What are the Pros and Cons of a Regressive Tax?



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What are the Pros and Cons of a Regressive Tax?



1.______________________

Advocates of sales, excise, and property taxes argue that these types of tax are fundamentally better than other types of tax and that the use of such taxes may have a positive impact on the behavior of members of society. Opponents of this type of taxation focus on the issue of fairness as well, but define fairness differently, and generally believe that ability to pay should be the main standard used in assigning the burden of taxes, rather than consumption or ownership. Opponents of these taxes will also often assert that this type of tax encourages the stratification of society, thereby weakening the middle class.

 

2.____________________

A regressive tax falls most heavily, in percentage terms, on people with the least income. A sales tax is one very common regressive tax. People in higher income brackets tend to spend a smaller percentage of their income on purchases impacted by sales taxes and, therefore, pay a smaller overall percentage of their incomes in sales tax than do people in lower income brackets. Excise taxes, such as the gasoline tax, and property taxes are also regressive. Progressive taxes, on the other hand, fall more heavily on people with larger incomes.

        

3.______________________

One common argument used to support these types of taxes is that they are fairer. In this view, the tax falls equally on all purchases. Anyone who purchases a particular taxable item pays the same amount.

 

4.______________________

Another argument, often used to support regressive tax, is that such taxes foster desirable economic behavior. Excise taxes, such as taxes on cigarettes and alcohol, are meant to have an impact on behavior, and these taxes, together with the sales tax, may curb consumption of certain goods and services. In this case, they can be used to urge people to avoid dangerous behaviors but encourage savings, which are typically excluded from taxation under this sort of tax plan.

 

5._______________________

Opponents of regressive tax often share the conviction that fairness in taxation is important but define fairness differently than those who support them. They generally believe that it is more important to avoid imposing tax burdens that impose an undue hardship than to avoid imposing taxes at unequal rates. In this view, progressive taxes, which fall most heavily on people with the greatest ability to pay, are fairer, as they cause less economic hardship. A further argument against any kind of regressive tax hinges on the importance of maintaining a strong middle class. Supporters of this position typically hold that tax policy should be designed to foster the growth of a middle class by making it relatively easy to rise into that class but relatively difficult to become tremendously wealthy. A regressive policy, they believe, leads to the opposite situation and makes it easier to leave the middle class in either direction.

 

(b)  Match these headlines (A-E) with the gaps in the article (1-5).

A      The fairness of the tax

B      Regressive tax

C      The cons of a regressive tax

D      The heaviest tax on low-income earners

E      The pros of a regressive tax

 

Exercise 6.

Fill in the following prepositions where necessary.

at (x2)        by         from (x2) on          in

1. Indirect taxation is a system of collecting taxes ___ adding an amount to the price of goods and services that people buy.

2. Sales tax levied ___ the manufacture, purchase, sale, or consumption of a specific commodity is known as an excise tax.

3. Direct taxes are taxes on persons; they are aimed ___ the individual’s ability to pay as measured by his income or his net wealth.

4. Income taxes are often levied ___ graduated rates, that is, at rates that rise as income rises.

5. Sales tax is a tax that you have to pay ___ addition to the cost of something you are buying.

6. Progressive tax is a tax that takes a larger percentage of money ___ people with higher incomes than ___ people with lower incomes.

 

Exercise 7. Word formation.



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