Scientific and Technological Progress.




ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Scientific and Technological Progress.



It’s difficult to overestimate the role of science and technology in our life. They accelerate the development of civilization and help us in our co-operation with nature. Scientists investigate the laws of the universe, discover the secrets of nature, and apply their knowledge in practice improving the life of people.

Let’s compare or life nowadays with the life of people at the beginning of the 20th century. It has changed beyond recognition. Our ancestors hadn’t the slightest idea of the trivial things created by the scientific progress that we use in our everyday life. I mean refrigerators, TV-sets, computers, microwave ovens, radio telephones, what not. They would seem miracle to them that made our life easy, comfortable and pleasant. On the other hand, the great inventions of the beginning of the 20th century, I mean radio, aeroplanes, combustion and jet engines have become usual things and we can’t imagine our life without them.

The second part of the 20th century has brought a number of technical innovations. For example, the transistor was invented in 1948. this piece of electronic equipment found wide use in space technology, computers, transistors, radios, medical instruments, TV sets – wherever the precise control is needed. The invention of ICs (integral circuits) in 1958 brought the second industrial revolution.

A century is a long period for scientific and technological progress, as it is rather rapid. Millions of investigations, the endless number of outstanding discoveries have been made. The 20th century had several names that were connected with a certain era in science and technology. At first it was called “the atomic age” due to the discovery of the splitting of the atom. Then it became the age of “the conquest of space” when for the first time in the history of mankind a man overcame the gravity and entered the Universe. And now we live in “the information era” when the computer network embraces the globe and connects not only the countries and space stations but a lot of people all over the world. All these things prove the power and the greatest progressive role of science in our life.

You are probably familiar with the traditional branches of science such as chemistry, physics, botany, zoology, etc. but what about these newer fields?

Genetic engineering: the study of the artificial manipulation of the make-up of living things;

molecular biology: the study of the structure and function of the organic molecules associated with living organisms;

cybernetics: the study of the way information is moved and controlled by the brain or by machinery;

information technology: the study of technology related to the transfer of information (computers, digital electronics, telecommunications);

bioclimatology: the study of climate as it affects humans;

geopolitics: the study of the way geographical factors help to explain the basis of the power of nation states;

nuclear engineering: the study of the way nuclear power can be made useful;

cryogenics: the study of physical systems at temperatures less than 183*C;

astrophysics: the application of physical laws and theories to stars and galaxies.

But every medal has its reverse. And the rapid scientific progress has aroused a number of problems that are a matter of our great concern. These are ecological problems, the safety of nuclear power stations, the nuclear war threat, and the responsibility of a scientist.

But still we are grateful to the outstanding men of the past and the present who have courage and patience to disclose the secrets of the Universe.

III. Translate the following sentences into English:

 

1. Важко переоцінити роль науки і техніки в нашому житті.

2. Наші предки не мали ні найменшої уяви про звичні речі, створені науковим прогресом, якими ми користуємося кожного дня.

3. Століття – це довгий період для науково-технічного прогресу, оскільки він доволі швидкий.

4. Все це свідчить про силу і величезну прогресивну роль науки в нашому житті.

5. Швидкий науковий прогрес спричинив ряд проблем, які викликають велику стурбованість.

 

IV. Fill in the gaps.

1. Science and technology …. the development of civilization and help us in our co-operation with nature.

2. Trivial things created by the scientific progress would seem …. to our ancestors,

3. The great inventions made our life easy, …. and … .

4. Our life has changed beyond …. .

5. The second part of the 20th century has brought a number of …. .

6. Rapid scientific progress has ... a number of problems that are a matter of our great . .

 

V. Finish the sentences:

1. Scientists investigate the laws of the Universe, discover the secrets of the nature and then

a) write thick books improving the life of people.

b) invent different machines improving the life of people.

c) apply their knowledge in practice improving the life of people.

2. Our life nowadays, as compared with the life of the people at the beginning of the 20th century

a) has not changed at all.

c) has become more pleasant and comfortable.

3. Our century has had several names that were connected with

a) a certain era in science and technology.

b) a certain era in art and music.

c) the development of the society.

 

VI. Answer the questions.

1. What is the role of science and technology in our life?

2. What things, which we use in our everyday life, would seem miracles to our ancestors?

3. How have great inventions changed our life?

4. What problems has the rapid scientific progress aroused?

VII. Speak about:

1. Trivial things that make our life comfortable, but would seem miracles to our ancestors.

2. Why the 20th century was called the atomic age; the age of the conquest of space and the information era.

3. Newer fields in science and the responsibility of the scientist.

4. The problems caused by the rapid scientific progress.

Lesson 30.

