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ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Техника нижней прямой подачи мяча.
Франко-прусская война (причины и последствия)
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Смысловое и механическое запоминание, их место и роль в усвоении знаний
Коммуникативные барьеры и пути их преодоления
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Образцы текста публицистического стиля
Четыре типа изменения баланса
Задачи с ответами для Всероссийской олимпиады по праву
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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Syntactic Functions of Adjectives
§ 7.Adjectives may serve in the sentence as:
e.g.She had pleasant blueeyes and very long fairhair which she
Adjectives used attributively usually precede the noun imme-
However, if an adjective does not so much give a permanent
e.g. Nervous, the man opened the letter.
The meaning of the above sentence can be interpreted as 'The
Here are more examples illustrating loose attributes:
e.g. Clever and tactful,George listened to my story with deep
e.g. Her smile was almost professional.
Adjectives used predicatively tend to refer to a temporary
e.g. She is ill.
The child is asleep.
Note. Note the following sentence pattern which is commonly used to express
e.g. The water was five feet deep.
The train was twenty minutes late.
3) part of a compound verbal predicate,
e.g. He stood silent, with his back turned to the window.
He rolled onto his back and stared up into the tree where lit-
4) an objective predicative,
e.g. I thought him very intelligent.
She wore her hair short.
In this function adjectives sometimes express the result of the
The powder washes the linen white.
He pushed the window open.
She made him happy.
The news turned his hair white.
5) a subjective predicative,
e.g. Her hair was dyed blonde.
6) an adverbial modifier,
e.g. When ripe, the apples are sweet.
Whether right or wrong, the man ought to be treated fairly-
As is seen from the above examples, adjectives used ad-
e.g. When (it is) necessary, he can be taken to the doctor.
§ 8. Adjectives in the predicative function often require an ob-
e.g. a) I was not aware of his presence.
We were all very interested in the result of the experiment.
b) He was quick to understand what I meant.
c) She is busy packing-
resentful at being reproached with his own words.
d) I was anxious that they should not miss the train.
2) Adjectives are often used to build up exclamatory sentences
e.g. How charming your daughter is!
Place of Adjectives in Attributive Phrases
§ 9. Adjectives used as close attributes precede the noun they
e.g. Nick could beat his father so badly at tennis that only paren-
Sometimes adjectives are found in post-position to the word
1) if an adjective modifies an indefinite pronoun,
e.g. Anyone intelligentcan do it.
I'll tell you something wonderful.
2) in some set phrases, e.g. the president elect (=soon to take
3) if an attribute is expressed by the adjectives absent, present,
e.g. The men present were all his friends.
The people involvedwere asked to come at ten o'clock.
Post-position is possible if an attribute has a modifier following it.
e.g. Peter and Tom were the boys easiest to teach.
They have a garden larger than yours.
If there are several attributes modifying a noun their order
Nick, surprised,went over to the window to re-read the letter.
§ 10.Note the place of the indefinite article when an adjective
e.g. She is too timida girl to meet him.
Dr Grogan was, in fact, aswise an old man as my grandfather.
e.g. a brilliant (1) young (4) man
An attributive group in which all the spaces were filled would
§ 1. Pronouns include a miscellaneous group of words which
It is difficult to define the meaning of pronouns. Unlike nouns
Various individual pronouns may have different grammatical
It should be pointed out that although pronouns function as
1) personal pronouns, 6) indefinite pronouns,
2) possessive pronouns, 7) reciprocal pronouns,
3) reflexive pronouns, 8) interrogative pronouns,
4) emphatic pronouns, 9) conjunctive pronouns.
5) demonstrative pronouns,
§ 2. We find the following personal pronouns in English:
I and we are said to be the pronouns of the 1st person, i.e. a
We distinguish singular and plural personal pronouns. Singu-
§ 3. In addition to the above structural meanings of the per-
It is a tradition to use we instead of I in newspaper articles,
, e.g. We are convinced that the Government has made a grave
She is sometimes used for inanimate objects, especially ships,
e.g. Come along and have a look at my new car. She is a beauty.
e.g. France has made it plain that she will regret the proposal.
