ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Техника нижней прямой подачи мяча.
Франко-прусская война (причины и последствия)
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Смысловое и механическое запоминание, их место и роль в усвоении знаний
Коммуникативные барьеры и пути их преодоления
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Образцы текста публицистического стиля
Четыре типа изменения баланса
Задачи с ответами для Всероссийской олимпиады по праву
ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?
Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Newspapers and magazines in Ukraine
Newspapers started being published in Ukraine in the 18th century. There was, for example, the “Lviv Courier”, in polish, in 1749. But Ukrainian periodicals began with the “Kharkiv Weekly” 1812 and “Kharkiv News”, 1817. After the World War II the Russian language periodicals began to dominate. Since Ukraine gained its independence the proportion of newspapers and magazines in Ukrainian increased again. A total of 2,659 newspapers were published in Ukraine in 1998 with annual circulation of 3,096 mln copies, plus 1,009 magazines with the annual circulation of 57 mln copies.
The newspapers in Ukraine cover significant political, social and economic questions. They also have publications which deal with important problems of our history, latest events, cultural, educational, sports news, They present different points of view.
The main national newspapers are “Holos Ukrainy” (“The Voice of Ukraine”), “The Courier”, “The Day”, etc. Very popular newspapers are “Fakty” (“The Facts”), “Dzerkalo Tyzhnia” (“The Mirror of the Week”) and some others. They report national and international news very thoroughly.
Very popular magazines among the readers are the magazines “Berehynya”, “Vitchyzna”, “Viche”, “Dilovyi Visnik”, “Lyudyna i Svit”, etc. Besides many people read such magazines as “Natali”, “Yedinstvennaia”, “Milk” and others. So there are periodicals and magazines for many trades, professions, interests. They can say what they like about anyone and anything: the army, top officials, private individuals, policy and so on.
There are also newspapers and magazines published in English: ”Digest”, “English”, “News from Ukraine”, “Ukraine”. Their content deals with very burning problems of our present-day life and history. Sometimes they are amusing and entertaining and touch upon cultural and sports events. In any case they help to improve our English.
There are also magazines for children, young people and women, sociopolitical, literary, scientific, sport and satirical periodicals. Their main purpose is to extend contacts among the media people in Ukraine and beyond its borders.
At present Ukraine numbers over 4,000 editions varying in forms of ownership, genre, type and periodicity.
Today’s Ukrainian periodicals are independent and censorship free. The state guarantees their economic independence, while taking steps to prevent publishers’ and distributors’ market monopoly.
But in daily practice these freedoms are implemented in a hard way; editors and journalists are faced with the problem of keeping their publications alive or to put it simply, the problem of basic survival. The production expenses sometimes considerably out weigh the revenues.
a) say, what sections are interesting for different persons. Use the scheme.
- sensations and scandals;
- advertisements for things on sale;
- advertisements for jobs;
- what’s on at the theatre;
- international news;
- articles about business and finance;
- sport events.
- educated people; - businessmen;
- children and teens; - politicians;
- housewives; - sport fans;
- unemployed people; - holiday-makers.
- middle class people;
I believe… would read the information about…
… people would read…
The British Press.
In Britain there are currently 13 national daily papers, 10 Sunday papers, 60 regional evening papers and 10 regional morning papers. There are also 100 of weekly local papers.
British national newspapers can be classified in several different ways: by taste, that is saying which are the so-called ‘popular’ papers, and which are so-called ‘quality’ ones; or by political opinions, that is saying which ones are left-wing, which are right-wing and which are Liberal or independent or middle-of-the-road; or by format, that is, saying whether or not they are ‘tabloids’ (short and fat).
The term “quality press” is used to describe papers which were mainly founded before 1896 or which follow the tradition of the journals of the 18th-19th centuries. They contain political, industrial and cultural news and devote pages to financial matters and international news.
“Quality” papers appeal to the more serious reader, who wants to read about politics and foreign affairs. These papers, such as The Daily Telegraph, The Times, and The Guardian are bigger in size, with long articles and a wider coverage of events. They have different pages for home news, foreign affairs, feature articles, fashion, business and so on.
The popular papers are smaller in size with lots of pictures, big headlines and short articles. They are easy to read and often contain little real information, sometimes they give more space to opinions than to news.
