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Вариант 2

1. Перепишите предложения, подчеркнув придаточные предложения. Укажите тип придаточного предложения и переведите их на русский язык.

For a long time Bell couldn’t get the results that he was looking for. Белл не мог долгое время получить результаты, которые он искал (определительное придаточное предложение).

1. Since the computer deals with pulses, the input device is a way of converting numbers written on paper into pulses and sending them to the storage.

2. Morse developed the simple operator key which when depressed completed an electric circuit and sent an electric pulse to a distant receiver.

3. The heat a body contains is the kinetic energy of its molecules.

4. They orbit the earth at a speed that allows them to stay above the same place on the earth at all time.

5. He explained that first of all, we should press the button.

6. As the warm air rises, cooler air takes its place.

7. I wonder whose code is still used in some modern teletype machines.

8. We knew he had made an important discovery.

2. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык и определите функции should, would в предложениях.

We should introduce this method if it were efficient (вспомогательный глагол при образовании сослагательного наклонения). A magnet would attract pieces of iron (модальный глагол). Мы бы ввели этот метод, если бы он был эффективным.   Магнит обычно притягивает куски железа.

1. We knew that we should finish our work in time.

2. If I knew enough about the machine I should mend it myself.

3. Scientists said that many of devices would evolve into more versatile equipment.

4. The engineer said they would carry out an experiment with the new device.

5. The substance under investigation should be examined both by chemical and physical means.

6. If the student had been more careful during the experiment, he wouldn’t have broken the instrument.

7. It is required that the programmer should code the instructions of the program in the appropriate sequence.

8. If I had the time I should help you to solve the problem.

9. You should follow all the important scientific research in your field.

10. I wish you would write down these data.

3. Перепишите предложения, обратив внимание на различные значения выделенных слов. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

This formula is not so simple as you think.   This is due to the raise of temperature. Эта формула не такая простая, как вы думаете. Это происходит из-за повышения температуры.

1. Wireless network use either infrared or radio frequency transmissions to link these mobile computers to networks.

2. In 1921 Einstein got his Nobel Prize not for the theory of relativity but for a logic explanation of photoelectric effect.

3. At present plastics as well as metals are widely used in various branches of industry.

4. Since the moon is the nearest body to the Earth, we know more about it than we know about any other planet.

5. Both silicon and germanium are semiconductors.

6. Because of their small size transistors make it possible to produce devices which can not be made with vacuum tubes.

7. Neither of the possible ways is simple.

4. Прочтите текст. Постарайтесь понять его содержание. Выполните задания после текста.

Hard Disk

1. A hard disk drive (HDD, also formerly known as a fixed disk drive) is a device which stores data on rapidly rotating disks with magnetic surfaces.

Hard drives record information by magnetizing a magnetic material in a pattern that represents the data. They read the data back by detecting the magnetization of the material. A typical hard disk drive design consists of a spindle which holds one or more flat circular disks called platters, onto which the data is recorded. The platters are made from a non-magnetic material, usually glass or aluminum, and are coated with a thin layer of magnetic material. Older drives used iron (III) oxide as the magnetic material, but current drives use a cobalt-based alloy.

2. The platters are spun at very high speeds. Information is written to a platter as it rotates past mechanisms called read-and-write heads that fly very close over the magnetic surface. The read-and-write head is used to detect and modify the magnetization of the material immediately under it. There is one head for each magnetic platter surface on the spindle, mounted on a common arm. An actuator arm moves the heads on an arc across the platters as they spin, allowing each head to access almost the entire surface of the platter as it spins.

3. The magnetic surface of each platter is divided into many small sub-micrometer-sized magnetic regions, each of which is used to encode a single binary unit of information. In today’s hard drives each of these magnetic regions is composed of a few hundred magnetic grains. Each magnetic region forms a magnetic dipole which generates a highly localized magnetic field nearby. The write head magnetizes a magnetic region by generating a strong local magnetic field nearby. Early hard drives used the same inductor that was used to read the data as an electromagnet to create this field. Today, thin film heads are most common. With these later technologies, the read and write head are separate mechanisms, but are on the same actuator arm.

4. Hard drives have a mostly sealed enclosure that protects the drive internals from dust, condensation, and other sources of contamination. The hard disk’s read-write heads fly on an air bearing which is a cushion of air only nanometers above the disk surface. The disk surface and the drive’s internal environment must therefore be kept immaculate to prevent damage from fingerprints, hair, dust, smoke particles and such, given the sub-microscopic gap between the heads and disk.

5. Using rigid platters and sealing the unit allows much tighter tolerances than in a floppy disk. Consequently, hard disks can store much more data than floppy disks and access and transmit it faster. In 2006, a typical workstation hard disk might store between 80 GB and 1Tb of data, rotate at 7,200 to 10,000 revolutions per minute (RPM), and have a sequential media transfer rate of over 50 MB/s. The fastest workstation and server hard drives spin at 15,000 RPM, and can achieve sequential media transfer speeds up to and beyond 80 MB/s.

Notes:

to read back считывать
read-and-write head головка считывания/записи данных
arm рычаг
to spin, v (spun, spun) быстро вращаться
enclosure корпус
revolution здесь: оборот

5. Укажите, какие из данных утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста.

1. The platters of the hard disk drives rotate at low speeds.

2. HDDs have an ordinary enclosure with several apertures that make the access to the internals free and easy.

3. HDDs are capable of storing much more data than diskettes.

6. Выберите правильные ответы на вопросы.

1. Do HDDs store data on the tape or magnetic disks?

(a) magnetic disks;

(b) magnetic tape.

2. What material is used for platters today?

(a) cobalt - based alloy;

(b) iron oxide.

7. Прочтите предложения. Выберите правильный вариант перевода.

1. Read-and-write heads fly very close over the magnetic surface.

(a) Головки считывания/записи перемещаются над магнитной поверхностью на очень маленьком расстоянии.

(b) Головки считывания/записи летают близко над магнитной поверхностью.

2. The read-and-write head is used to detect and modify the magnetization of the material immediately under it.

(a) Головка считывания/записи используется для обнаружения и изменения магнетизации материала сразу под ней.

(b) Головка считывания-записи используется для нахождения и изменения намагниченности материала непосредственно под ней.

3. Hard disks can store much more data than floppy disks and access and transmit it faster.

(a) Жесткие диски могут хранить намного больше информации по сравнению с гибкими дисками и обеспечивают более быстрый доступ к ней и ее передачу.

(b) Жесткие диски могут хранить намного больше информации чем гибкие диски и имеют доступ и передают ее.



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