The Past Indefinite Tense of Irregular verbs



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The Past Indefinite Tense of Irregular verbs



Irregular verbs form the Past Indefinite Tense:

1. By changing the root vowel;

e.g. V-1 come- V-2 came

V2

My mother came home late yesterday. +

V1

Did your mother come home late yesterday?/ ?

V1

My mother did not come home late yesterday.-

V1 – Infinitive-неопределенная форма глагола, етістіктің тұйық формасы

V2 - The Past Indefinite Tense-неопределенное прошедшее время – белгісіз өткен шақ

2. By changing the stem;

Go –went

Be (am, is are) -was,were

We went to the library yesterday.

Did you go to the library yesterday?

We didn’t go to the library yesterday.

 

 

Future Simple

Formation.The future indefinite is formed analytically by means of the auxiliary verb shall for the first person singular or plural and will for the second and third person singular or plural and the infinitive of the notional verb without the particle to.

The modern tendency is to use will for all the persons.

i.e. (id est)=that is яғни by means of the auxiliary verbs “shall, will” +the infinitive of the notional verb (without the particle ‘to’).

The paradigm of the verb in the future indefinite tense

Affirmative

I shall speak

You will speak +(‘ll speak

He, she, it will speak

We shall speak

You will speak

They will speak

Interrogative

Interrogative forms are built by means of the auxiliary shall, will in the present indefinite and the infinitive stem of the notional verb without the particle ‘to’

Shall I speak?

Will you speak?

Will he,she,it speak

Shall we speak?

The negative form is built by means of the auxiliary verbs ‘shall, will’ in the present indefinite + the negative particle ‘not’+ the infinitive of the notional verb without the particle ‘to’

Negative

I shall not (shan’t) speak.

You will not (won’t) speak

We shall not (shan’t) speak.

 

The Future indefinite is used to denote:

Simple facts in the future.

He will return tomorrow

It will be cold in the evening.

A succession of actions in the future.

I’ll go to college in the morning.

Then I’ll work in the library.

 

Habitual actions in the future.

So I’ll see you often in winter.

I hope you will write regularly.

Use the indefinite tense forms

1. She (to go) to college in the afternoon.

She goes to college in the afternoon ( affirmative, form, synthetic way, 3rd person sigular)

2. What you (to do) yesterday morning

What did you do yesterday morning? (past indefinite tense, interrogative form, analytic way)

3. He (to play) next week? Yes, he ….

Will he play next week? Yes, he will….( the future indefinite tense, interrogative form, analytic way)

4. I (not to sleep) in the daytime

I do not sleep in the daytime. ( the present indefinite tense, negative form, analytic way)

5. Who (to ring) you up an hour ago?

Who rang you up an hour ago? (Past indefinite tense, irregular verb, synthetic way)

 

The Continuous tenses

The present continuous

 

The present continuous denotes an action which is in progress at the moment of the speaking.

 

Formation.The present progressive tense is formed analytically, by means of the auxiliary verb ‘to be’ in the present indefinite tense-am, is are + the participle I of the notional verb without the particle ‘to’.

Paradigm

I am + playing.

You are +playing.

He, she, it is playing.

We/you/ they are playing.

 

In the interrogative the corresponding form of the auxiliary to be is placed before the subject and participle I follows it.

 

What are you doing now?

Are you writing now?

Yes, I am.

No, I am not.

Are you writing or reading now? (Alternative question)

Who is writing? I am.

 

In the negative the negation 'not' is placed after the auxiliary.

I am not listening to you.

 

Negative-interrogative

A ) Am I not speaking? b) Aren’t I speaking?

Is he (she, it) not speaking? Isn’t he speaking ?

Are we not speaking?

 

Use

1. To denote continuous actions going on at the moment of speaking .

Look, how happily they are playing.

 

2. To denote future actions.

With verbs of motion to arrive, to come, to go, to leave, to return, to sail, and some others , usually the actions are only intended or planned. The future time is usually indicated y some adverbials. She is leaving tomorrow.

 

 

THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

 

Formation. The past progressive tense is formed analytically, by means of the auxiliary verb ‘to be’ in the past indefinite tense- was, were + participle I of the notional verb without the particle ‘to’.

I was + playing.

You were +playing.

He, she, it was playing.

We/you/ they were playing.

Use: The past Continuous tense denotes a temporary action taking place at a given/ definite moment in the past.

Adverbials of time: at 5 o’ clock yesterday, whole [houl] morning, from 2to (till) 5 o’clock.

My grandfather was working in the garden the whole morning.

 

The interrogative form

The interrogative form is built analytically, by means of the auxiliary verb ‘to be’ in the past indefinite tense- was, were + before the subject and participle I of the notional verb without the particle ‘to’.

Wherewas your grandfather working the whole morning yesterday?

Who was working… ?

How long was your grandfather working in the garden?

In the negative the negation 'not' is placed after the auxiliary.

He was not working in .

May denote

1. An action performed in the past

He met us at the station

2. A succession of past actions

He shut the window, switches off the light and went upstarts.

3. A repeated action in the past

He made an entry in his diary every night.

The Future continuous

All the forms of the future continuous are analytic. They are formed with the future indefinite of the auxiliary to be (shall be, will be) and participle I of the notional verb.

In the interrogativethe corresponding form of the first auxiliary be and participle I follow the subject.

In the negativethe corresponding form of the first auxiliary shall, will are used, the second auxiliary be and participle I follow them.

In the negative- interrogativethe corresponding negative-interrogative forms of the first auxiliary shall, will are used, the second auxiliary be and participle I follow the subject.

The paradigm of the verb in the future continuous

Affirmative

I shall be speaking

Interrogative

Shall I be speaking?

Negative

I shall not be speaking

Negative- Interrogative

Shall I not be speaking?

Shan/t I be speaking?

 

The future continuous is used to denote.

1. An action in progress at a certain moment of time or during a certain period of time in the future(compare the corresponding use of the past continuous )

In an hour Ill flying over the sea.

From ten till twelve he will be writing in his study.

 

An action the occurrence of which is expected by the speaker.

By the way, Megan will be coming to lunch.

She says she ll be seeing you tomorrow.

In all its uses the future continuous is rendered in Russian by means of the future tense of the imperfective aspect (будет пить буду летать)

Perfect tenses

The Present Perfect Form (Аяқталған осы шақ)

The Present Perfect is formed analytically by means of the auxiliary verb ‘to have’ in the Present Indefinite (have/ has) and Participle II of the notional verb.

 

Example:

Affirmative: I have seen him today.

He has done his home task.

Interrogative: Have I seen him today?

Has he done his home task?

 

The Present Perfect (negative form) is formed analytically by means of the auxiliary verb ‘to have’ in the Present Indefinite (have/ has) and the negative particle ‘not’ and Participle II of the notional verb.

 

Negative: I have not seen him today.

He has not done his home task.

 

The Present Perfect form denotes the action preceding the moment of speaking. Though it is connected with it either directly or indirectly, that is

1) It continuous ups before the speaking moment – exclusive The Present Perfect;

2) It takes place within the including the moment of speaking – the inclusive present perfect.

 

The adverbs of time which used in The Present Perfect tense: ever, never ешқашан, jus жәнеt, already әлдеқашан, yet, (not) yet, lately (за последние дни и недели), recently (за последние месяцы и годы), today, this year, for, since.

Have you ever been to Astana? No, never.

I have never been to Almaty.

We have just had our lunch.

I have already been to Pavlodar.

Have you read the text yet?

I have not graduated from my college yet.

They have been to the practice lately.

I have been abroad recently.

They have celebrated the 20th anniversary of our Independence this year.



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