Generally speaking the tabloids are the most popular papers; they contain more pictures including half-naked women and cuddly (симпатичні) animals and the stories are shorter, less serious and more sensational. They usually have “human interest” stories, stories about ordinary people and events, which are included because they are amusing or odd.
A rough guide to Britain’s national newspapers could be as follows:
Apart from these there are very many regional local newspapers.
A feature of many urban street corners is the newspaper stand, where passers-by can buy a local or evening newspaper. The street vendors often shout out dramatic headlines from the papers to attract buyers. Street stalls are not so common in small towns or villages, where the newspapers are either delivered to those who have subscribed to them or can be bought from newsagents.
There are also Sunday papers in Great Britain. Popular Sunday papers were first published in the 19th century and were aimed at people, who could not afford more expensive daily papers. Almost all the papers published in Britain on Sundays are national ones. The quality Sunday papers devote large sections to literature and arts, business and sport, and have long feature articles which explore specific subjects in depth. Sunday papers are traditionally very popular with the British. They can mostly be described like their daily equivalents – thus, The Mail on Sunday is similar to The Daily Mail only bigger. The ‘quality Sundays’ such as The Sunday Times or The Observer are enormous and can easily take the whole day to read! There are different sections so members of the family can divide the whole thing into smaller parts to read. There are colour supplements, which are highly illustrated magazines with a few stories and a great many advertisements, and then news, business, finance and arts sections too.
The ‘popular’ press keeps their very best and juiciest scandal stories about models, pop stars, politicians or the Royal Family until Sunday, when more people have more time to read them.
The idea of the democratic press is rather controversial in British. Sixteen London newspapers are owned by five groups of proprietors. These groups also own a large number of provincial newspapers. The owners of these newspapers have an almost unlimited power to form the opinion of the reading public.
State whether the following sentences are true or false.
1. The press in Great Britain is truly democratic.
2. There are newspapers of the national and local circulation.
3. The British enjoy reading newspapers.
4. They can buy newspapers only at the post-office.
5. Street vendors are good psychologists.
6. “Quality” newspapers concentrate on sensations and scandals.
7. Tabloids are thin newspapers consisting of 2 pages.
8. There are few photos in “quality” papers.
9. Supplements to the newspapers are very bright with a lot of pictures.
10. All the newspapers carry o lot of advertisements.
11. Many newspapers keep their most shocking information until Sunday.
12. People are not used to subscribing to newspapers in Britain.
There is no real national press in the USA as there are more than 85 newspapers published in 34 languages. There exist two main groups of newspapers: qualities and populars. Only 2 or 3 newspapers with the largest circulation tell their readers about some rumours or crimes. Quality newspapers contain only reliable serious information. They may also publish cartoons. “The Wall Street Journal”, “the New York Daily News”, “the USA Today”, “The New York Times” have the largest circulation among the daily newspapers. The main function of press in America is to give objective information. The materials should be given in full volume and newspapers should give floor to all possible facts and opinions. There is also no secret information for the press. The information is usually taken from the News Agencies. The largest and most famous of them are: Associated Press (AP) and United Press International (UPI). There also exist about 122 domestic and foreign news bureaus in the USA. There are over 4000 monthly and 1300 weekly magazines in the USA. Among them are: “National Geographic”, “Reader’s Digest”, “Cosmopolitan”, “Time”, “Vogue” and others.
Sentences for discussion:
-- Governments should control the press to avoid publishing offensive information.
-- The media should respect famous people’s privacy. Do you agree with it?
-- Readers have the right to know everything about famous people. Celebrities shouldn’t complain when paparazzi follow them.
-- American journalist Edward Egglestone said “the press organizes gossips”. What do you think about it?
Topic: Cultural Programme.
I. Read and translate the following text:
Art Galleries and Museums
London’s public art galleries include the National gallery, the National portrait Gallery, the Tate Gallery and the Wallace Collection. Art exhibits are held at the Royal academy of Arts and at the Hayward Gallery.
The National Gallery houses one of the finest collections of masterpieces in the world. In 1824 the government bought the collection of pictures accumulated by John J. Angerstein. The specially built gallery in Trafalgar Square was opened in 1838. It was visited by newly crowned Queen Victoria. The main collection of more than 2,000 pictures is arranged chronologically in 4 wings. Sainsbury Wing (1260-1510), West Wing (1510-1600), North Wing (1600-1700), and East Wing (1700-1920).
