Write down an abstract to the text using information given below about its structure.



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Write down an abstract to the text using information given below about its structure.



 

 
 

 


Составление аннотации осуществляется на максимальной компрессии (сжатии) текста, т.е. последовательно перечисляются все затронутые в тексте вопросы и сжато излагается основной вывод автора по всей теме и по основным вопросам.

Рекомендации к выполнению задания:

1. Разбейте текст на логически законченные части (обычно это абзацы).

2. Озаглавьте каждый из них (обычно это назывные предложения).

3. Каждую часть (абзац) разбейте на подчасти и озаглавьте их.

4. Итак, вы получили подробный план данного текста.

5. Теперь объедините эту информацию в новый текст, связывая ее своими словами и логико-грамматическими лексическими единицами, обычно в русском языке это сложносочиненные предложения с подчинением, носящие обобщающий характер типа: « В данном тексте автор подробно (вкратце) рассматривает вопрос (вопросы) …».

6. Не забудьте отдельным предложением подчеркнуть отношение автора, его позицию, новизну рассматриваемого вопроса.

 

Структура аннотации:

Последовательность изложения материала в аннотации всегда должна быть следующей:

1. Предметная рубрика.В этом пункте называ­ется область или раздел знания, к которому относится аннотируе­мый текст. Например: международное публичное право.

 

2. Т е м а. Обычно тема определяется наименованием текста, но не всегда наименование называет тему. В этом случае тема формулируется самим референтом.

 

3. Выходные данные источника. В этой руб­рике записывается на иностранном языке автор, заглавие, журнал, книга, издательство, место и время издания, название статьи или текста. Затем эти же данные даются в переводе на русский язык. Эта рубрика является очень важной для всякой аннотации, так как позволяет легко найти сам первоисточник.

4. Сжатая характеристика материала. Здесь последовательно перечисляются все затронутые в перво­источнике вопросы и основной вывод автора материала по всей теме и по основным ее вопросам.

 

5. Критическая оценка первоисточника. Эта рубрика может содержаться не в каждой аннотации, так как сам референт далеко не всегда может дать такую критическую оценку, но наличие такой рубрики является весьма желательным. Обычно референт излагает свою точку зрения на актуальность материала, указывает, на кого рассчитан данный материал, ка­кой круг читателей он может заинтересовать. Более специальных суждений референт, как правило, не делает.

Составленная по такой структуре аннотация является цен­ным материалом для ориентации заинтересованных лиц в потоке информации и способствует систематизации первоисточников.

 

Заполните бланк аннотации текста:

 
 

 

 


TEST YOURSELVES:

  1. Solve the puzzle and find the hidden word (vertical):

Horizontal:

1. The state of being bound emotionally or intellectually to a course of action.

2. A lawyer who works in court against a person charged with crime.

3. A pleasing or suitable arrangement of parts.

4. A normal mental state; sanity.

5. A person who is easily recognized in a society or culture.

6. The documentary or oral statements and the material objects admissible as testimony in a court of law.

7. A person who is able to report on something seen.

8. An ordinary man.

 

Hidden vertical word:A system of ideas of right and wrong conduct.

 

c                    
p                    
h              
r              
c                  
e                
w              
l                  

 

2. Choose the right answer:

1. Expert witnesses can be declared by …

a) law

b) prosecutor

c) judge

 

2. Criminal justice system protects …

a) law

b) an innocent

c) principles

3. The goal of the expert witness is ….

a) to communicate to the judge and jury

b) to say nothing

c) to protect the accused person

d) to speak about his/her knowledge

 

4. The expert has a right to ….

a) state an opinion and give the supporting data and reasons for it

b) testify in narrative form, demand to see and examine any published texts being used to cross-examine you

c) refuse to state your opinion until you have been compensated

d) all listed above

 

5. A zealous forensic scientist may …

a) misinterpret or falsify the results

b) prove the truth

c) balance emotions with reason

 

6. The best advice for the forensic scientists is …

a) keep the mind open

b) keep silence when can’t speak

c) it takes two to speak the truth – one to speak and the other to hear.

 

 

3. Read the text:

 

Like members of the legislative and executive branches, federal judges are expected to have high standards of ethics. All federal judges follow the principles outlined in the Code of Conduct for United States Judges, which has been adopted by the Judicial Conference of the United States, the federal courts' national policy-making group. The Code of Conduct includes these guidelines:

A judge should uphold the integrity and independence of the judiciary.

A judge should avoid impropriety and the appearance of impropriety in all activities.

A judge should perform the duties of the office impartially and diligently.