You may be used with reference to nobody in particular, to
e.g. You don't know him. He is dishonest. You feel that he is ly-
"Have you been aboard Mrs Wilcox's yacht? What do people
In my youth during Christmas holidays I loved to visit my
you got into them, each anonymous house held a promise
They may be used to mean 'people in general', especially in
e,g. They say he's going to resign.
No wonder they say the present generation hasn't got a scrap
§ 4. The personal pronouns change for case. There are two cases
The forms of the nominative case function in the sentence as
e.g. I expect they will laugh at me.
Why, don't you know what he's up to?
The forms of the objective case function in the sentence as objects.
e.g. I met himin the street, (direct object)
He gave me some advice, (indirect object)
Please, don't tell anyone about us. (prepositional object)
When personal pronouns are used as predicatives or after than-'
e.g. "Who is it?" "It's me (I)."
"Do you need anything?" "A secretary that I'lldictate my
piece to." "I'll be her."
But only a nominative case personal pronoun can be used in
e.g. It was I who did it.
The Use of it
§ 5. As has been said, the pronoun it is generally used for con-
e.g. I tried the door. It was locked.
He promised his help if ever I needed it.
He got down the horse and tied it to the rail.
Yet the pronoun it may be used to identify an unknown person.
e.g. There was a knock at the door. I thought it was the postman.
He usually came at that time.
When the waiter came up to his table he did not at once real-
It may also refer to an idea expressed in a preceding word-
e.g. a) He tried to break the lock. It was not easy either.
There was some mutual hesitation about shaking hands,
b) He knew that his father was dying but he did not want to
speak with anyone about it.
c) The music had stopped. He didn't notice it.
d) He studied her, then shook his head. He waited a moment
and then decided not to say what he might have been go-
questions. She had watched him do it all without any in-
It is very often used as a formal subject in impersonal state-
e.g. It is raining heavily.
It was very cold in the room.
It is six miles to the nearest hospital from here.
It as the formal subject is also found in sentences in which the
e.g. a) It is stupid to fall asleep like that.
b) It won't be easy finding our way home.
It's no use hoping he'll ever change his mind.
c) It was clear that he was going to give in.
It was a surprise that he had come back so soon.
e.g. I found it difficult to explain to him what had happened.
It was on the terrace that he wanted them to lay the table.
Finally, the pronoun it is rather often used in various idi-
e.g. Hang it all, we can't wait all day for him.
§ 6. There are the following possessive pronouns in English:
Possessive pronouns serve to modify nouns in the sentence,
e.g. Bob nodded at his wife as if he wanted to say "You see?"
But there are certain idiomatic phrases where the definite ar-
ticle is used instead of a possessive pronoun,
He got red in the face.
He took me by the hand.
The ball struck him in the back.
He patted his wife on the shoulder.
§ 7. The possessive pronouns may also perform noun func-
e.g. She put her arm through mine.
They are not my gloves; I thought they were yours.
Incidentally, its is hardly ever used as an absolute form.
Sometimes we find absolute forms of possessive pronouns pre-
e.g. He is a friend of mine.
It happened through no fault of his.
We had a slight accident and, luckily, that neighbour of
§ 8. The reflexive pronouns are formed by adding -self (in the
There is one more reflexive pronoun which is formed from the
These pronouns are used as noun pronouns in the sentence.
e.g. He wrapped himself in his blanket and fell off to sleep.
I'm sure you both remember the day when you talked about
As is seen from the above examples, the reflexive pronouns
Note 1. Note the following sentences where personal pronouns are preferred to
e.g. He went in, closing the door behind him.
Note 2. Note that both personal and reflexive pronouns are found in sentences
e.g. My brother is as tall as myself (me).
