ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

V. Read and translate the dialogue.



Interviewer: Do you think you’re a healthy person?

Student: Yes, I get a cold once a year every three years and that’s about it.

Interviewer: And do you think that’s because of what you eat and exercise you take?

Student: I don’t know. I eat healthy food. I don’t like sweets very much and I have plenty of fruit and vegetables and lots of salad.

Interviewer: And do you take regular exercises?

Student:Not enough. In summer I ride a bicycle, and in winter I try to do some swimming regularly, but I really ought to be more disciplined about it.

 

VI. Make up a dialogue using the following phrases:

1. I’m not well. 10. What medicines do you recommend?

2. I have a high temperature. 11. Please, give me a prescription.

3. My throat is sore. 12. What is the prescribed dose?

4. I have chills. 13. On an empty stomach?

5. And my head aches. 14. After a meal?

6. I have lost my appetite. 15. And can I buy this medicine without a prescription?

7. What is wrong with me, doctor? 16. How much is it?

8. Is it catching?

9. Must I stay in bed?

Discussion:

1. How often do you get cold?

2. Is your polyclinic far from your place?

3. What is your normal blood pressure?

4. Have you ever lost consciousness?

5. Do you like to be ill and stay at home?

6. What are usual illnesses?

7. Are you the healthy-eating, clean-living, sporty type?

8. Are you destroying yourself with cigarettes, alcohol and junk food?

9. How do you keep fit?

 

VII. Comment on one of the proverbs or quotations about health.

1. Good health is above wealth.

2. An apple a day keeps the doctor away.

3. Never say die.

4. Early to bed, early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.

5. The best doctors are Doctor Diet, Doctor Quiet and Doctor Merry Man.

6. A good laugh is the best medicine.

7. A sound mind in a sound body.

 

IV. Find someone who thinks it is better to have for breakfast:

muesli with skimmed milk, fresh fruit, tea with milk.

fried eggs and bacon, toasts, butter and marmalade, tea.

cereal with sugar and milk, toasts and jam, tea with milk.

a cup of tea or coffee with a toast.

scrambled eggs and pancakes.

a cup of tea or coffee with a couple of sandwiches.

some chops and mashed potatoes. And why?

 

Lesson 18.

Topic: Health Care System.

I) Read and translate the following texts:

Health service in the USA

In the final decades of the 20th century Americans increasingly view good health as something to which they have a right.

Self-employed private physicians who charge a fee for each patient visit are the foundation of medical practice in the United States. Most physicians have a contractual relationship with one or more hospitals in the community. They send their patients to this hospital which usually charges patients according to the number of days they stay and the facilities – operating room, tests, and medicines that they use. Some hospitals belong to a city, a state or, in the case of veterans hospitals, a federal government agency. Others are operated by religious orders or other non-profit groups. Still others operate for profit.

Some medical doctors are on salary. Salaried physicians may work as hospital staff member, or residents who often are still in medical schools, be hired by corporations to care for their workers or work for the federal governments Public Health Service.

Physicians are among the best paid professionals in the United States. In the 1980th, it is not uncommon for medical doctors to earn incomes of more than $100.000 a year. Specialists, particularly surgeons might earn several times that amount. Physicians list many reasons why they deserve to be so well rewarded for their work. One reason is the long and expensive preparation required to become a physician in the US. Most would be physicians first attend college for four years, which can cost more than $12.000 annually at one of the best private institutions. Prospective physicians then attend medical school for four years. By the time they have obtained their medical degrees, many young physicians are deeply in debt. They still face three to five years of residency in a hospital, the first year as an intern, an apprentice physician. The hours are long and the pay is relatively low. Setting up a medical practice is expensive, too. Sometimes several physicians will decide to establish a group practice, so they can share the expense of maintaining an office and buying equipment.

The British National Health Service

 

The National Health Service made it possible that benefits once available only to insured persons or those who could afford to pay for them, or as a form of charity became available to everyone. The Service consist of three main parts: the general practitioner including dental service, the hospital and specialist services and a local health authority services for prevention, treatment or care.

The public is free to use the Service, or any independent part of it, as it pleases.

The public is free to choose his doctor, and to change to another if he wished to do so. The doctor may accept private patients while taking parts in the Service.