A judge may engage in extrajudicial activities to improve the law, the legal system, and the administration of justice.

A judge should regulate extrajudicial activities to minimize the risk of conflict with judicial duties.

A judge should regularly file reports of compensation received for law-related and extrajudicial activities.

A judge should refrain from political activity.

According to these ethical standards, judges should not hear cases in which they have a financial interest, a personal bias regarding a party to the case, or earlier involvement in the case as a lawyer. Further, judges are expected to participate in activities that contribute to the public good through improvement of the legal and judicial systems, and as a result, many judges are engaged in law-related education activities in schools.

 

  1. Determine if the following statements are:

1. According to the Code of Conduct for Judges a judge should do the job fairly and unbiasedly.

a) true

b) false

c) there is no information in the text.

 

2. According to the ethical standards, judges should refuse to hear cases in which they have a financial interest, a personal bias regarding a party to the case.

d) true

e) false

f) there is no information in the text.

 

 

2. Determine the main idea of the text:

  1. A judge should be an absolutely honest person.
  2. According to theCode of Conduct a judge should satisfy certain ethical standards.
  3. A judge should perform the duties of the office impartially.

 

 

GLOSSARY

 

1 ambiguity - двусмысленность, неопределенность

2. commitmentto– (философия) приверженность, связь, обязательство

~ to principles – приверженностьпринципам,

~ ideals - ~ идеалам,

ideological ~ - идейность

3. evidence– доказательство, свидетельство

admissible~ - допустимые доказательства,

credentials in ~ - достоверностьдоказательства,

~ incross-examination– свидетельские доказательства, полученные при перекрестном допросе, expert~ - доказательства, полученные экспертизой, examinationofmaterial~ - экспертиза вещественных доказательств

4. ethics– этика, учение о морали

Code of ~ моральныйкодекс

5. fallibility – подверженностьошибкам, отклонениям, погрешимость

6. hypothesis – гипотеза

~ and verification – гипотезаипроверка,

~ justification – подтверждение гипотезы,

hypotheses management– манипулирование несколькими гипотезами,

~ test– критерий для проверки гипотезы,

~ validity– справедливость гипотезы,

rival hypotheses - конкурирующиегипотезы

7. investigation– расследование, следствие, обследование, исследование, изыскание

FederalBureauof~ - Федеральное Бюро Расследований (ФБР)

field~ - расследование на месте преступления,

~ expert– эксперт, назначенный следствием,

~ files– следственный архив,

judicial~ - судебное расследование

8. justice– справедливость, правосудие, юстиция

Academyof Criminal Justiceand Sciences – Академиякриминологии,

toadminister~ - отправлять правосудие,

AssociateJustice– член Верховного суда США,

bylaworby~ - по закону или по справедливости,

tometeout~ отправлять правосудие,

senseof~ - смысл правосудия,

unbiased ~ - беспристрастноеправосудие

9. moral– моральный, нравственный

morality– нравственность

morals- нравы, нравственность

~ certainty– внутренние убеждение

10. prosecution– судебное преследование, обвинение, привлечение к ответственности

liableto~ подлежащий уголовному преследованию,

~ agencies (authorities) – органыпрокуратуры

~ bylaw– судебное преследование,

witnessfor~ - свидетель обвинения

11. reason– причина, мотив, соображение, благоразумие

by~ of - в силу чего-либо

good~ - достаточное основание,

important~ - уважительная причина,

reasonsbeyondcontrol– независящие обстоятельства,

ruleof~ - требование применить здравый смысл

12. science - наука

~ and technology – наукаитехника,

forensic~ - судебная наука,

legal~ - правоведение, наука права,

~ of law – юридическая наука

13. temptation – соблазн, искушение

to carry away by ~ - поддатьсяискушению,

to fight against ~ - боротьсясискушением,

to repel ~ - победитьискушение,

to resist ~ - устоять перед искушением

14. testimony– свидетельские показания под присягой

credible~ - ~ , заслуживающие доверия,

experimental~ - показания при проведении судебного эксперимента,

expert~ - свидетельские показания эксперта,

inadmissible~ - недопустимые (судом) показания,

relevant~ - показания, относящиеся к делу

15. witness– свидетель, очевидец, свидетельство

competent~ - правомочный свидетель,

expert~ - свидетель-эксперт,

lay~ - обычный свидетель,

perjured~ - лжесвидетельство,

swearasa~ - приводить к присяге,

zealous~ - свидетель, явно желающий выигрыша той стороне, которая его выставила (при-

страстный)

 

UNIT 2

FORENSIC SCIENCE

 

TEXT 1

Read and translate the text:

FORENSIC SCIENCE

 

The Oxford English Dictionary lists one of the first uses of the phrase "forensic science" to describe "a mixed science." The early days of foren­sic science could certainly be called mixed, when science served justice by its application to questions before the court. Forensic science has grown as a profession from the early 1880s and into a science in its own right in the early twenty-first century. Given the public's interest in using science to solve crimes, it looks as if forensic science has an active, even hectic, future.

