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Unit 4 NATURAL GARDEN ELEMENTS I. Warming up ( Разминка ) Listening & Speaking  1. Group work. Reflect on the following proverb about the garden, interpret it and share your ideas with the class. Get ready to discuss different points of view answering questions and persisting in your own opinion . (See appendix 1.) “The garden must be prepared in the soul first or else it will not flourish”. - An English proverb.   Useful terms and phrases 2. Read the following terms and phrases, mind their pronunciation:
to consider various factors учитывать различные особенности, факторы
to flourish расцветать
manmade/artificial созданный человеком, рукотворный
to select soil подбирать, выбрать почву
soil texture структура почвы
nutrient питательное вещество
soil pH рН почвы, мера кислотности и щёлочности
for the decorative purpose с декоративной целью
to keep the plants healthy and growing   содержать цветы в хорошем состоянии, способствовуя их росту
 healthy plant growth здоровый рост, нормальное развитие
organic matter перегной
plant root корень растения
primary nutrient действующее вещество
growth of plants рост, развитие растений
water-soluble растворимый в воде
stem стебель, ствол
scale to measure мера измерения
within a particular range в пределах определённого разброса величин
characteristic properties характерные свойства

Vocabulary Focus

3. Match the words and phrases to their translation:


to create a garden существенный элемент
manmade/artificial elements подбирать почву
to consider various factors питательные вещества
essential element созданные человеком, рукотворные элементы
to select soil учитывать различные факторы
soil texture создать сад
nutrients структура почвы
soil pH слюдянистый песчаник
for the decorative purpose белый мрамор
flagstone мелкий гравий
white mar le с декоративной целью
pea gravel мера кислотности и щёлочности почвы


boulder строительные элементы
to keep the plants healthy and growing   здоровый рост, нормальное развитие растений
constructed elements придавать привлекательный вид
garden path живая изгородь
to prettify/ give attraction to бутон, цветочная почка
timber fence содержать цветы в хорошем состоянии, способствовуя их росту
hedge садовая дорожка
primary nutrient   валун, крупная галька
healthy plant growth деревянный забор
fl wer bud действующее вещество


to cause excess growth перегной
scale to measure крупноразмерный
decaying materials рост, развитие растений
organic matter в пределах определённого разброса величин
plant root вызвать избыточный/ излишний рост
stem of the plant растворимый в воде
growth of plants гниющие вещества
within a particular range превращать в
large sized стебель, ствол растения
to turn into корень растения
water-soluble мера измерения


II . Evocation ( Вызов)

Listening & Speaking

4. Group work. Make assumptions about the content of the text entitled “Elements of     the garden”. Answer the following questions and report your ideas to the class.

1. What is this text about?

2. What garden elements does the garden comprise?

3. Can you describe these elements?



5. Fill in the first column of the “logbook”( бортовой журнал):


I know about the garden elements I have learnt about the garden elements

III. Realization ( Осмысление )


6. Read the following terms and phrases, mind their pronunciation:

texture and fertility структура и плодородие
cohesiveness способность к прилипанию
soil particle частица почвы
available имеющийся в наличии
soil fertility жирность почвы
silt ил
clay soil глинистая почва
closely packed плотно прилегающий
sandy-loam суглинистая почва
trace elements микроэлементы
potassium калий
nitrogen азот
molybdenum молибден
magnesium   магний, магнезия
to replenish пополнять
to make available предоставлять
excess amount избыточное количество
in place of вместо
root cap корневой чехлик


7. Read the text and fill in the second column of the “logbook”:


I know about the garden elements I have learnt about the garden elements

Natural garden elements

Gardening is a practice to grow plants. However, creating a garden is not that easy. You need to consider various factors when you are planning to have your own garden.

Elements of a garden are very important while creating the garden. The garden elements are mainly of two types: natural and manmade (artificial) elements.

These are the natural elements, which are necessary for gardening. They consist of natural things such as soil, rocks, water, plants etc.