 

Topic: Scientific and Technological Progress.

I) Read and translate the following text:

Science

Science is knowledge about different spheres of the world around us. It studies everything from the structure of atoms to the movement of stars. There are pure sciences as mathematics, chemistry, physics, biology, biochemistry, and applied sciences as linguistics, philosophy, psychology, history. Nowadays people can not even imagine themselves without science. Science influenced people’s lives greatly. Every day people use telephones, TV-set, cars, pens, paper, books, and even forget that they all are available owing to science. Science give people an opportunity to communicate with each other on the telephone, through the Internet, get current news from all over the world from TV, radio, newspapers, move all over the world using all means of transport, store information in computers. Scientific progress made it possible to cure dangerous illnesses and probably humanity will get rid of incurable diseases and eliminate congenital diseases through genetic engineering. No one can imagine his life without an electric bulb. Scientists discovered electricity, nuclear energy – great source of power; and lots of theoretical ideas were brought to life by science. Modern technologies and inventions of science are used constantly all over the world and every year science develops and breeds new inventions.

Throughout the 19th century Britain, France and Germany were the leading sources of new ideas in science. These ideas included: Dalton’s atomic theory; Darwin’s theory of the biological evolution; Marie and Pierre Curie’s studies of radioactivity; Joule’s theory of the conservation of energy; Roentgen’s discovery of x-rays and many others.

The major scientific invention which influenced humanity greatly in the 20th century is a computer. Nowadays computers are used in all aspects of basic research, experimentation, data gathering, testing, and analysis. But beyond the laboratories, spacecrafts, aircrafts computers are used in hospitals, factories, farms, libraries, schools and homes. Computers are used to aid in medical diagnosis, record keeping, designing, manufacture, making of new products. Computer-controlled robots are performing more and more production functions, computers are used in distribution centers, communication networks. Most cars, trains, ships, appliances, machine tools, communication equipment contain incorporated computers. Computers can do a lot of dull, routine, long-lasting, work; they can perform actions in such conditions where people are not able, do micro-accurate operations, or gather toxic wastes instead of people. Nowadays scientists even try to make an artificial intellect. Computers are also a great source of information. Even a scholar can find an article or advertisement he wants in the Internet. The Internet also gives us an opportunity to find a job, buy and read a book or communicate just sitting in front of a monitor and clicking buttons. But at the same time worsen our eyesight, make our life passive and generally affect badly human health. Many computer games show cruelty and violence which is sometimes used by children in their real life.

So science makes people’s life faster, more enjoyable, variable, but at the same time it creates problems between humanity and nature. Technological innovations improve people’s life but also have negative effects. There are many great problems caused by rapid scientific progress. One of them is invention of terrible weapons of mass-destruction. Modern nuclear weapons are able to destroy our planet. So every war does incredible harm to our natural environment and destroys animals and their natural habitat. Factories, power stations and plants pollute air and water. And accidental destruction of nuclear power station leads to a natural disaster. Chernobyl catastrophe is a terrible example. Nowadays world suffers from deforestation, destruction of ozone layer, acid rains caused by the development of science. This all leads to dehumanization and taking people away from their natural environment. So the major aim of science is to protect people and nature where they live from harmful effect of industrial progress, to prevent the natural catastrophe before it is too late.

 

Lesson 31

 

Topic: Mass Media.

Active Vocabulary

Mass mediaЗМІ

a magazineжурнал

a newspaperгазета

to entertainрозважати

to share informationобмінюватися інформацією

to shape public opinionформувати громадську думку

a point of viewточка зору

local affairsмісцеві новини

home eventsподії в країні

foreign eventsподії за кордоном

current newsпоточні новини

to telecastтранслювати по телебаченню

to broadcastтранслювати по радіо

a live telecastпрямий ефір

a quizвікторина

a cartoonмультфільм

fashionмода

presenterведучий

a steady stream ofпостійний потік….

variety showестрадне шоу

simulatedімітований, модельований

celebrityзнаменита, відома людина

tabloidбульварна газета

gossipсвітська хроніка

profitприбуток

luxuryрозкіш

II. Read and translate the following text:

Communication

Communication is the sharing of information. People communicate mainly by speaking and writing.

