ТОП 10:

RELEVANT PROBLEMS OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS



Учебное пособие по дисциплине
«Актуальные проблемы международного бизнеса»

Москва – 2015


Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования «московский государственный университет путей сообщения»

__________________________________________________________________

 

Кафедра «Экономика и управление на транспорте»

 

 

Л.О. АНИКЕЕВА-НАУМЕНКО

 

RELEVANT PROBLEMS OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

Рекомендовано редакционно-издательским Советом университета

в качестве учебного пособия для магистратуры по направлению «Экономика», «Менеджмент»

 

Москва – 2015

УДК 339.138

А 78

 

Аникеева-Науменко Л.О. RELEVANT PROBLEMS OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

. Учебное пособие для магистров по направлению «Экономика», «Менеджмент» – М.: МИИТ, 2015. – 140 с.

Учебное пособие содержит теоретическую базу для освоения дисциплины «Международный менеджмент». Начиная от обзора сущности международного бизнеса, изучающие пособие, переходят к основам организации бизнеса за рубежом, раскрывающим формы внешнеэкономической деятельности, методы управления предприятием, подходы к целеполаганию и стратегическому планированию, особенности финансово-инвестиционной деятельности и управления персоналом.

 

 

Рецензенты:
д.э.н., профессор, заведующий кафедрой «Финансы и кредит» Московского государственного университета путей сообщения Соколов Ю.И.

К.э.н., заместитель начальника Департамента развития АО «Федеральная грузовая компания» Домрачев И.Л.

 

 

Ó МГУПС (МИИТ), 2015

Оглавление

Введение. 6

1.1.Периодизация развития международного бизнеса. 11

1.2 Основные субъекты мировой экономики. 14

1.3.Характерные черты современного бизнеса. 19

1.4.Основные черты международного бизнеса. 21

2. ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ МЕЖДУНАРОДНОГО БИЗНЕСА.. 24

2.1.Основные формы организации международного бизнеса. 24

2.2. Цели выхода на внешние рынки. 42

2.3 Международные валютно-кредитные организации. 43

3. МЕЖГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЕ АЛЬЯНСЫ В МЕЖДУНАРОДНОМ БИЗНЕСЕ. 60

3.1 ЕВРОПЕЙСКИЙ СОЮЗ. 60

3.2 НАФТА.. 72

3.3 МЕРКОСУР. 75

3.4 СНГ. 78

4.1. Стратегические решения по международной деятельности. 90

4.2. Процедуры стратегического планирования в международной фирме. 91

4.3.Организация стратегического планирования в международной фирме. 94

5. ФИНАНСОВЫЕ РЕШЕНИЯ В МЕЖДУНАРОДНОМ БИЗНЕСЕ.. 99

5.2.Финансовый менеджмент международной фирмы.. 102

5.3.Краткосрочное финансирование фирмы.. 104

5.4.Долгосрочное финансирование компании. 106

6. ИНВЕСТИЦИОННЫЕ РЕШЕНИЯ В МЕЖДУНАРОДНОМ БИЗНЕСЕ.. 108

6.1.Предпосылки международных инвестиций. 108

6.2.Формы международных инвестиций. 109

7. УПРАВЛЕНИЕ ЧЕЛОВЕЧЕСКИМИ РЕСУРСАМИ В МЕЖДУНАРОДНОМ БИЗНЕСЕ.. 117

7.1.Корпоративная культура. 117

7.2.Вопросы управления человеческими ресурсами международной фирмы.. 119

7.3.Отбор, обучение и мотивация персонала зарубежных подразделений. 120

Отбор персонала. 120

Обучение персонала. 122

Мотивация и оплата труда. 123


Введение

World Economy(global economy) is the aggregate of national economies (national economic complexes) and non-governmental structures, as well as their economic relations. One of the organic parts of the world economy is international economic relations,a system of economic relations between individuals and legal entities of different countries.

The institutional structure of the world economy has become considerably more complicated. A characteristic feature of this structure is the multitude of the economic subjects that make it up. These are divided into two main groups:

The first group includes interacting business structures (economic subjects). Particular economic operators (companies) that directly perform business activity;

The second group is the aggregate of institutions which regulate the activity of economic subjects and relations between them, and realize the economic policy on a branch, regional, national, interstate and supranational levels.

The world economy subject may be an individual or a legal entity. In the first case it implies an independent businessman, in the second one — commercial organizations of different forms of ownership: economic partnerships and companies, including joint-stock ones, production cooperatives, state and municipal unitary enterprises, companies with mixed capital, as well as non-profit organizations: consumer cooperatives and funds. Joint-stock companies (corporations) occupy a dominating place in the economy.

