Indefinite and Negative pronouns



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Indefinite and Negative pronouns



Uses of «some, «any», « no», «none», «one»

· When used with nouns of material some\any have the meaning of indefinite quantity(«некоторое количество», «немного», «сколько-нибудь»)but usually they are not translated in Russian:

Give me some water, please.-Дайте мне воды, пожалуйста.

· Have you bought any sugar.-Купили ли вы сахар?

· There isn’t any milk in the fridge.-В холодильнике нет молока.

Before countable nouns in the plural some/any are translated as «несколько», «какие», and «какие-нибудь».

He asked me some questions.-Он задал мне несколько вопросов.

Have you got any interesting books?-Есть у вас (какие-нибудь) интересные книги?

I saw some strange people near your house.-Я видела каких-то незнакомых людей у вашего дома.

 

«Some/Any» OR ZERO IN RELATION TO QUANTITY

Countable Nouns

The plural of a/an is normally any or some when we are referring to quantity:

Is there apresent for the children? Are there any presents for the children?

Here is a present for the children. Here are somepresents for the children.

Sometimes we don’t use any and some, even if we are referring to quantity.

The meaning is exactly the same, though we generally prefer to use anyor some:

Are there anypresents for the children? Are there presents for the children?

Here are some presents for the children. Here are presents for the children.

Uncountable Nouns

In the same way, we sometimes don’t use any and some when referring to quantity:

«Is there anymilk in the fridge? »Is the same as: «Is there milk in the fridge?»

«There is some milk in the fridge, is the same as:«There’s milk in the fridge.»

BASIC USES OF«SOME» AND «ANY»

SOME ANY
1. Affirmatives: I want someeggs. 2. Questions + “yes”: Do you want sometea? 3. Requests: May I have sometea? 4. (=certain):Somepeople believe anything. 1. Negatives: I don’t want anyeggs. 2. Uncertain questions: Is there any…? 3. With «hardly, »etc.: There’s hardly anyink. 4. With «at all»: I haven’t anyidea at all. 5. After «if»: Buy some pears ifyou see any.

OTHER USES OF “SOME” AND “ANY”

I haven’t seen Tom for someyears. (= I haven’t seen Tom for several years.)

Anyfool knows the answer to a question like that.

(= “It doesn’t matter who”-“любой, всякий”).

Not…ANY”, “NO” AND “NONE”

1 .We can use no instead of not any. We use an affirmative verb with no:

There aren’t anybuses after midnight. There are nobuses after midnight.

There isn’t anymilk. There’s nomilk.

2 . We can also use no in place of not a/an:

I’m not anexpert. I’m noexpert.

3 .None stands on its own as a pronoun:

We have nobananas. We have none.

“NONE OF” AND “NEITHER OF”

The negative of “All the girls left early” is “None ofthe girls left early”. (“Все девочки…”) (“Никто из девочек…”) The negative of “Both girls left early” is “neither of the girls left early”. (“Обе девочки…”) (“Ни одна из…”)

I’ve seen none ofthem . I’ve seen on one/ nobody.

The Preposition

A preposition is a function word indicating a relation between two notional words. Prepositions as a class of words are used to show how things related in space or in time, they mean express abstract relation and serve to connect the words in a sentence. Its semantic significance becomes evident when different prepositions are used with one and the same word, as in: to go tothe park, to go across the park, to go round the park.

Morphological composition

Most of the common English propositions are simple in structure:

Out, in, for, on, about, but, against

Derived prepositions are formed from other words, mainly participles:

Excepting, concerning, considering, following, including, during, depending, granted, past, except.

There are also many compoundprepositions:

Within, outside, upon, throughout, wherewithin, whereof, herein, hereafter.

Compositeor phrasal prepositions include a word of another class and one or two prepositions, as in by virtue of, but for, because of, by means of, thanks to, opposite to, on account of.