No one realizes it better than yourself (you).
§ 9. Reflexive pronouns may also be used in a different way:
weakened in this case. The meaning of the verb differs from the
A few other verbs are always followed by reflexive pronouns
We also find idiomatic uses of reflexive pronouns in such set
Besides, there are a few prepositional phrases with reflexive
He was almost beside himselfwith excitement, ('вне себя')
Go and find for yourselfhow it is done, ('сам')
I came away and left him to himself,('оставил его одного')
§ 10.Emphatic pronouns have the same forms as reflexive
the door herself.)
We are all queer fish, queerer than we know ourselves.
§ ll.There are four demonstrative pronouns in English: this,
The pronouns this and that change for number. Their corre-
§ 12. The pronoun this (these) refers to what is near in space,
e.g. a) Do you know these people? Thisis Harry Field, my coach,
Take thispear. It looks very ripe.
"Look at this,"he said and showed me his tie.
When he stopped talking, she wondered, "Why is he tell-
"Maybe you don't want to go to thisparty," he asked hop-
b) Do you see thosehouses in the distance? That'swhere we
Is thatyour son?
They ate the pie and drank the coffee in silence. When
He was deaf but she didn't think that many people noticed
The pronouns this (these) and that (those) may also have other
1) In some cases this (these) may refer to what is to follow,
e.g. After I've listened to you very attentively I'll tell you this —
Idon't think you should trust the man.
But I'm glad to see you have an interest in sports. That
2) This (these) and that (those) are often used with nouns indi-
e.g. "Why don't you come and see me some time?" "How about
this Sunday, if it's convenient?"
3) Sometimes the use of this (these) and that (those) is emo-
e.g. Will this dog ever stop barking?
Do you really believe in those ideas?
4) The pronoun that (those) may be used instead of a noun al-
He hung his daughter's portrait beside that of his wife's.
I entered by the door opposite to that opening into the gar-
She was a good teacher. She knew how to teach bright chil-
had visited five years before.
As is seen from the above examples, that (those) in this case is
5) That is often used instead of it. In this case that appears to
be more emphatic than it.
e.g. I'm going to practise law. I have that all planned.
"Tell her I'm sorry I missed her." "I'll do that."
6) Those followed by a who-clause, a participle or an ing-iorm
e.g. Serious newspapers are read by those (=people) who want to
Even those (=people) who do not like his pictures are not in-
Those (=people) injured in the accident were taken to hospital.
Note. Those present 'присутствующие' and those concerned 'заинтересован-
7) In spoken English that may be used as an adverbial modifi-
e.g. I did not think he was that stupid.
§ 13. That, this are often found as part of set phrases. Here
e.g. "Mike will tell you that I seldom pass through this place
"I have a car outside. I'll give you a ride home." "Oh, that's
heaviest autumn downpours, (=despite that)
You ought to know better than that, ('быть умнее')
that." ('да нет, не совсем'; 'совсем не о том')
I'm thinking of your future, you know. That's why I'm giv-
After that I did not see him for several days, ('после этого')
Marion's concern was directly for me. "Yes, it was a pity you
"You know what people think when a man like him dies."
So that's that, ('вот так-то'; 'такие-то дела')
for that matter? ('впрочем, даже')
Note. Note that English people speaking of their country say this country
§ 14. The demonstrative pronoun such may mean of this or
e.g. a) If I were you I would not have said such a thing about him.
The position of Dan Crusher was such that he was wel-
He wrote such desperate letters to me that year.
The meaning of such is often completed by a clause of con-
He cut such an absurd figure that I felt inclined to laugh.
I never saw such a handsome man as Jim's father.
Mr Clark was afraid that his promotion would never come
because there was such a thing, he said, as junior clerks
trying to draw attention to themselves.
Such may be followed by an infinitive with as.
e.g. His carelessness is such as to make it unlikely that he will
Note that such may be combined with some indefinite pro-
e.g. I'll do no such thing.
