usual /1]'и:зиэ1/—обычный in medial position:

duty /'dju:ti/—долг, mute /mju:t/—немой eu in initial position:

euphony /i ju:fsni/—благозвучие in. medial position:

neuter /!nju:t3/—средний, feud /fju:d/—вражда ue rescue /'reskju:/—спасение, due /dju:/—должный ewe ewe /ju:/—овца, ewer /!ju:9/—кувшин eur Europe /iju:9rap/—Европа

eau beauty /'bju:ti/—красота, beautician /bjui'tij'sn/—косметичка ew, iew in medial and final positions:

few /fju:/—немного, new /nju:/—новый, dew /dju:/—роса, news /nju:z/—новости, sewage /'sju:i<33/—сточные воды, view /vju:/—вид

/w/

I. sonorant.1 Like /j/, /w/ is pronounced with a glide onto another
vowel of greater prominence;

II. labial, bilabial, the tongue begins to move from an /u/-like
vowel with strongly rounded lips;

III. constructive, bicentral, velar, median
with a round narrowing;

IV. oral.

This sound is bicentral. The first, or prima­ry, focus is formed by the lips which are pro­truded and rounded. The second, or back secon­dary focus is formed by the back part of the tongue which is raised to the soft palate (velum). The flow of air passes out of the mouth cavity without any audible friction along the median line of the tongue, its sides being raised, and through the round narrowing formed by the protruded lips, which instantaneously part, The vocal cords vi­brate.

There is no similar sound in the system of Russian consonants.

1 A. C. Gimson terms it a "semi-vowel" as well as /j/.


There is"Vdanger of confusing /w/ with /v/. This mistake is pho­nemic, because bilabial vs. Iabio-dental articulatory features in these two phonemes serve to differentiate the meaning of the words, e.g.

whale кит—veil вуаль west запад—vest нижняя со«

рочка; вставка

wine вино—vine виноградная worse хуже—verse стих лоза

Graphic Equivalents of the /w/ Phoneme

/w/ is pronounced when spelt:

w sweet /swi:t/—сладкий

wh why /wai/—почему, what /wiat/—что, which /\ut|Y—какой

qu quite /kwait/—совсем, square /skwes/—площадь

su persuade /ps'sweid/—убеждать

And also in the words:

one /wah/—один, once /WAns/—однажды, choir /kwaia/—хор

/w/ is not pronounced:

(1) when followed by r:

write /rait/—писать, wrong /rug/—зло; неверно

(2) in the words:

who /hu:/—кто, whose /hu:z/—чей, чье, whom /hu:m/—кого, whole /haul/—целое, towards /to:dz, ta'woidz/—по направлению к, two /tu:/—два, twopence /iUp(3)ns/—два пенса, answer /lanss/ — ответ, sword /so:d/—меч:

(3) in the geographical names ending in -wich, -wick:
Greenwich /'grmicfe/—Гринвич, Chiswick /itfizik/—Чизик

N

I. sonorant;

II. lingual, forelingual apical, alveolar: the tip and the blade are
slightly pressed against the alveolar ridge;

III. constrictive, lateral, bicentral, front secondary focus [1], back
secondary focus [I];

IV. oral.

There are two positional allophones of the /1/ phoneme in English: one is the "clear", or "soft" [1], it is pronounced with the front secondary focus; the other- variant of the /1/ phoneme is the "dark" [1], it is pronounced with the back secondary focus, i.e. the back of the tongue is raised towards the velum in a concave shape, it gives a back-central vowel type resonance to /1/.


back secondary focus


front secondary focus


The soft [1] is pronounced before vowels and /j/, the dark [I] is pronounced in word final position and before consonants.

in m

leap, lean, flee, Lewis bill, hill, mill, well, cold

In the articulation of the /1/ phoneme the tip with the blade of the tongue is pressed against the teethridge to form an obstruction. The air escapes rather freely along the sides of the tongue, which are lowered (usually only one side of the tongue is lowered) (lateral ar­ticulation).

