Переведите на русский язык 1 – 3 абзацы текста.



Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!



Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Переведите на русский язык 1 – 3 абзацы текста.



Вариант 2

1. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обратив внимание на неличные формы глагола.

1. Nearly all the assembly line problems as documented in the literature were solved by this method.

2. Using the energy of the atom we produce electric energy at atomic plants.

3. It is important to know the basic principle to be observed in the design and use of optical equipment.

4. Scientists are looking for new ways for the improvement of integrated circuits technology.

5. Having modified the device architecture he succeeded in getting higher performance at lower power consumption.

2. Переведите следующие предложения, обратив внимание на местоимения-заменители существительных.

1. The masers can operate at other frequencies than those used in the microwave region.

2. No connection is possible other than that indicated in the service manual.

3. The other methods are not as efficient as this one.

4. With lasers, al the light waves have the same length and this increases the intensity.

5. If you’d like to repair your radio, you can take my transistor, not his.

3. Переведите следующие предложения, обратив внимание на усилительные конструкции.

1. Experiments showed that the starting products did contain impurities.

2. It is not the existence of an adding machine that is of importance in a business system.

3. This type of integrated circuits does make the chip much more effective.

4. It was in Leningrad where Kurchatov began his work.

5. It was Einstein who provided a new conception of time, space and gravitation.

4. Прочтите текст. Постарайтесь понять его содержание. Выполните задания после текста.

Bipolar Junction Transistor

1. A bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is a type of transistor. It is a three-terminal device constructed of doped semiconductor material and may be used in amplifying or switching applications. Bipolar transistors are so named because their operation involves both electrons and holes.

Although a small part of the base-emitter current is carried by the majority carriers, the main current is carried by minority carriers in the base, and so BJTs are classified as «minority-carrier» devices.

2. A BJT consists of three differently doped semiconductor regions, the emitter region, the base region and the collector region. These regions are, respectively, p-type, n-type and p-type in a PNP, and n-type, p-type and n-type in a NPN transistor. Each semiconductor region is connected to a terminal, appropriately labeled: emitter (E), base (B) and collector (C).

The base is physically located between the emitter and the collector and is made from lightly doped, high resistivity material. The collector surrounds the emitter region, making it almost impossible for the electrons injected into the base region to escape being collected, thus making the resulting value of α very close to unity, and so, giving the transistor a large β. A cross section view of a BJT indicates that the collector-base junction has a much larger area than the emitter-base junction.

3. The bipolar junction transistor, unlike other transistors, is not a symmetrical device. This means that interchanging the collector and the emitter makes the transistor leave the forward active mode and start to operate in reverse mode. Because the transistor’s internal structure is usually optimized to forward-mode operation, interchanging the collector and the emitter makes the values of α and β of reverse operation much smaller than those found in forward operation; usually, the α of the reverse mode is lower than 0.5. The lack of symmetry is primarily due to the doping ratios of the emitter and the collector. The emitter is heavily doped, while the collector is lightly doped, allowing a large reverse bias voltage to be applied before the collector-base junction breaks down. The collector-base junction is reverse biased in normal operation. The reason the emitter is heavily doped is to increase the emitter injection efficiency: the ratio of carriers injected by the emitter to those injected by the base. For high current gain, most of the carriers injected into the emitter-base junction must come from the emitter.

Small changes in the voltage applied across the base-emitter terminals causes the current that flows between the emitter and the collector to change significantly. This effect can be used to amplify the input voltage or current. BJTs can be thought of as voltage-controlled current sources, but are more simply characterized as current-controlled current sources, or current amplifiers, due to the low impedance at the base.

4. Early transistors were made from germanium but most modern BJTs are made from silicon. A significant minority are also now made from gallium arsenide, especially for very high speed applications.

Notes:

junction transistor плоскостной транзистор
to dope добавлять примеси
base-emitter current ток, протекающий от базы к эмиттеру
minority current carriers неосновные носители тока
forward active mode режим прямого смещения
reverse bias обратное смещение

5. Укажите, какие из данных утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста.

1. Bipolar junction transistors refer to “majority current carrier” devices.

2. The material used for making the base is usually lightly doped and has high resistivity.

3. Due to its properties transistors are used as current amplifiers.

6. Выберите правильные ответы на вопросы.

1. What material is more popular for making transistors?

(a) germanium;

(b) silicon.

2. Why is the emitter doped heavier than collector?

(a) In order to increase the number of current carriers injected by the emitter.

(b) In order to decrease the emitter injection efficiency.

7. Прочитайте предложения. Выберите правильный вариант перевода.

1. This means that interchanging the collector and the emitter makes the transistor leave the forward active mode and start to operate in reverse mode.

(a) Это значит, что переключения коллектора и эмиттера вынуждают транзистор переходить из активного прямого режима в обратный режим

(b) Это значит, что меняющиеся коллектор и эмиттер вынуждают транзистор оставить активный режим и начать работать в обратном режиме.

2. The lack of symmetry is primarily due to the doping ratios of the emitter and the collector.

(a) Сначала отсутствие симметрии является результатом соотношения уровней примесей в эмиттере и коллекторе.

(b) Отсутствие симметрии в первую очередь объясняется соотношением уровней примесей в эмиттере и коллекторе.

3. It makes the resulting value of α very close to unity.

(a) Это приводит к тому, что значение α приближается к единице.

(b) Это делает результирующую величину α близкой единству.



Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-12-12; Нарушение авторского права страницы; Мы поможем в написании вашей работы!

infopedia.su Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав. Обратная связь - 35.171.164.78 (0.008 с.)