The practitioner services consist of the Family Doctors Service, the Dental Service, and the Pharmaceutical Service. All these Services provide the patient with the individual medical attention that he needs.

The professional attention of a family doctor is available to everyone. Patients may choose the doctor they wish provided only that he is enrolled in the Service and that he agrees to attend them. They may also change their doctor. The doctor has the same freedom to accept or refuse patients as he wishes. He cannot be forced to attend any person against his will. The doctor working in the Service is entitled to attend paying patients who have not joined the Service, if he cares to do so. If serious illness develops or diagnosis is difficult, he may call in a consultant and get hospital treatment without reference to any outside authority.

A doctor in Public Service is remunerated by a capitation payment for each patient registered with him.

At present the Family Doctor Service is almost always organized from the doctors own surgeries, to which patients do for advice and treatment unless the doctor visits them at home. A few doctors work from health centers.

Many general practitioners are working with one assistant. To become an assistant to general practitioner (the principal) is a common method of entering general practice.

 

Lesson 19.

 

Topic: Health Care System.

I) Read and translate the following text:

HIV/AIDS

HIV – (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome).

People who have HIV in their bodies are said to have HIV infection or to be HIV-positive. HIV damages the body’s immune system. The immune system normally protects the body from disease. HIV infection is a disease with many stages. An HIV-infected person can range from being healthy to being very sick the length of time between becoming HIV-infected and being diagnosed with AIDS varies from person to person. Some people have had HIV infection for 12 years or longer and still do not have an AIDS diagnosis. However, the average length of time between becoming infected with HIV and being diagnosed with AIDS is approximately eight to ten years. An HIV-infected people may look and feel healthy. They may not even know that they are infected. AIDS is the stage when an HIV-infected person’s immune system gets very weak. When this happens, other diseases and infections can enter the body.

A diagnosis of AIDS is made when a person develops one or more of several specific diseases (pneumonia and sarcoma) or conditions that indicate critical impairment of the immune system.

Scientists who track the spread of HIV/AIDS disease estimated that:

· 60 million people worldwide have been infected with HIV;

· 36 million HIV infected people are ill now with AIDS;

· There are 10 million HIV infected teenagers and young people worldwide;

· 13 million children are orphaned by AIDS;

· 16.000 people become infected with HIV every day;

· Most new HIV infections occur in young people aged 14-24;

· Ukraine with 280.000 HIV infections is the most affected country in Eastern Europe;

· Ukraine has the fastest growing rate of HIV infection in Europe;

· Most HIV infected people don’t know they are infected;

· United Nations officials believe the actual number of causes is four times higher;

· AIDS is an epidemic. The number of people infected with HIV have increased dramatically each year.

The epidemic situation in Ukraine is evident. Many of us don’t want to notice it! First of all, English teachers should remember that HIV/AIDS disease arrive in our country from abroad. That’s why we also need to teach our students to protect themselves from death and to stop spreading of the plague of the XXI century.

The goal of HIV Prevention Education is to empower individuals with the knowledge and skills to practice the lowest level of risk behaviour acceptable to them.

How people get infected with HIV. Anyone can become infected with HIV, regardless of age, sex, race, and sexual orientation. HIV is in the blood and semen or vaginal secretions of someone with HIV infection. It is most commonly transmitted from an infected person to an uninfected person in the following ways:

· By using contaminated (already used) needles, syringes and drug equipment for injecting drugs, including vitamins or steroids, tattooing, body piercing and acupuncture;

· From HIV-infected mother to child either before or during birth and through breast milk;

· Through any sex without using latex condoms with someone who has HIV.

The virus has also been transmitted by receiving blood transfusions, blood components, tissues, organs, from donors infected with the virus.

How HIV is not transmitted. HIV is not transmitted through the air and by normal day-to-day contact between people (at home, school, work, or elsewhere in the community);

· Touching, coughing, sneezing or dry kissing;

· Contact with toilet seats, eating utensils, water fountains or telephones;

· Being close to other people in the classroom, restaurants, crowded bus or other facility;

· Mosquitoes or other biting insects;

· Donating blood;

· Tears, saliva or sweat.