Forensic science describes the science of associating places, things and people, involved in criminal activities; these scientific disciplines assist in investigating and adjudicating criminal and civil cases. The dis­cipline has two parts to it divides neatly, like the term that describes it.

Science is the collection of systematic methodologies used to increasingly understand the physical world. The word "forensic" is derived from the Latin forum meaning "public." In ancient Rome, the Senate met in the Forum, a public place where the political and policy issues of the day were discussed and debated; even today, high school or university teams that compete in debates or public speaking are called "forensics." More technically, forensic means "as applied to public or legal concerns." Together, "forensic science" is an appropriate term for the profession which answers scientific questions for the courts.

Forensic science is the application of scientific methods to solving crimes. Any science can be a forensic science if it has an application to the criminal justice system. The larg­est area of forensic science is criminalistics, which includes the physical evidence that commonly occurs at crime scenes. There are about 400 crime labs in the United States. Sev­eral departments in the federal government have forensic science labs. These include the Departments of Justice and the Treasury. Each state has its own forensic science laboratory system. These include labs run by state or local government.

Forensic scientists analyze evidence and testify in court as expert witnesses. They may also go to some crime scenes where especially serious or notorious crimes have been com­mitted. Crime laboratories must be secure so that evidence can be protected. There are many types of labs, but they all have an intake section, an analysis section, and a storage location for evidence.

 

 

EXERCISES

 

1. Give English equivalents from the text to the following Russian terms and word combinations:

Общественный интерес, раскрывать преступления, перспективное будущее, замешанные в уголовных преступлениях, расследование и судебное разрешение дела, четко разделенный, понять в большей степени, насущные государственные и политические вопросы, вещи (дела) общественного и правового характера, система уголовного правосудия, место преступления, управляемая государством, выступать в суде в качестве эксперта, общеизвестное преступление, отдел по сбору проб и образцов.

 

2. Give Russian equivalents to the following English terms and word combinations:

4. foren­sic science

5. to solve crimes

6. to assist in investigating and adjudicating criminal and civil cases

7. systematic methodologies

8. to compete in debates

9. labs run by state

10. to analyze evidence

11. to testify in court as expert witnesses

12. to be secure

13. an intake section

 

3. The language of science is full of so called international words that sound similarly with their Russian equivalents, but sometimes they acquire terminological meaning and must be translated differently according to the context. Look through the list of international words below, give their Russian equivalents and determine where some of them have terminological meaning in the text.

 

application, profession, active, associating, criminal, discipline, assist, collection, physical, forum, political, debates, legal, method, criminalistics, department, local, analyze, scene, laboratory, protect, type, analysis, section.

 

4. Translate the sentences from the text paying special attention to the function of the word ‘these’:

 

1. Forensic science describes the science of associating people, places, and things involved in criminal activities; these scientific disciplines assist in investigating and adjudicating criminal and civil cases.

2. Sev­eral departments in the federal government have forensic science labs. These include the Departments of Justice and the Treasury.

3. Each state has its own forensic science laboratory system. These include labs run by state or local government.

 

5. Find synonyms from the text to the following words:

 

public, forensics, an offence, a dispute, a corresponding word, research techniques, to be free from danger, to examine.

 

6. Match the word with its definition:

 

1. science

2. forensic science

3. scientific methods

4. the Forum

5. evidence

6. crime laboratories

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

a) a public place where the political and policy issues of the day were discussed and debated

b) a place where things from the crime scene are studied

c) a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.

d) something legally submitted to a tribunal to ascertain the truth of a matter

e) the application of scientific knowledge and methodology to legal problems and criminal investigations.

f) a systematic enterprise of gathering knowledge about the world and organizing and condensing that knowledge into testable laws and theories.