 

Semantic characteristics

Semantically prepositions from a varied group of words. Most of them are polysemantic (in, to, for, at, from), their original meaning having become vague, others have retained their full meaning and are accordingly monosemantic (down, over, across, off, near).

According to the meaning prepositions are divided into:

1. Prepositions of time - in, on, at, after

On Monday

At 2 o’clock

In summer

At night

After work

2. The Prepositions of place: in, behind, in front of ,under, on, at

On the table, behind, at the wall, in the room,

3. The Prepositions of direction (направления): to, at, into, towards, from

THE PASSIVE VOICE

There are two main voices in English: the active voice and the passive voice.

The active voice indicates that the action is directed from the subject thus the subject denotes the doer of the action:

We help our friends in our work..

The passive voice indicates that the action is directed towards the subject. Here the subject expresses a person or non-person who or which is the receiver of the action.

e.g. We are helped by our friends in our work.

Formation.The passive voice is formed analytically by means of the auxiliary verb ‘to be’ in required tense form and Participle II of the notional verb.

To be + Participle II = the passive voice

Indefinite tenses in the passive voice.

The Indefinite passive voice is formed analytically by means of the auxiliary verb ‘to be’ in the Present (Past, Future) Indefinite -am, is are, (was, were, shall be, will be) and Participle II of the notional verb.

He asks/ Active. Ол сұрайды/

He is asked/

Одан сұрайды/

My article was publishedyesterday.

Everything will be explainedto you later.

The Continuous passive voice is formed analytically by means of the auxiliary verb ‘to be’ in the Present (Past) Continuous am, is are +being (was, were being) and Participle II of the notional verb.

e.g. Many new houses are being built in Semey now.

Exams were being taken by us at this time.

The Perfect passive voice is formed analytically by means of the auxiliary verb ‘to be’ in the Present (Past) Perfect have been, has been(had been, will have been) and Participle II of the notional verb.

He has asked/ active

He has been asked

Ол әлде қашан сұраған/

Passive voice

· Make up sentences:

To be done, to be found, to be read, to be written

Exercise 5 was done yesterday.( Past indefinite passive)

My money was found under my bed. (past indefinite passive)

The text is always read by the students.

The story was written by O.Henry.

 

· Give the interrogative and negative forms of these sentences

1. The delegation was met at the station (the past indefinite passive,+)

Was the delegation met at the station?

Where was the delegation met?

The delegation was not (wasn’t) met at the station

 

2. The question has been discussed ( the present perfect passive,+)

 

What has been discussed?

Has the question been discussed?

The question has been discussed, hasn’t it?

The question has not (hasn’t) been discussed

3. He is being asked. ( the present cont. passive, +)

Who is being asked?

He is being asked, isn’t he?

He is not (isn’t ) being asked.

 

 

THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES

The sequence of tensesis a certain dependence of the tense of the verb in a subordinate clause on that of the verb in the principal clause: if the verb in the principal clause is in one of the past tenses, a past tense (or future- in- the past) must be used in the subordinate clause.

Principal clause (главное предложение) = Subordinate clause (придаточное предложение)

verb in one of the past tenses

He said“ I go home”

He said that he wenthome.

She says ‘I studyat college”

She says that she studies

At college.

Dinara said “we are preparing for our exams”

She said that they were preparing for their exams.

Present cont – past cont.

 

1.If the past action expressed in the subordinate clause is simultaneous with that expressed in the principal clause, the Past Indefinite or the Past Continuous is used in the subordinate clause.

Dinara said “we are preparing for our exams”

She said that they were preparing for their exams.

He lives in New York.

I thought that he livedin New York.

Mother is sleeping.

I knew that mother was sleeping.

2. If the past action expressed in the subordinate clause is prior to that expressed in the principal clause, the Past Perfect is used in the subordinate clause.

He has returned from London.

I was told that he had returned from London.

3.If the past action expressed in the subordinate clause is posterior to that expressed in the principal clause, the Future- in- the Past is used in the subordinate clause.

He will send us a letter.

I supposed that he would send us a letter.



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