The National Portrait Gallery includes pictures of historical personalities, sculpture, miniatures, engravings and photographs. It was established in 1856 with the aim of illustrating British history. The Gallery does not display portraits of living persons, apart from members of the royal family. The portraits are accompanied by items in their historical context.
The Tate Gallery houses the national collection of British works of the 16-20th cc. Sir Henry Tate, the sugar magnate, offered to finance the building of a new gallery. He donated his own collection of 64 paintings. There is a collection of kinetic and optical art.
The British Museum is one of the most famous museums in the world. It was founded in 1753 by an Act of Parliament. It houses a collection of ancient civilizations and 15-million-volume national library. In 1973 the library became part the newly formed British Library. There are many giant statues in the Museum. The Museum is famous for Egyptian mummies of kings and queens. In Room 25 there is the Rosetta Stone, which was the key to understanding Egyptian picture writing, hieroglyphs.
The Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A) has the largest collection of decorative art. The English costumes dating from the 16th century are displayed here. The oldest is a boy’s shirt from the 1540’s. There are also outstanding landscapes of John Constable and English and Continental sculpture. There is a special collection of tiny miniature portraits.
The National History Museum has 5 departments covering botany, entomology, mineralogy, paleontology and zoology. The central hall houses an exhibition of dinosaurs. On the first floor is the Mammal Gallery, where many rare species may be seen. Also here is the Mineral Gallery. The second floor contains a gallery on British natural history.
The Science Museum is most loved by children and their fathers. They may press, turn, rotate, light up and make noise here. One can see the Apollo 10 capsule and other wonders of technology. In the Children’s Gallery there is a real submarine periscope. The Wellcome Museum, part of the Science museums, is about history of medicine.
The Museum of London has many displays. They tell the story of London from prehistory onwards. These include reconstructions of Roman life, Viking’s weapons, and a scene with sound effects depicting the Fire of London, and the Lord Mayor’s coach. The London Wall Walk is a two-mile route laid out along the remains of the Roman City Walls. It starts at the Museum of London, and ends at the Tower of London. London Wall EC 2. Tube: Barbican. Open Tues.-Sat 10am-6pm. Closed Mon., Jan 1st Dec 25th,26th.
The Geological Museum has some special exhibitions to see. There is a working model of a volcanic island. A special earthquake floor which shakes makes you feel like to be in an earthquake. There are many minerals laid out for you to touch. There are over 3000 diamonds and rubies on show.
The London Transport Museum, in Covent Garden, has displays on the history of transport in London. It has lots of restored trams, buses and Underground trains which you can board. The first London bus started running in 1829, between Paddington and the City. In the late 19th century trams pulled by horses became popular. In the early 1900’s the first motorised busses, London double-deckers, were introduced. London taxicabs came from “cabriolets” (a goat’s leap). They are traditionally black.
The National Maritime Museum in Greenwich shows British sailing history. There is a gallery devoted to Britain’s greatest Admiral and national hero, Lord Nelson (1758-1805). He saved Britain from Napoleonic invasion and was shot at his greatest victory, Trafalgar, by French sniper.
National Army Museum houses a chronological display of the history of British, Indian and Colonial forces from 1485 onwards. Holiday events for children include model-making, quizzes and trying on original uniforms. Hospital Road, SW3. Tube: Sloane Square.
The Bethnal Green Museum of Childhood in Cambridge Heath Road runs practical days on things like puppet and toy-making, based on its collection of toys through the ages.
The Bear Gardens Museum displays on London theatres in Shakespeare’s time. It includes a scale model of the Globe theatre. Acting was not to be respectable in those days. Women were not allowed to act at all, and men took their parts. Theater audiences were far noisier than they are today. The theater had no roof. If it rained plays were called off.
Dickens House in 48 Doughty Street is a memorial of Charles Dickens (1812-1870). As a young man he worked as a reporter at the House of Parliament. He describes many Londoners in his books. In this house he wrote Pickwick Papers, Oliver Twist and Nicholas Nickleby.
London has over 400 public libraries.
II. Answer the following questions:
1. What does the National Gallery house?
2. What gallery illustrates the British history?
3. Who donated his own collection?
4. What is Room 25 famous for?
5. Where can you see a full-scale model of a blue whale?
6. What museum displays the Apollo 10 capsule?
7. Why do the children and their fathers like the Science Museum?
8. What museum tells the story of London?
9. What can you see in the London Transport Museum?
10. Where can you see a scale model of the Globe theatre?
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