Most of our daily communications is personal communication, a sharing of information with one person or perhaps a few people. We also receive much information through mass communication.

Mass media are one of the most characteristic features of modern civilization. People are united into one global community with the help of mass media. People can learn about what is happening in the world very fast using mass media. The mass media include newspapers, magazines, radio and television.

Television, also called TV, is one of our most important means of communication. It brings moving pictures and sounds from around of the world into millions of homes. So one can see events in faraway places just sitting in his or her chair. Through television, viewers can see and learn about people, places and things in distant countries.

In addition to all these things, television brings its viewers a steady stream of programs that are designed to entertain. In fact, TV provides many more entertaining programs that any other kind. The programs include dramas, comedies, soap operas, sporting events, cartoons, quizzes, variety shows, and motion pictures.

Commercial TV stations broadcast mostly entertainment programs because they must attract larger number of viewers in order to sell advertising time at high prices. Advertising is an important part of commercial TV. Advertisement appears between and during most programs.

Public television focuses mainly on education and culture. There are programs on wide range of subjects—from physics and literature to cooking and yoga. Public TV also broadcasts plays, ballets, symphonies, as well as programs about art and history. Public TV attracts less viewers than commercial TV.

Newspaper is a publication devoted chiefly to presenting and commenting on the news. Newspapers can be daily and weekly, they print world, national and local news. Newspapers provide an excellent means of keeping well informed on current events, they also play a vital role in shaping public opinion.

Newspapers have certain advantages over the other major news, media-television, radio, and newsmagazines. For example, newspapers can cover more news – and in much greater detail – that can television and radio newscasts. Newsmagazines focus on chief national and international news.

Magazine is a collection of articles or stories – or both – published at regular intervals. Magazines can be weekly or quarterly. Most magazines usually contain a lot of illustrations.

Magazines provide a wide variety of information, opinion, and entertainment. For example, they may cover current events and fashions, discuss foreign affairs, or describe how to repair appliances or prepare food. Subjects addressed in magazines include business, culture, hobbies, medicine, religion, science, and sports. Some magazines seek simply to entertain their readers with fiction, poetry, photography, cartoons, or articles about television shows or motion-picture stars.

So the functions of newspapers and magazines are: to keep us well-informed, to enrich our outlook, to reflect our life, to entertain us.

Radio is one of the most important means of communication. It enables people to send words, music, codes, and other signals to any part of the world. People also use radio to communicate far in to space.

The most widespread and familiar use of radio is broadcasting. Radio broadcasts feature music, news, discussions, descriptions of sports events, and advertising. People wake up to clock radios and ride to their jobs listening to automobile radios. They also spend leisure hours hearing their favorite programs on radio.

 

I) Answer the following questions:

1) What are your favourite newspapers, magazines, radio and TV programmes?

2) What do the newspapers inform the readers of?

3) Do you like to read magazines?

4) What newspapers and magazines inform the readers of the life of youth?

5) Do you read any scientific journals?

6) What radio programmes do you prefer to listen to?

7) Do you watch TV every day?

8) Do you like to see TV News Programmes?

9) What other telecasts do you like watching?

10) What TV programmes are the most popular with the young people in our country?

11) What is your favourite TV programme?

12) How often does this programme come out?

13) What is this programme devoted to?

14) Who is your favourite author, analyst, presenter (ведучий)?

 

II. A perfect TV presenter

1. to have a creative mind – мати творчий розум.

2. to be a good-looking and photogenic – мати приємну та фотогенічну зовнішність.

3. to be a diligent and skilled specialist – бути старанним та умілим спеціалістом.

4. to be a bright personality – бути яскравою особистістю.

5. to be able to communicate with different people – вміти спілкуватися з різними людьми.

6. to be confident of success – бути впевненим в успіху.

7. This job involves meeting many people. – Ця робота вимагає зустрічі з багатьма людьми.

Lesson 32.

 

Topic: Mass Media.

I) Warming-up questions:

1. Is the press an important source of information?

2. Do people read nowadays as much as they used to?

3. Can you imagine our present-day life without the press?

4. Do people read newspapers to obtain news or to be entertained?

5. Do people often buy newspapers and magazines?

6. Do you like to read “quality” papers?

7. What national papers do you have in your country?

8. What is another word for the “popular” papers?

II) Read and translate the following texts:





Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-04-08; Нарушение авторского права страницы

infopedia.su Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав. Обратная связь - 18.215.185.97 (0.024 с.)