· Soil : This is the most essential element for successful gardening. Three important things should be considered while selecting the soil such as the soil texture, soil nutrients and soil pH.

· Rocks : There are various types of rocks used in the garden for the decorative purpose. The different types of rocks are flagstones, white marble, river rock, pea gravel, boulders, fake rock, etc.

· Plants : Different types of plants are used for various types of gardening. For example: if you are planning to create a vegetable garden, then select plants such as tomatoes, radish, carrot etc.

· Water: Water is the most essential element for gardening. Watering the plants regularly is necessary to keep the plants healthy and growing.



Garden Soil

Soil is the most fundamental and important component for successful gardening. Generally, soil quality is evaluated on its texture and fertility. However, texture is dependent on the cohesiveness and size of the soil particles. Soil fertility is comprised of all the required nutrients and pH of the soil available for the growth of the plants. Garden soil is the basic factor for creating a garden. It is very essential to have correct soil texture with proper fertility for healthy plant growth. Soil should be a good mixture of clay, sand, organic matter and silt. The following are the requirements that should be available in your gardening soil:

Soil texture: The texture of the soil is very much associated with the cohesiveness and size of the soil particles. For instance, sandy soil consists of very large sized soil particles. In this type of soil, water, roots of the plants and air can move easily. However, on the other hand, there is clay soil. In clay soil the soil particles are very small and closely packed which gives very little room for air, water and roots. To test whether, the soil is sandy or clay in nature, make a damp ball using your garden soil. If it breaks easily, it is sandy and if you are able to press the ball between your fingers making a ribbon, then it is clay in nature. The most ideal soil type for gardening is sandy-loam. The soil should be light enough for movement of the water and air in the soil.

Soil nutrients: The most basic and primary nutrients used by the plants are potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus. Some other trace elements required for plant growth are zinc, calcium, molybdenum, magnesium and many more besides.

Potassium is needed for the health of the plants. It is the main factor for growth of the plants and protection of their immune system. It is water-soluble and its replenishing should be done timely.

Nitrogen is the most important and responsible element for good growth of the leaves and stems of the plants. Generally, the natural nitrogen is made available for the plants by some microorganisms that turn the natural nitrogen into nitrates. This nitrate form can be easily used by the plants. It does not stay in the soil for a longer period as it is used by the plants quickly or by the decaying materials present in soil. It is also soluble in water and may wash out the soil quickly. However, excess amount of nitrogen in the soil may cause excess growth of the leaves in place of the fruits and flowers.

Phosphorous is the main element for the growth of the root system of a plant. The root caps and flower buds generally use some amount of phosphorous for their growth.

Soil pH: The pH is the scale to measure the acidity and alkalinity of your garden soil. It starts from 1.0 to 14.0 with a neutral i.e. 7.0. The numbers lower than 7.0 indicate the acidity while above 7.0 indicates alkalinity. The pH of the soil is very important because the nutrients are only available in the soil for the healthy growth of the plants within a particular range of the soil pH. Most of the plants grow comfortably in range of between 6.2 and 6.8.


Listening & Speaking

8. Pair work. Discuss and answer the following questions:

1. What is important about creating a garden?

2. What element is necessary to achieve success in gardening?

3. What factors should you take into account while selecting the soil?

4. What soil type is the most suitable for gardening?

5. What is the main factor for plant growth?

6. What elements are responsible for good leaves and stems growth?


Vocabulary Focus

9. Match the words from two columns to create a phrase and make sentences to use them in your own text entitled “Recommendation for soil preparation”. Share your ideas with the partner:  


characteristic of the soil particles
to give room of clay, sand, organic matter and silt
to evaluate a garden
to create basic and primary nutrients
size elements required for plant growth
a mixture on texture and fertility
press properties
the most for air
trace the ball between fingers



needed of the fruits and flowers
protection the soil
responsible for materials present in soil
to turn for the plant health
to stay of their immune system
decaying amount of phosphorous
to wash out the natural nitrogen into nitrates
to cause system of a plant
in place in the soil
root for good growth
some excess growth of the leaves


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