 

I) Additional words and expressions:

I would like to make an appointment Будьте ласкаві, я б хотів записатися

with the doctor …, please на прийом до лікаря...

I’m a new patient Я звертаюся в перший раз

I’m not a resident of the area Я не місцевий житель

I have … o’clock appointment Я записаний на …

I have a temperature У мене температура

I have cold (in the had) У мене нежить

My heart is bothering me У мене хворе серце

I am allergic on … У мене алергія на …

What shall I take for it? Які ліки мені приймати?

Do I have to go to the hospital? Мені доведеться лягати в лікарню?

Please, give me a prescription Будь ласка, випишіть мені рецепт.

How much do I pay you? Скільки я повинен вам заплатити?

I’ve a terrible toothache У мене гострий зубний біль

A filling has coming out У мене випала пломба

A crown has broken У мене зламалася коронка

Where is the nearest chemists/drugstore? Де найближча аптека?

Could you fill this prescription? Ви можете дати ліки за цим рецептом?

When will it be ready? Коли вони будуть готові?

Can I buy this medicine without Чи можна купити ці ліки без

a prescription? рецепта?

Please, give something for … Дайте мені що-небудь від...

How should this medicine be taken? Як приймати ці ліки?

Do you have an analogue? Чи немає аналога?

Lesson 20.

 

Topic: Business Communication.

Active vocabulary

businessсправа, бізнес

to do businessзайматисябізнесом

to cooperate співпрацювати

inquiry запит

orderзамовлення

letter of shipmentлист про відправку

letter of deliveryлист про доставку

letter of complaintлист -скарга

intelligibleзрозумілий

benevolentдоброзичливий

to varyзмінюватися

conciseкороткий, чіткий

courteousввічливий

I) Read and translate the following text:

Business Correspondence

Business letters include all kinds of commercial letters, inquiries, replies to inquiries, Letters of Credit (L/C), invoices, Bills of Lading (B/L), Bills of Exchange or drafts, letters of insurance, explanatory letters, orders, letters of packing, letters of shipment, letters of delivery, offers, letters of complaint, replies to those of mentioned above, etc.

A business letter should be as short as possible, intelligible, polite, benevolent and its language must be simple.

Rules and traditions of correspondence vary in time but some basic principles of a commercial letter remain unchanged.

A private business letter is written by hand, each paragraph begins with an indented line.

A letter is composed of the following elements: heading, date, address, salutation text, subscription.

A letter can be typed on the organization’s form. Any form has its letter-head printed typographically. The letter-head bears the name of organization or firm, sending this letter, its address, address for telegrams, telephone, telex, fax. If you do not use the form , write your address (as a sender) on the upper right side of the letter. Do not indicate your name here, it will follow your signature. Ukrainian names of foreign trade organizations are not translated into foreign languages. They are written with Latin letters using English transcription. Your telephone number may be written below.

The date is written on the right side above (under your address if the letter is written on a form or under a typographical letter-head of the form)

In Great Britain the date may be indicated as follows: 7th April, 1998 or 23 March, 1998.

In the USA it is usually written like this: April 7, 1998.

The address of the recipient (inside address) is written on the left above, under the reference. Lower, the name of the firm is written under which the number of the house, street, city or town, state or country are indicated, the last element being the country.

The salutation is written on the left (not in the centre).

The salutation “Dear Sir” is appropriate, when you write to a real person if you do not know him. If you know this person, you should write “Dear Mr. Jones”, for example.

If the letter is addressed to the firm, the salutation should be “Dear Sirs”. In modern business correspondence it is needless to use any other forms of politeness.

In the subscription the expression “Yours faithfully” is usually used if you are not acquainted with the person(s) or “Yours sincerely” if you write to a man (woman) whom you know at least by correspondence. In American English the above expressions are rarely used. More common are the expressions “Sincerely yours”, or simply “Sincerely”, and sometimes “Very truly yours”.

The signature is affixed by hand above the typed name of the author. It is not obligatory to indicate your position. If near the signature there are two letters “p.p” (per pro) it means that the letter is “by warrant”.

If some material is added to the letter the words “Enclosure” (“Enclosures”) or the abbreviation “Encl” (приложение или приложения) are written in the left lower corner of the letter. You can also use the expression “We enclose …” (прилагаем).





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