In the text, find the answers to the following questions.

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In the text, find the answers to the following questions.

1. What do special tax treatments involve?

2. What is a purpose of the present simplified taxation system?

3. How can the unified tax be calculated?

4. Do small businesses have the same opportunities as large companies?

5. Who cannot use the simplified taxation system?

6. Which is better for small businesses: reduced taxation or simplified accounting? Why?

7. What can be foreseen in case of expanding the definition of companies and entrepreneurs who could use the simplified taxation system?

8. Is it an advantage to hold a Russian start-up directly? Why? Why not?


Exercise 3. Find a word in the text that matches each definition below. The words appear in order.

1. (three words) An area within a country where imported goods can be stored or processed without being subject to import duty.                     _______________

2. Someone who exercises initiative by organizing a venture to take benefit of an opportunity and, as the decision maker, decides what, how and how much of a good or service will be produced.                                    _______________

3. (two words) An association, corporation, partnership, trust, or individual that has legal standing in the eyes of law.                                     _______________

4. (three words) Indirect tax on the domestic consumption of goods and services, except those that are zero-rated (such as food and essential drugs) or are otherwise exempt (such as exports). It is levied at each stage in the chain of production and distribution.                                                                  _______________

5. A person or a company that has to pay tax.               _______________

6. (three words) To be made, done, or said for a particular purpose or person.


7. Betting (wagering) that must result either in a gain or a loss. _______________

8. (two words) Something that takes a long time to do. _______________

9. Legal possession of something, usually something big and valuable. _________

10. The volume of goods and services that a company sells in a particular period of time.                                                                                 ________________

Exercise 4. Sentence completion.

Read the text and complete it with the following words.

provide            tourist             metal               foreign   zones aviation     innovation       production      demand

Free economic zones

Today special economic ______ (1) (SEZ) are one of the most effective instruments of attracting investment to Russia. There are 28 special economic zones of 4 different types:

- 6 Industrial and ________ (2) zones (in Republic of Tatarstan, Lipetsk, Samara, Sverdlovsk, Pskov and Kaluga regions);

- 5 Technology and ________ (3) zones (in Moscow, Saint-Petersburg, Tomsk, Dubna (Moscow region) and Republic of Tatarstan);

- 14 ________ (4) and recreational zones (in Republic of Altai, Republic of Buryatia, Altai Territory, Stavropol Territory, Primorsky Territory, Irkutsk region, also there is cluster in the Krasnodar Territory, Republic of Ingushetia, Republic of Dagestan, Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of Adygeya, Kabardino-Balkar Republic, Karachi-Cherkess Republic and Chechen Republic);

- 3 Port zones (in Ulyanovsk, Murmansk regions and Khabarovsk Territory).

SEZ in Russia are located in the most developed regions. There are hi-technology enterprises, scientific and research laboratories in the zones. By December 2013 there were 338 residents in the special economic zones, including leading ________ (5) companies from 24 countries, among them there are the major transnational companies: Ford, Yokohama, 3M, Air Liquide, Rockwool, Hayat, Novartis, etc. The total volume of scheduled investments is more than US $12 billion.

Residents of technology and innovation zones obtained 350 industrial patents. The world’s largest companies, such as Boeing, Airbus, Apple are among the consumers of SEZ residents products, and such companies as Phillips, Samsung, IBM, etc. are their partners. The SEZ residents’ products are in ________ (6), and this indicates the high potential of SEZ as a tool to support innovative companies, through which residents compete successfully in the global market.

Currently we are working on building technological cooperation between companies and on clusters creation. For example, the largest cluster in the country is creating now in SEZ "Toliatti". It will ______ (7) a full cycle of cars production, including the production of engines and other high-tech components, presented by leading companies from Germany and Japan.

Besides, there is the cluster on production of automobile tires in SEZ in Lipetsk region. There is a complete set of production from polymer additives to ______ (8) cord (Yokohama, Lanxess, Bekaert).

The __________ (9) cluster is now creating within the port SEZ "Ulyanovsk", which provides establishment, repair and servicing aircraft equipment. "Ulyanovsk" residents represented by such well-known companies as "Volga-Dnepr", FLTechnics, Viking, AAR and others.


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