Look at the heading of the text.



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Look at the heading of the text.



What is the text about?

How can you define plagiarism?

Do you know the types of plagiarism?

 

PLAGIARISM

 

Plagiarism, as defined in the 1995 Random House Compact Unabridged Dictionary, is the "use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work." Within academia, plagiarism by students, professors, or researchers is considered as academic dishonesty or academic fraud and offenders are subject to academic censure, up to and including expulsion. In journalism, plagiarism is considered as a breach of journalistic ethics, and reporters caught plagiarizing typically face disciplinary measures ranging from suspension to termination.

While plagiarism in scholarship and journalism has a centuries-old history, the development of the Internet, where articles appear as electronic text, has made the physical act of copying the work of others much easier, simply by copying and pasting text from one web page to another.

There are several different kinds of plagiarism:

 

Type I: Copy & Paste
Type II: Word Switch
Type III: Style
Type IV: Metaphor
Type V Idea

 

Plagiarism detection is the process of locating instances of plagiarism within a work or document. The widespread use of computers and the advent of the Internet has made it easier to plagiarize the work of others.

Detection can be either manual or computer-assisted. Manual detection requires substantial effort and excellent memory, and is impractical in cases where too many documents must be compared, or original documents are not available for comparison. Computer-assisted detection allows vast collections of documents to be compared to each other, making successful detection much more likely.

 

1. Skim the text and find:

a) the definition of plagiarism

b) the types of plagiarism

c) the definition of plagiarism detection

d) the ways of plagiarism detection

 

2. Look closer at the types of plagiarism and then look at the samples of plagiarism to determine the type. Give your reasons:

Copy & Paste Plagiarism: Any time you lift a sentence or significant phrase intact from a source, you must use quotations marks and reference the source.

Word Switch Plagiarism: If you take a sentence from a source and change around a few words, it is still plagiarism. If you want to quote a sentence, then you need to put it in quotation marks and cite the author and article.

Style Plagiarism: When you follow a Source Article sentence-by-sentence or paragraph-by-paragraph, it is plagiarism, even though none of your sentences is exactly like those in the Source Article or even in the same order. What you are copying in this case, is the author's reasoning style.

 

Metaphor Plagiarism: Metaphors are used either to make an idea clearer or give the reader an analogy that touches the senses or emotions better than a plain description of the object or process. If you cannot come up with your own metaphor to illustrate an important idea, then use the metaphor in the Source Article, but give the author credit for it.

 

Idea Plagiarism: If the author of the source article expresses a creative idea or suggests a solution to a problem, the idea or solution must be clearly attributed to the author.

 

 

SOURCE ARTICLE PLAGIARISM
  This picture of the constellation Cygnus, the Swan, in visible light looks rather dull. Yet at an infrared wavelength of 60m the region looks very different. In infrared light we can see a glittering jewel-box of new born stars peeking out of the dust clouds that lie between us and the center of our Galaxy.   Although dusty clouds block our vision of stellar nurseries, infrared light reveals them. These newborns glitter like a jewel box and seem to be peeking at us from behind the dust obscuring them.     ???_____________________________
  Brown dwarfs rank among the most elusive objects in the universe. With masses from about 15 to 80 times that of Jupiter, they are bigger than planets but too small to ignite the nuclear fusion reactions that cause stars to shine.   Brown dwarfs are difficult to locate and rank among the most elusive objects in the universe. Brown dwarfs have masses from about 15 to 80 times that of Jupiter. Scientists have determined that brown dwarfs are bigger than planets, however, they are too small to ignite nuclear fusion reactions which cause stars to shine.     ???___________________________
Hot stars at 30,000 degrees emit a lot more blue light than red light, and so hot stars look blue or bluish-white. Cool stars at 3,000 degrees give off more red light than blue, and so these stars look red. Stars considered to be hot are 30,000 degrees, whereas stars as cool as 3,000 degrees are considered to be cold.     ???___________________________  
Especially since the launch of HST and the unprecedented clarity of the images satellites have given us, you've all seen on the news or in books, beautiful color pictures of various sights in the cosmos. But is this the way you would see these objects if you went there? Well, to tackle that question, first we have to consider the nature of light and color. Light is made of waves of electromagnetic radiation. We perceive different wavelengths of visible light as different colors.   Everyone is interested in astronomical images, especially since the launch of HST and the unprecedented clarity of the images satellites have given us. But is this the way you would see these objects if you went there? ???___________________________
  Especially since the launch of HST and the unprecedented clarity of the images satellites have given us, You've all seen on the news or in books, beautiful color pictures of various sights in the cosmos. But is this the way you would see these objects if you went there? Well, to tackle that question, first we have to talk about the nature of light and color. Light is made of waves of electromagnetic radiation. We perceive different wavelengths as different colors. All solid bodies emit light: stars, rocks and people included. The temperature of the star, rock or person determines which wavelength of light will be most strongly radiated. In the constellation Orion, the upper left star is Betelgeuse (Armpit of the giant), 520 l-y distant. Betelgeuse is a supergiant star, 14,000 times brighter than our sun. and so big, if you were to put Betelgeuse in place of our sun, its surface would reach all the way out to Jupiter. Betelgeuse's color is bright red. On the other hand, another supergiant star, Rigel, with a luminosity 57,000 times that of the sun, appears whitish-blue. The reason that Betelgeuse is red and Rigel is blue is that their surface temperatures are different. Hot stars at 30,000 degrees emit a lot more blue light than red light, and so hot stars look blue or bluish-white. Cool stars at 3,000 degrees give off more red light than blue, and so these stars look red.   The beautiful pictures that the space telescope has given us show spectacular color. But is the color real? First, we have to consider what light and color are. Different wavelengths of light correspond to different colors, and light is called electromagnetic radiation. The temperature of an object determines the color of light emitted, and all things, including people, emit light. In the constellation Orion, the star Betelgeuse is a huge, giant star, as big as the orbit of Jupiter. Betelgeuse is red. Another star in Orion, Rigel, is blue. The reason that they are different colors is that they each have a different surface temperature. Cold stars are at about 3,000 degrees and emit more red than blue light and very hot stars emit blue light since they have temperatures of about 30,000 degrees.   ???__________________________