He didn't say any such thing.
Any such request is sure to be turned down.
On every such occasion dozens of people get injured.
Some such story was told to me years ago.
§ 15- Such is sometimes found as part of set phrases. Here are
e.g. They export a lot of fruit, such as oranges, lemons, etc.
(= for example 'такие, как')
was fifteen, ('каково бы оно ни было')
бы они ни были')
what is to be done, ('как таковой')
§16. The demonstrative pronoun same means 'identical'. It is
Same may also be followed by a phrase introduced by as.
e.g. Saying good-bye, my aunt gave me the same warning as on
the day of my father's departure.
His head was disproportionally large, built on the same lines
§ 17. Same is sometimes found as part of set phrases. Here
e.g. It's all the same to me. (=It makes no difference to me.)
I asked him what he wanted to start with. It was all the
same to him. (=it made no difference to him.)
(=in spite of that)
"How is he today?" "Much the same." (=not apparently differ-
§ 18. The indefinite pronouns express various degrees and var-
1) indefinite pronouns proper:
a) some, any, no;
b) somebody, anybody, nobody;
c) one, none
2) distributive pronouns:
a) all, every, each, other, either, neither, both;
b) everybody, everyone, everything
3) quantitative pronouns:
much, many, little, few, a little, a few, a lot of, lots of,
§ 19. The pronoun some may be used as an adjective pronoun
e.g. On such days my mother would give me some pennies to buy
sweets or a magazine.
They did give us some nice things to eat, didn't they?
The visitor asked me to describe some of the work we do in
Some, used with a singular countable noun, may mean 'a par-
e.g. Some boy had written a Latin word on the blackboard.
Some is very often used for contrast. Then it is strongly stressed.
Some of us agree with the statement, some disagree.
Some may also mean 'approximately',
When used as a noun pronoun, some may be singular or plu-
e.g. Some of his opinions were hard to accept.
Some of the food was packed in waterproof bags.
As a rule, some is used in affirmative sentences (see the exam-
e.g. May I give you some more tea?
I could not answer some of his questions.
Not all your answers are correct. Some are, some aren't.
§ 20. The pronoun any is also used as an adjective pronoun
e.g. Come any day you like.
I was interested in any new prospect of change.
Her voice carried well in any hall.
In interrogative and negative sentences any is used instead of some.
e.g. Is there any chance of seeing any of his pictures?
It should be noted that a negative meaning may be conveyed
e.g. He never had any luck.
He went away without saying good-bye to any of us.
Now that he lived in the country he seldom had any visitors.
The Dutchman spoke French with hardly any accent.
No one is under any obligation to you.
I don't think any of us ought to wish the result to be different.
Any is used when some doubt or condition is implied. This of-
e.g. Let me know if you hear any news.
I wonder if you have met any of these people before.
If you still have any of my father's letters, send them to me,
Any may be used as an adverbial modifier of degree in the sen-
e.g. He isn't any better.
In spite of your advice she isn't any the wiser.
§ 21. The pronoun no is negative in meaning and used only as
e.g. He had no tie on.
They have no friends in London.
He had no desire to take decisions.
There are no letters for you today.
I have no money left.
There were no people in the hall.
No boy at the school had ever seen the sea.
He is no hero.
The girl was no beauty.
The old man was no fool.
Note the set phrase to be no good.
§ 22. There are the following compound pronouns formed with
someone — anyone — no one
They are all used as noun pronouns and the rules for the use
The compounds in -one and in -body are singular in meaning
He'd told my landlady he was looking out for someone to
My mother wanted me to give more money to the fund than
Is there anyone at home?
No one was in a hurry. No one seemed to think that to-
I found my mother in the kitchen. There was no one else at
misplaced on the shelf.
Anybody can see that the whole thing has been a failure.
e.g. He isn't going to be in anybody's way at this hour of the night.