Business structures interact on internal, national markets, on the international and on the world market, understood as the aggregate of national and international markets in their interaction and mutual dependence, with common demand and supply of goods, services, workforce and capital on a world economy scale.

From the viewpoint of separate countries, business is divided into national business possessed and controlled by the national capital, foreign business possessed and controlled by the foreign capital and business with mixed (national and foreign) capital.

At the same time, the national capital may be transnational at the same time if it is used for production beyond the country of origin.

The world economy distinguishes between national and international business. National business is a community of economic subjects of separate countries. International businessis a community of national businesses that interact between themselves.

The key economic subjects in the world economy that form international business include:

1. transnational corporations (TNC) — as a rule, large economic complexes with an international sphere of activity. There are TNCs with the national capital and the capital that belongs to the persons that originate from different countries. TNCs are economically unified systems, vertically integrated structures with hierarchic subordination of the lower subdivisions to the higher ones. This system includes a holding company, subsidiaries, affiliates and branches. The system is controlled and managed from one center. The most widespread method of control and management is the system of participation: some TNC subdivisions hold the shares of other subdivisions;

2. long-term strategic alliance of TNCsis a form of international intercompany cooperation that became widespread from the end of 1990s. There are alliances that do not create common property (contracts with division of risk and income), alliances with participation in capital (acquisition of shares, joint companies), predominantly technological alliances (R&D, transfer of technologies, innovations), predominantly market ones (marketing, market share protection, access to cheap resources). When international alliances are evaluated, it is sometimes hard to determine the laws of which country should be adhered to;

3. transnational banks (TNBs) are large international credit and financial alliances of predominantly universal type that have a diversified network of subsidiaries abroad and perform bank operations in many countries and convertible currencies;

4. transnational institutional investors include insurance companies, non-governmental pension funds, collective investment institutes (investment funds, investment companies). They play the role of investors on the stock market under control of professional managers, such as banks and specialized companies;

5. transnational financial and industrial groups (FIG) is the integration of TNC and TNB. Various forms of FIG include traditional concerns controlled by a large industrial corporation and multi-industrial financial groups that were formed around the bank;

6. world financial centers are the places where large international capitals are concentrated and different international large-scale operations are carried out. They are characterized by a huge variety of the used financial instruments. Present-day electronic means of communication ensured growing connection of different financial centers. The main operators of business financial centers are located in London, Tokyo, New York, Paris, Zurich, Frankfurt-am-Main, Singapore, Hong Kong;

7. largest stock exchanges are the institutions and organizers of trade in securities (stock exchanges), goods (commodity exchanges) and currency (currency exchanges). In the past decades we could observe the processes of stock exchanges concentration with reduction in their total number. The largest stock exchanges include New York Stock Exchange in the USA, London Stock Exchange in the UK, Tokyo Stock Exchange in Japan and Frankfurt Stock Exchange. International commodity exchanges include the following: in the USA – all exchanges located in Chicago and New York, in Great Britain — London Futures and Option Exchange, London Metal Exchange, in Japan — all the exchanges where transactions with goods that circulate on the world market are made.

Simultaneously with increase in the scale of activity of the institutions that form the frame of the international business, the tendency for internationalization of the small and medium business is on the increase. It is stimulated by the development of venture (risk) capital, the source of innovational activity financing at the stage of innovations implementation and organization of new goods production.

The second group of the world economy subjects includes:

1. national states — the activity of governmental authorities of different countries to ensure functioning of the economy and external economic relations. The state may be the owner of the means of production and serve in this capacity as a direct economic subject (public sector companies). Special role is played by central banks that perform the functions of emission, credit and calculation center of the country. The new things in this sphere include provision of greater independence to them, creation of the first supranational bank, the European Central Bank;

2. different territories which, not being independent states, are considered as separate subjects by international organizations (Hong Kong, etc.);

3. subsovereign formations — regional and local bodies of power that come to the world market, which mobilize funds on international capital markets;

4.self-regulated organizations of professional participants of different financial and securities markets — non-profit organizations whose tasks include ensuring conditions for professional activity, protection of customers’ interests, adherence to the standards of professional ethics;

5.alliances of businessmen are the organizations aimed at representation of their interests in governmental authorities and rendering assistance to them in the organization of international activity. International associations of businessmen that unite the industrial national alliances of different countries have become widespread;

6.trade chambers are private associations of businessmen to contribute to the development of trade and sale. They are divided into local, national and foreign — organized by the national chambers of one country in the territory of another one, and mixed — created by national organizations of two or several countries for the purposes of developing trade and economic relations between them;

7. trade unions are the organizations of workers that protect the social and economic rights and interests of their members in relations with employers and the government;

8. world economic and financial institutes are the international organizations created to coordinate the activity of the countries in different spheres of the world economy.







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