The English soft [1] is not so soft as the Russian /л7 (in the artic­ulation of the Russian /л7 the front part of the tongue is raised still higher to the hard palate). To avoid extra palatalization in the artic­ulation of the English soft 111 the following contrast exercises are recommended:

лев —/left/ лес —/les/ лили—/Uih/

лип—/lip/, /H:p/ люк—/luk/
лед —/Ы/ лет —/let/

The Russian soft and hard /л, л7 are separate phonemes, because each of them serves to differentiate the meaning or words:

мол—моль лот—лёд ел —ель мел—мель дал—даль угол—уголь

Graphic Equivalents of the /I/ Phoneme

/1/ is pronounced when spelt:

I lay /lei/—класть

II well /wel/—колодец, родник; хорошо

/1/ is not pronounced in the following words:

would /wud/—тяга, желание, should /Jud/ (past of shall), talk /to:k/—беседа, walk/wo:k/—ходьба, folk/fsuk/—люди, balm /bam/— бальзам, calm /kcum/—тишь, calf /ka:f/—теленок, half /ha-f/—по­ловина, almond /lamand/—миндаль, salmon /'sseman/—лосось

Questions

1. To what classificatory groups do the /r, j, 1, w/ sounds belong according to the I, II, III, IV principles of consonant classification? 2. Why are the /r, w/ sounds Jconsidered median, /1, II — lateral, /j/ — palatal? 3. What are the articulatory differences between the

89


English /r, j, 1,1, w/ ana the Russian /p, й, л, в/? 4, What are the pho­nemic differences between the English /1, \l and the Russian /л, л'/?

5. Why do the sounds II, w/ belong to the subgroup of bicentral with
a back secondary focus? 6. What are the ways to avoid mistakes the
Russian students make in mastering the/r, j, 1, w/ pronunciation?
7. How are the English constrictive sonorants related to orthography?

Exercises

1. Define the sonorants /r, j, I, w/.

*2. Read these words. Spell them. Underline the devoiced allophones of the hi phoneme.

rait, raid, raip, krai, "kraisis, prais, grei, bred, ri:d, ri:p, 'rhzn, rl:tf, ndg, risk, frend, frans, rig, rod, rsen, rsen, rot, run, greit, trai, ru-.l, ru:f, ru:ra, red, rest, iredi, pres, pn'zent, raej, rag, 'trhzn, intn, reu, raud, 'preznt

*3. Transcribe these words and read them.

rates, red, room, roast, round, rose, record, regular, railway, run­ning, really, Mary, married, friends, Crusoe, drive, prices, true, drowned, dressing, worry, forehead, hundred, temperature, carried, period, borrowed, currents, different, fever, comfort, heather, world, America, cigarette, modern, matter, mother, were, weary, scenery, curly, coloured, never, for, story, figure, work, doors, part, four, car

4. Read these sentences. Mind the linking hi in terminal position before a vowel which begins a new word.

1. Hotels are expensive in the South. 2. You can see Moscow grow before your eyes. 3. There is a theatre and a bar in the building of the new hotel. 4. There are hostels all over the place. 5. The weather gets nicer and nicer. 6. There are a number of small islands on thenv-er. 7. There are more sheep in Wales than anywhere in the British Isles. 8. In Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens you forget that you are in a big city. 9. Americans are a sociable people they say. 10. The local newspapers were |a surprise to me.

*5. Transcribe these words. Read them. Mind the /j/ articulation.

young, youth, your, year, yet, yesterday, used to, news, human, museum, suit, few, reviews, used, capsules

6. Read these words. Observe the light [i] before front, mixed and back vowels.

large, lots, look, luck, low, o'clock, looking, absolutely, flushed, following, lost, along, kilometer, fellow, slums, clean, let, late, glad­ly, realize, lived, letter, plain, blank, learned, willing, left, place, landed, linked, glorious, lovely, lonely, clasp, long, looked, London, clothes, glass, longer, applause, broom

7. Read these words. Observe the dark [1J in terminal ..position and before^a
consonant (not /j/).

jelp, meals, adult, cold, miles, old, world, rebuilt, will, special, restful, still, rule, wild, twelve, deal, I'll, chuckle, helps, bald, bold


8. Underline the letters, which represent in spelling the dark [i] with one line and the light [1] with two lines in the words given below.

felt, hills, always, least, holiday, letter, plans, like, soil, total, gentle, little, left, explain, slack, coloured, light-headed, small, people, hostel, sleep, believe, lit, reply, model, hotel, article, lasted, longer, looked, lunch, will, special, restful, laughed, long, low, smile, nearly, usual, led, final, place, deal, clapping, fell, loudest

*9, State the articulatory differences between the English and the Russian sounds,

M —/p/

■ ■ I'll —/й/ [1] —/л/ -M7

/w/—/в/

*10. Give some examples to prove that the Russian /л/, /л У are separate pho­nemes and the English [Ij, [I] are allophones of one and the same phoneme.