 

7. Complete the sentences according to the text:

1. Forensic science describes …..

2. The word "forensic" is derived from …..

3. The larg­est area of forensic science is ……

4. Forensic scientists ……

5. Crime laboratories must …….

 

8. Combine words from different columns to get a verb-noun collocation from the text and write down your own sentences with them:

 

a. to serve 1. investigating criminal cases

b. to solve 2. debates

c. to be involved in 3. as expert witnesses

d. to assist in 4. justice

e. to compete in 5. public concerns

f. to analyze 6. crimes

g. to testify 7. criminal activities

h. to be applied to 8. evidence

 

 

9. Make up a summary of the text (in English).

 

TEXT 2

(A)

 

1. Read the text and answer the following questions:

 

1. Why does forensic science extend into a broad range of sub-sciences?

2. What science deals with handwriting analysis and printmaking?

3. What science deals with the study and interpretation of language for use as legal evidence?

4. What does criminalistics deal with?

5. What does forensic entomology assist in?

6. What is forensic pathology?

 

WHAT IS FORENSIC SCIENCE?

 

Forensic science is typically just referred to as "forensics" and is the practical application of numerous sciences to solve legal system-related questions, which can include either a civil or criminal action or suit.

The use of the term "forensics" in place of "forensic science" is actually a globally-accepted misnomer considering that the term "forensic" is effectually a synonym for "legal" or "pertaining to courts", from the root of Latin meaning.

Because it is now so closely scientific field, many dictionaries equate the word "forensics" with "forensic science."

Forensic science extends into a broad range of sub-sciences which utilize natural science techniques to obtain relevant criminal and legal evidence.

 

Forensic Accounting - the acquisition, interpretation and study of accounting - evidence.

Digital Forensics (also known as Computing Forensics) - the retrieval, reconstruction and interpretation of digital media (i.e. images, PDF's, e-mail messages, etc.) stored on a computer, for use as evidence.

Forensic Document Examination - the reconstruction, study and interpretation of physical document-related evidence, such as handwriting analysis and printmaking.

Forensic Economics - the acquisition, study and interpretation of evidence related to economic damage, which includes determination of lost benefits and earnings, business value and profit loss, lost household service value, labor replacement and future medical expense costs, etc.

Forensic Engineering - the reconstruction, study and interpretation of structural or mechanical failure or in devices, buildings, etc.

Forensic Linguistics - the study and interpretation of language for use as legal evidence.

Forensic Origin and Cause- the study, interpretation and identification of a fire for the express purpose of determining the cause of ignition and origin of the fire (i.e. arson cases).

Forensic Photography - the art-science of reconstructing, interpreting and producing an accurate photographic reproduction of a crime scene for a court's benefit.

Forensic Psychology and Psychiatry - the study, evaluation and identification of mentally-related illnesses and human behavior for the purpose of obtaining legal evidence.

Forensic Anthropology is the practice of physical anthropology, as applied to a legal situation- typically the identification and recovery of skeletonized human remains (bones).

Criminalistics is the application of combination of impression evidence (i.e. fingerprints, impressions left by footwear and tire tracks), trace evidence, controlled substances. Criminalistics includes evidence collected from a wide range of sciences to determine the answers of questions relating to the examination and comparison of criminal investigations. This evidence is typically processed in a crime lab.

Forensic Biology includes performing DNA and serological analysis of bodily (physiological) fluids for the purpose of individualization and identification.

Forensic Entomology assists in determining time and location of death, by examining how insects relate to human remains, and can often times determine if the body being examined was moved after death.

Forensic Geology is the application of trace evidence found in soils, minerals and petroleums, as applied to a legal setting.

Forensic Meteorology is an analysis of prior weather conditions, specific to the site being examined.

Forensic Odontology is the study of teeth- specifically, the uniqueness of dentition.

Forensic Pathology combines the disciplines of medicine and pathology, as applied to a legal inquiry, to determine the cause of injury or death.

Forensic Toxicology is the study, evaluation and identification of the effects of poisons, chemicals, or drugs in and on the human body.

 

2. Compare text A and B. Complete the chart with the omitted information from text A.

 

 

TEXT 2

(B)

 

TEXT 3

 

1. Read the text and decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F):

 

1. Forensic science means science applied to criminal and civil law.

2. Criminalistics refers to the many types of physical evidence generated by crime scenes.

3. Criminalistics excludes fire and explosive residues.

4. The forensic pathologist is a medical doctor who has special­ized in forensic psychology and psychiatry.

5. The cause of death is the type of death.

6. If anthropologists have the right bones, gender can be determined.

7. An anthropologist constructs a face and then makes judg­ments as to the appearance of the person.

8. The majority of the work of forensic engineers is in the investigation of the cases of environmental pollution.

9. By inspecting the corpse, forensic entomologists can give a pretty good reason of the death.

 



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