 

 

TEXT 4

Read the text:

SOFTWARE FORENSICS

 

Computers and networks have played an important role in peoples’ everyday life over the last decade. But while computers have made our lives easier and have improved our standard of living, have also introduced a new venue of criminal activities.

Cyber attacks in the form of viruses, trojan horses, logic bombs, fraud, credit card cloning, plagiarism of code have increased in severity and frequency.

The creation of a new field with its own methods and tools, called software forensics, has helped to tackle these issues in a proper way and not in an ad hoc manner. The term software forensics implies the use of these tools and methods for some legal or official purpose. Software forensics could be used to examine and analyze software in any form, source or executable code, to identify the author.

Although source code (the textual form of a computer program that is written by a computer programmer) is much more formal and restrictive than spoken or written languages, there is still a large degree of flexibility when writing a program. This flexibility includes characteristics that deal with the layout of the program (placement of comments, indentation), characteristics that are more difficult to change automatically by pretty printers and code formatters, and deal with the style of the program (comment lengths, variable names, function names) and features that we hypothesize are dependent on the programming experience (the statistical distribution of lines of code per function, usage of data structures). Research studies on this field have proved that many of these features (layout, style, structure) of computer program can be specific to a programmer. Source code authorship analysis can be divided into 5 sub-fields according to the application area:

1. Author identification. The aim here is to decide whether some piece of code was written by a certain programmer. This type of application area has a lot of similarities with the corresponding literature where the task is to determine that a piece of work has been written by a certain author.

2. Author characterization. This application area determines some characteristics of the programmer of a piece of code, such as cultural educational background and language familiarity, based on their programming style.

3. Plagiarism detection. This method attempts to find similarities among multiple sets of source code files.

4. Author discrimination. This task is the opposite of the above and involves deciding whether some pieces of code were written by a single author or by some number of authors.

5. Author intent determination. In some cases we need to know whether a piece of code was written having this as its goal or was the result of an accidental error. In many cases, an error during the software development process can cause serious problems.

It seems that source code authorship analysis is an important area of practice in computer security, computer law, and academia as well as an exciting area of research.

 

 

Comprehensive questions:

v How can you identify software forensics? What are the objectives of software forensics?

v What characteristic features of the author’s style can you find in any program?

v How can source code authorship analysis be divided?

v Where is code authorship analysis used?

 

 

2. Fill in the chart with the information from the text:

WHAT IS ….?

Author identification Author characterization Plagiarism detection Author intent determination
       

Find words in the text that collocate with the words given below. Look up the meaning of the ones you don’t know in the dictionary. Do you know any other collocations with them? Write down your own sentences with them.

           
     


4. Give definitions to the following words from the text:

1.Viruses are ……..

2. Trojan horses are …….

3. Logic bombs are ……..

4. Credit card cloning is ………

5. Cyber attacks are …………

 

TEXT 5



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