*11. What can you prove by the examples given below?

when—van worse—verse went —vent west—vest week — Vi с weary—very

*12. Transcribe these words. Use them to explain how the It, j, 1, w/ sounds are related to orthography.

yes, opinion, onion, unite, mute, neuter, Europe, sewage, would, talk, folk, balm, Lincoln, which, once, choir, whose, towards, sword

Occlusive-Constrfctive Noise Phonemes (Affricates) /tf, d$f

I. /t|7 voiceless fortis, /63/ voiced lenis;

II. lingual, fore- and raediolingual, apical, palato-alveolar;

III. occlusive-constrictive (affricates) bicentral
(front secondary focus) with a flat narrowing;

IV. oral.

From the articulatory point of view /tf, dg/ are indivisible clusters of two sounds: /t/ + / f/ = /tf/;

+ /3/ /3

/tr, ds/ are bicentral. The first, or primary, focus is formed by the tip and the blade of the tongue, touching the back part of the teethridge; the contact is relatively slowly released into friction.1 The second, or front secondary focus is formed by the front part of the tongue, which is raised to the hard palate.

There are two affricates in the system of Russian consonants — /ч7 and /ц/. The English /tf/ and the Russian K/ fare almost similar, but in the Russian /ч7 articulation the front part of the

1 "The friction present in the affricate is of shorter duration, than that which characterizes the fricative proper." (Gimson A. C. Op. cit.— P. 166.)


tongue is raised higher to the hard palate, than in /tf/ articta-taffon. The Russian /ч1/ is softer than the English /tf/.

In order to avoid /tj1, d.5/ confusion the following exercise is recommended:

catches ловит — cadges попрошайничает riches богатства — ridges горные хребты lunch ленч — lunge бросок beseech умолять — besiege осаждать

There is no sound in the Russian language similar to /д§1, but where the Russian /ч7 is voiced under the influence of the following voiced consonants /б, д, г, s, ж/ we hear a sound similar to M5/:

меч златой с плеч долой ключ забыл врач дома луч заката

Care should be taken to pronounce both parts of the affricate /d5/ simultaneously. Cf.:

Джон—/dgrcn/ John Джек—/dgaek/ Jack Джейн—/eisern/ Jane-

The Russian /ц/ is one more affricate, which can be defined as* occlusive, noise, forelingual, dorsal, dental, voiceless. The English /ts/ is a cluster of two consonants—/t/ + /s/, e.g. cats /kgets/.

/tf/ is pronounced when spelt:

ch child /tfaild/—ребенок

ich kitchen /ikitfsn/—кухня

tu nature /'neitfa/—природа

ii question /ikwestfsn/—вопрос

te righteous /'raitfss/—праведный

Also in the word mischief /imistfif/—вред.

/ds/ is pronounced when spelt;

J joy /Ф1/—радость

g before e, i, у in French and Latin borrowings: giant /idJjarant/—гигант, gem /dgem/—драгоценный камень, gyps-/d3ips/—гипс

ge, gi in the middle of the word in an accented syllable, between the vowel sounds:

advantageous /isedvcmiteidgas/—выгодный, legion /ilüdsan/— легион ge at the end of words:

large /lads/—большой, singe /sincfe/—спалить, подпалить, but rouge /ru:g/—румяна

dg budget /ibAdgit/—бюджет, knowledge /1п»1к%/—знание du verdure /'vaidgs/—зелень de grandeur /fgraanclsa/—величие, великолепие di soldier /'вэиИзз/—солдат

ch Greenwich /igrmids/—Гринвич, sandwich /1ssenwidg/—сандвич, бутерброд

m


Questions

1. To what classificatory groups do the /tj1, dg/ phonemes belong according to the I, II, III, IV principles of consonant classifica­tion? 2. Why are the /tf, dg/ sounds considered to be affricates? 3. What is the articulatory difference between the English /tj\ dg/ and the Russian /ч', ц/? 4. Is the presence of voice in /<%/ a pho­nemic feature? 5. What are the articulatory difficulties in the /tj1, dg/ production? 6. How are the consonants /tj", dj/ related to orthography?1

Exercises

I. Define the affricates /tf, cfc/.

*2. State the acoustic, articulatory and phonemic differences between ДГ, d*/' and /tr, dr, ts, tz, 0, da/.