Note. When the compounds in -one and in -body are followed by else, the geni-
The difference between the compounds in -body and those in —
one is that the latter are, as a rule, more individualizing, i.e. the
compounds in -body refer to persons collectively, whereas those in
one refer to individuals.
Cf. Somebody is sure to get interested in the job. (=some people,
one or more persons)
person, one person)
Nobody knew about her arrival. (= no people)
The compounds in -thing can be used only of things. They are
e.g. There is something wrong with him.
We were almost outside our house before I took in that some-
"Why don't you say something?" he demanded.
I'll do anything for you.
"Is there anything in the paper?" he said, as we approached
Nothing could remove his disappointment.
The doctor could suggest nothing to me. (= The doctor could
He looked at me and didn't say anything.
Dirk never concealed anything.
Let me see your pictures. If there's anything I like, I'll buy it.
Note the idiomatic use of something in the following sen-
e.g. He is something of a hermit. ('В нем есть что-то от отшель-
I hope to see something of you during the holidays. ('Я наде-
Не is something in the Foreign Office. ('Он какое-то ответст-
It's something like two miles to the lake. (=approximately)
All the compound indefinite pronouns may be modified by ad-
e.g. You should do something sensible about it at last.
§ 23. The pronoun one in all of its uses refers exclusively to
The pronoun one is used as a noun pronoun and as an adjec-
As a noun pronoun, it can have the plural form ones and the
As an adjective pronoun one is invariable.
One has many various uses in English.
1) It is used to stand for 'people' or 'I or any person in my po-
e.g. One can*t be too careful in matters like this.
He was very young, not more than twenty-three or four, as
indeed one could see at a glance.
it for long one could no longer distinguish, for a moment
or two, the shape of things.
no longer makes one's life when one is old. Life is made
Note. Care should be taken not to use one too often in the sentence because it
For example, the sentence When one is given one's choice of courses of action,
a) When someone is given his choice of courses of action, any of which would be
b) When you are given your choice of courses of action, any of which would be to
Note that you in the last sentence above applies to no particular person and is
2) One may have the meaning of 'a person'.
e.g. He is not one to be easily frightened.
3) One is often used for contrast with other, in which case it
e.g. The brothers are so alike that I sometimes cannot tell one
from the other.
I'll take one, the other key you'd better keep yourself.
4) One, in combination with nouns denoting time, is used to
e.g. One day he'll understand his mistake.
5) One is used with the meaning of 'only' or 'single'.
e.g. Your father is the one man who can help you now.
6) Last but not least, one is used as a prop-word, i.e. as a sub-
e.g. Trams were passing us, but my father was not inclined to
If the prop-word one is preceded by an adjective, an article
e.g. No, that's not their car. Theirs is a blue one.
The new vicar was less cultivated than the old one.
The prop-word one can be used in the plural.
e.g. I prefer red roses to white ones.
"Which biscuits would you like?" "The ones with chocolate
The prop-word one (ones) may also be used in combination with
e.g. If you will take this chair, I'll take that one.
I've never seen such big tulips as these ones.
Here are some books for you to read. Which one would you
There were several houses in the street, each one more ex-
If you don't like this magazine, take another one.
My house is the first one on the left.
There are certain restrictions on the use of the prop-word one:
a) one is not used after own,
e.g. I won't go by your car. I'll use my own.
b) one is normally not used after a superlative or comparative
e.g. The English climate is often said to be the most unpre-
Of all the runners my brother was the swiftest.
Note. Note that the prop-word one is possible when most is used in the mean-
e.g. His collection of stamps is a most valuable one.
c) one is not used after cardinal numerals,
d) one is to be avoided in formal or scientific English.
e.g. He was a man that was liked by one and all. (= by everybody)
The sky was gently turning dark and the men began to de-
Would you like me to bring them one by one, sir? (= singly,
No, I won't go with you. For one thing, I am very busy at
The little ones always know a good man from a bad one.
