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Text 3. The Economy of Great Britain
Task 12. Read and translate the text. Give your commentaries on each economic region.
Economy is a system by which a country’s trade, industry, business and money are organized; wealth and resources of a community; careful and efficient management of (esp. financial) resources; the whole of a country’s business, industry, trade and the money that they produce.
The UK has an independent, developed, international trading economy. The UK now ranks among the top industrial countries in growth rates, productivity and competitiveness.
Great Britain is rich in natural construction and energy resources, such as tin, rink, sand, limestone, chalk, slate, clay, celestite, oil and natural gas.
Branches of National Economy involve: 1) Agriculture; 2) Forestry; 3) Fishing; 4). Industry; 5) Manufacturing; 6) Construction; 7) Services; 8) Finance; 9). Trade; 10) Transportation; 11) Communication; 12) Co-operation.
There are eight economic regions in Great Britain. The main economic regions are: 1) Southern England; 2) the Midlands; 3) Lancashire; 4) Yorkshire; 5) Northern England’ 6) Wales; 7) Scotland; 8) Northern Ireland.
Southern England is the most important in the country in terms of industry, agriculture and population. It the centre of the region is the city of London. It is the biggest port in the country. London is a typical capitalist city with allthe social problems. The other towns andcities of this region are: Oxford (98,000), Cambridge (90,000) and Luton (164,000). The South is the main agricultural region of Great Britain (dairy farming is developed; oats, barley and wheat are principle cereals).
The Midlandsis situated in the centre of Great Britain. The Midlands is one of the Britain’s leading industrial regions in the UK. Birmingham (998,200) is Britain’s second largest city and the industrial capital of the Midlands. Thiscity is a major producer of consumer goods and services. The principle crops are barley, wheat,potatoes and sugar beet, gardening production of vegetables and flowers.
Lancashire is situated on the western slopes of the Pennines. Manchester is the centre of a textile industry. Liverpool is Britain’s leading port. Agriculture includes:cattle, sheep, poultry rearing; potatoes and cabbage growing.
Yorkshire is situated to the east of the Pennines. Sheffield (555,500) produceswide range of steel goods. Leeds’ (709 000) main industry is themanufacture of clothing, and engineering is also important. Bredford (462 000) is the leading centre of woolen manufacture.
Northern England is situated between Lancashire and Yorkshire in the south and Scotland in the north. Most important cities are: Newcastle-upon-Tyne (the principle centre), Sunderland (aseaport, a centre of ship-building and engineering industry) and Teesside (the leading iron and steel manufacturing areas in Britain). Agriculture includes:sheep rearing, beef cattle and dairy cattle.
Scotland is thenorthern part of Great Britain. Its most important industries are: coal mining, iron industry and ship-building. Glasgow (715,000) is Scotland’s largest city and the centre of ship-building trade. Edinburgh (438,700), the capital of the country, is the centre of government, political, cultural and commercial life. Agriculture includes: barley, oats, turnips, potatoes growing, sheep, beef and dairy cattle rearing.
Wales is a mountainous country. Wales is the main area of industrial activity. Coal mining, the iron and steel industries are long developed. Cardiff (280,000) is the modern capital of Wales and is also the main business centre. Swansea is an important container-port and Newport is a coal exporter. Agriculture includes: sheep, dairy and beef cattle rising; oat and root crops growing mainly for fodder. Tourism is mainly concentrated in the northern coastal strip.
Northern Ireland is a part of Great Britain which is situated on the island of Ireland. New industries are electronics, electrical engineering, and chemical industry. Belfast (400,000) is a major city and the centre of textile manufacturing, ship-building, aircraft production, electronic engineering, and food processing.
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