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Переведите письменно 3 – 4 абзацы текста.



Вариант 5

1. Перепишите предложения, подчеркнув придаточные предложения. Укажите тип придаточного предложения и переведите их на русский язык.

For a long time Bell couldn’t get the results that he was looking for. Белл не мог долгое время получить результаты, которые он искал (определительное придаточное предложение).

1. A transformer cannot be called a machine for it has no moving parts.

2. It can be said that the world is in the midst of an electronic revolution.

3. A substrate may be active, when parts of it display transistance.

4. Einstein gave an entirely new idea of the world we live in.

5. Microprocessors, which are at the heart of millions of personal and home computers, pack the same computing power into a tiny chip.

6. It is difficult to establish whether this problem can be solved at all.

7. The laboratory assistant said he would demonstrate a linear amplifier.

8. Fiber-optic cables are cables made of specially treated glass that can transmit signals in the form of pulsed beams of laser light.

2. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык и определите функции should, would в предложениях.

We should introduce this method if it were efficient (вспомогательный глагол при образовании сослагательного наклонения). A magnet would attract pieces of iron (модальный глагол). Мы бы ввели этот метод, если бы он был эффективным.   Магнит обычно притягивает куски железа.

1. The director asked when the materials of our research would be typed.

2. It is important that the current should be measured exactly.

3. The results of the experiments should be checked up very carefully.

4. He said that the new transistor would weight about 100 grams.

5. They suggest that he should begin the test immediately.

6. Without computers the development of atomic power stations would be quite impossible.

7. The results were completely wrong. As a scientist she should have planned the experiment more carefully.

8. The system boot would not stop for a disk error.

9. If one knew the dimensions of the body, he would easily calculate its volume.

10. He said that I should do that work myself.

Перепишите предложения, обратив внимание на различные значения выделенных слов. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

This formula is not so simple as you think.   This is due to the raise of temperature. Эта формула не такая простая, как вы думаете. Это происходит из-за повышения температуры.

1. Radio communications systems include radio navigation and both amateur and commercial broadcasting.

2. The experiment was stopped due to the lack of data.

3. The system can be considered either true or false.

4. Since his childhood Faraday took great interest in electricity.

5. That area has neither fuel nor hydropower resources.

6. People realized that electricity could pass through the air as well as along the wire.

7. An ammeter is an instrument for measuring current.

4. Прочтите текст. Постарайтесь понять его содержание. Выполните задания после текста.

Methods to Avoid Detection

1. In order to avoid detection by users, some viruses employ different kinds of deception. Some old viruses, especially on the MS-DOS platform, make sure that the «last modified» date of a host file stays the same when the file is infected by the virus. This approach does not fool anti-virus software, however.

Some viruses, called cavity viruses, can infect files without increasing their sizes or damaging the files. They accomplish this by overwriting unused areas of executable files.

Some viruses try to avoid detection by killing the tasks associated with antivirus software before it can detect them.

2. As computers and operating systems grow larger and more complex, old hiding techniques need to be updated or replaced.

3. A virus needs to infect hosts in order to spread further. In some cases, it might be a bad idea to infect a host program. For example, many anti-virus programs perform an integrity check of their own code. Infecting such programs will therefore increase the likelihood that the virus is detected. For this reason, some viruses are programmed not to infect programs that are known to be part of anti-virus software. Another type of hosts that viruses sometimes avoid is bait files. Bait files (or goat files) are files that are specially created by anti-virus software, or by anti-virus professionals themselves, to be infected by a virus. These files can be created for various reasons, all of which are related to the detection of the virus.

4. Anti-virus professionals can use bait files to take a sample of a virus (i.e. a copy of a program file that is infected by the virus). It is more practical to store and exchange a small, infected bait file, than to exchange a large application program that has been infected by the virus.

Anti-virus professionals can use bait files to study the behavior of a virus and evaluate detection methods. This is especially useful when the virus is polymorphic. In this case, the virus can be made to infect a large number of bait files. The infected files can be used to test whether a virus scanner detects all versions of the virus.

Some anti-virus software employs bait files that are accessed regularly. When these files are modified, the anti-virus software warns the user that a virus is probably active on the system.

Since bait files are used to detect the virus, or to make detection possible, a virus can benefit from not infecting them. Viruses typically do this by avoiding suspicious programs, such as small program files or programs that contain certain patterns of «garbage instructions».

A related strategy to make baiting difficult is sparse infection. Sometimes, sparse infectors do not infect a host file that would be a suitable candidate for infection in other circumstances. For example, a virus can decide on a random basis whether to infect a file or not, or a virus can only infect host files on particular days of the week.

Some viruses try to trick anti-virus software by intercepting its requests to the operating system. A virus can hide itself by intercepting the anti-virus software’s request to read the file and passing the request to the virus, instead of the OS. The virus can then return an uninfected version of the file to the anti-virus software, so that it seems that the file is «clean».

Notes:

host хост общий термин, описывающий нечто, содержащее ресурс и предоставляющее к нему доступ
executable file исполнимый (исполняемый) файл, файл с программой или командный файл
likelihood вероятность
bait (goat) file файл-приманка

5. Укажите, какие из данных утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста.

1. Cavity viruses, can infect files by overwriting unused areas of executable files.

2. With the development of computers and operating systems the techniques of hiding viruses are also updated.

3. Viruses spread without infecting hosts.

6. Выберите правильные ответы на вопросы.

1. How do we call the files specially created by professionals for detection of viruses?

(a) bait files;

(b) hosts.

2. Does the infection of host programmes and particularly of antivirus software increase or decrease the possibility of virus detection?

(a) increase;

(b) decrease.

7. Прочитайте предложения. Выберите правильный вариант перевода.

1. As computers and operating systems grow larger and more complex, old hiding techniques need to be updated or replaced.

(a) С увеличением компьютеров и сложности оперативных систем cстарые способы маскировки требуют обновления и замены.

(b) Так как возможности и сложность компьютеров и ОС постоянно увеличиваются, старые способы маскировки требуют обновления и замены.

2. In this case, the virus can be made to infect a large number of bait files.

(a) В этом случае может быть создан вирус, чтобы заражать большое число файлов-приманок.

(b) В этом случае можно сделать так, чтобы вирус заражал большое число файлов-приманок.

3. A related strategy to make baiting difficult is sparse infection.

(a) Соответствующей стратегией для затруднения обнаружения вирусов файлами-приманками является заражение вразброс.

(b) Связанной стратегией сделать обнаружение вирусов трудным является разбросанное заражение.



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