It isn't the pretty ones that make good wives and mothers.
§ 24. The pronoun none is a noun pronoun. It is negative in
e.g. None of us knows where he is going to work.
Note. The difference between none and the negatives no one (nobody) and noth-
e.g. "Whoare you speaking to?" "No one (nobody)"
Nothing is used in answer to a what-question,
But none is used in answer to a how many- or how much-question.
e.g. "How many fish did you catch?" "None"
"How muchpetrol is there in the car?" "None"
§ 25. The pronoun all can be used as a noun pronoun and as
All used as a noun pronoun is singular when it means 'every-
e.g. All's well that ends well, (proverb)
I don't find any change here, all looks as it always did.
He has lost all.
in your shop.
All used as a noun pronoun is plural when it means 'eve-
e.g. All are welcome.
All agree that he has behaved splendidly.
All of us think so.
He made a few suggestions. All of them were acceptable.
When all is used as an adjective pronoun, the verb may be sin-
e.g. All the money was spent.
All that business fills me with disgust.
All the trunks are packed ready to go.
All students should register before October 1st.
There are a few peculiarities in the use of all:
I don't like to speak before all these people.
However, when all is followed by a personal pronoun, the
e.g. He has written three novels and all of them were best sellers.
Note. In American English nouns following all are often joined to it, like per-
e.g. Allof ourstudents have registered.
2) Note the possible place of all with nouns (a) and personal
e.g. a) All the students found the lectures helpful.
3) All may be followed by an appositive clause which is usually
e.g. Meeting George was the first piece of pure chance that affect-
1 For the use or absence of the definite article after all see "Articles", §10, Note.
She listened to all (that) he said with a quiet smile on her lips.
§ 26. The pronoun every is used only as an adjective pronoun.
e.g. After the gale every flower in the garden was broken.
Every head turned to look at them as they progressed slowly
He knew by heart every word in her letter.
Every morning the landlady greeted him with the same ques-
Every time I ring you up, I find you engaged.
He had every reason to believe that he was right.
Note the idiomatic uses of every in the following sentences:
e.g. Every other house in the street was damaged in an air-raid.
(= every second, fourth, sixth, etc. house; about half the
He comes here every three days. (= every third day)
time they had walked a few miles.)
Every is a synonym of all when the latter is used attributive-
With countable nouns, their use appears to be parallel.
e.g. The explosion broke all the windows in the street.
Yet, in addition to the fact that every precedes singular nouns
§ 27. There are the following compound pronouns formed with
All of them are used as noun pronouns and take a singular
e.g. Everyone's got a right to their own opinion.
She took the initiative and herself spoke to everyone she knew.
Both everyone and everybody can have the form of the gen-
The difference in meaning between everyone and everybody is
e.g. He is at once physician, surgeon and healer of the serious
Note. The compounds with one are distinct from such groups as every one, any
The book opened to them new worlds, and every one of them was glorious.
But he knew that it would not take much for every one of themto start
Give me one of those books — any onewill do.
Everything can be used only of things and also takes a sin-
I'll tell you everything tonight.
One can't have everything.
§ 28. The pronoun each is used as a noun pronoun and as an
least two objects of the same description (b).
Each as an adjective pronoun is a synonym of every but there
e.g. Every orange in the crate was wrapped in tissue paper. He care-
As a result of its specific meaning, each may be followed by
e.g. Eachof the men signed his name as he came in.
§ 29. The pronoun other can be used as an adjective pronoun
As an adjective pronoun, it is invariable. When it is preceded by
"The other + a singular noun" means 'the second of the two.'
e.g. The insurance offices were on the other side of the street.
He pulled on the other glove and said that, though it was
late, he would run along to his office.
I spent half my time teaching law and the other halfin Lon-
"Another + a singular noun" means 'an additional one', 'a dif-
e.g. Young Martin had been sent on another errand to the grocer.
to the other.
We went into another room.
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