"3. Read these words. Spell them and translate them into Russian orally.

tfin ifama if up dgim peids djem

tfek tfarid wutj1 dgra tfeindg азо:<%

fes ntf tfoik id3imi ^em 'dgaimsni

fern inAtf kauf eid3 d§eek dgu:n

*4. Transcribe these words and read them.

cheap, cheek, chief, chin, channel, gentle, gently, germs, stranger,, middle-aged, rich, which, such, much, lunch, watch, age, page, large, college, cottage, sandwiches, Manchester, manufacturers, enjoy­ment, arrangement, engagement, detached, temperature, natural

5. Explain the articulatory differences (a) between the English /tf/ and the-Russian AiV; (b) between the English /dj/ and similar Russian comb -ti'ons.

*6. Transcribe these words. Use them to explain how the /tf, (I3/ sounds are related to orthography.

child, nature, question, righteous, mischief, joy, gem, gyps, advantageous, legion, budget, knowledge, grandeur, soldier, Greenwich'

SUBSIDIARY VARIANTS OF ENGLISH CONSONANT PHONEMES

Allophonic variants of consonants should be analysed from the viewpoint of CV, VC, CC connections. There are some rules to this effect that can be formulated in the following way.

1. In initial prevocalic position the number of allophones of con­
sonant phonemes is adequate to the number of vowels that follow
them.

2. Voiced consonants in initial position are gradually voiced
(strong end, weak beginning).

3. In terminal post-vocalic position the number of allophones-
is adequate to the number of vowels that precede them.

4. Voiced consonants in terminal position are gradually devoiced*
(weak end, strong beginning).

93;


5. In medial position voiced consonants are fully voiced.

6. Consonants are shorter in initial position than in terminal po­
sition.

7. Similar voiced consonants are shorter before voiceless, longer
before voiced and the longest in free terminal position.

8. In CC transition plosive consonants may lose their plosion or
its character may be modified: loss of plosion, nasal, lateral plosion.

9. In CC transition constrictive consonants may be pronounced
with terminated constriction under the influence of the following
consonant.

10. Plosive constrictives and affricates may be modified by the
influence of nasal /m, n/, palato-alveolar /j/, interdental /0, 5/, post-
alveolar /r/, bilabial /w/, etc.

Given below are the most important allophonic variants of Eng­lish consonant phonemes.

Phonemes /p, t, k, b, d, g, if, d$/ occur in all positions.

1. Aspirated: pass, picture, Peter. Aspiration may also be heard in
final position: top.

2. Modified by the following vowel: pea, pit, pet, pat, palm, pot,
paw, pun, put, pool, purr, parade, pay, pie, pound, poach, peer, pore,
poor.

3. Modified by the preceding vowel: Up, leap, step, clap, harp,
hip, thorp, stoop, up, chirp, wallop, tape, type, hope, sharp.

4. No release: supped, what place.

5. Release partly lost: spleen, splendid, helps, step, hop, top.

6. Lateral release: people, couple, apple.

7. Nasal release: open, happen,

8. Modified by /j/— palatalized: pewter;

/r/— post-alveolar: price, surprise, press; /9/— dental: depth; /w/ — labialized: Pueblo.

Generally preglottalized [?p] when syllable final before conso­nants — top, spin.

/b/

1. Modified by the following vowel: bit, bet, bad, bar, box, bought,
but, book, boot, burr, banana, bay, by, bow, boy, beer, boor, bore.

2. Modified by the preceding vowel: grebe, nib, ebb, cab, garb, mob,
orb, tube, tub, verb, hubbub, babe, imbibe, globe.

3. Fully voiced between voiced sounds: labour.

4. Partly devoiced (a) initially: balm, bee, bet;

(b) finally: ebb, nib, cab.

5. No release: rubbed, sob bitterly, ebbed, stabbed.

6. Lateral release: able, table, bible.

 

7. Nasal release: ribbon, stubborn.

8. Modified by /j/ — palatalized: beauty;


It I — post-alveolar:



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