Morphological composition of nouns



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Morphological composition of nouns



The Noun

The noun is a word expressing substance in the widest sense of the word.

 

Morphological composition of nouns

According to their morphological composition we distinguishsimple, derivative,and compoundnouns.

1. Simple nouns are nouns which have neither prefixes nor suffixes. They are indecomposable: chair, table, room, map, fish, and work.

2. Derivativenouns are nouns which have derivative elements (prefixes or suffixes or both): reader, sailor, blackness, childhood, misconduct, inexperience.

Productive noun- forming suffixes are:

-er: reader, teacher, and worker

- ist: communist, telegraphist, dramatist

-ess: heiress, hostess, actress

-ness: carelessness, madness, blackness

-ism: socialism, nationalism, imperialism

3Compound nouns are nouns built from two or more stems.

Compound nouns often have one stress. The meaning of a compound of ten differs from the meaning of its elements.

The main types of compound nouns are as follows.

(a) noun-stem+ noun-stem: appletree, snowball;

(b) adjective-stem+ noun- stem: blackbird, bluebell

 

Classification of nouns.

1. Proper and common- Kennie Martin – novel

2. Animate and inanimate – woman – socks

3. Human and non- human – maid –dog

4. Countable and uncountable – case –health

5. Concrete and abstract –muscles-strength

Collective nouns fall under the following groups:

(a)Nouns used only in the singular and denoting a number of things collected together and regarded as a single object: foliage, machinery.

e.g. police, poultry, cattle, people, and gentry.

Nouns of material denote material: iron, gold, paper, water. They are uncountable and are generally used without any article

The noun has the following morphological characteristics:

Nouns that can be counted have two number: singular and plural ( e. g. singular: a girl, plural : girls).

 

The Category of Number

1.The following nouns ending in –f ( in some cases followed by a mute e ) change in into v ( both in spelling and pronunciation) in the plural.

Wife- wives thief- thieves

Knife- knives calf-calves

Life- lives half- halves

Sheaf- sheaves shelf- shelves

Leaf- leaves wolf- wolves

There are some nouns ending in –f which have two forms in the plural:

Scarf-scarfs or scarves

Wharf - wharfs or wharves.

1. Nouns ending in –th [o] after long vowels change [ d] in pronunciation ( which does not affect their spelling )

Bath- baths

Path- paths

Oath- oaths

2. There are seven nouns which form the plural by the changing the root vowel.

Man- men goose- geese

Woman- women mouse- mice

Foot- feet louse- lice

The Category of Case

English nouns denoting living being (and some nouns denoting lifeless thing) haw two cases, an uninflected form called the common case and infected form called the genitive case.

1. The genitive caseis formed by adding –’s (the apostrophe s) to the noun in the singular and only’ (the apostrophe) to plural forms ending in –s.

SINGULAR: a girl’s book PLURAL: a girls’ school

Note: 1. – Nouns forming their plural by changing the root vowel take the apostrophe s in the plural

2.- Nouns ending in –s form the genitive case in two ways: Dickens’ novels, Dickens’s novels.

 

The pronunciation of the genitive case ending follows the same rules as the pronunciation of the plural ending.

 

The category of gender

1. There are three genders in English grammar: Masculine, Feminine, neuter.

Here are Feminine forming suffixes:

Heir – heir –ess

Poet – poet –ess

A woman- a man

A lady –a gentleman

\a hen –a cock

A cow –a bull

A queen –a king

A prince –a princess

 

1 Gender i.e. the distinction of nouns into masenime, feminine and neuter, may be expressed lexically by means of different words or word – compounds:

Father – mother man- woman

Boy –girl gentlemen - lady

Husband – wife cock-sparrow –hen – sparrow

Boy- friend – girl – friend man- servant – maid –servant

 

 

THE ARTICLE

 

The article is a form word that serves as a noun determiner.

There are two articles in English: the definite article the [ði:] and the indefinite article a [ei].

The definite article developed from a demonstrative pronoun, which accounts for its meaning of definiteness. The demonstrative force remains in many phrases, such as at the time, of the kind, in its use before restrictive attributes, and in some situational uses.

The definite article is pronounced as [ði:] when stressed. When unstressed, it is pronounced as [ðǝ] before consonants and [ðɪ] before vowels:

[ðǝ] [ðɪ]

the dog

the house

The indefinite article developed from the cardinal numeral one, The numerical meaning is evident in such phrases and sentences as at a time, in a moment, wait a minute, not a sound was heard.

The use of indefinite article

1. When the speaker presents the object as belonging to a certain class.

It happened in a small town in Siberia.

2. When a person or a thing is introduced for the 1st time.

This is a car. The car is new.

3. With a predicative noun denoting a profession or characteristic.

He is a doctor.

He brother is a good man.

4. We use a/an in some grammatical structures:

It is a book.

There is a house in a street.

She has a cat.

The use of definite article

1. When the speaker and the listener know what particular object is meant

How did you like the play?

2. When we speak about unique nouns:

The Sun, the Moon, the Earth,

The sun rises in the east.

3. With ordinal numerals.

The 2nd of May

4. With substantivized adjectives:

The poor -бедные

The rich - богатые

5. With names of rivers

The Irtysh River

The Thames

6. With adjectives in the superlative degree:

The best , the cleverest, the highest

7. With names of oceans

The Pacific Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean

The Indian Ocean

8. With names of mountain chains (тау тізбектері)

The Urals, the Alps

9. With 4 cardinal points of the compass

The south, the east, the west, the north

10. with names of newspapers

The Times, The Ertis oniri

11. With names of museums, parks

The brutish Museum, The central Park

Fill in the indefinite article where necessary

1. When my grandfather was a … young man, he studied 0 physics

2. My father speaks 0 English and French but he does not speak 0 German

3. He is going to have a rest

4. When we want to write aletter, we take apiece of 0paper and apen

5. We are going 100 km an hour

 

Fill in the definite article where article where necessary.

1. 0 Moscow is situated on the Moscow river

2. The most important is theHudson River which empties into the Atlantic ocean

3. Gogol was born in the Ukraine in 0 1809

4. Let’s go to theshop. I must buy 0 bread and 0 milk.

5. Swift, the famous English writer , was travelling one day on 0 horseback with his servants.

 

Adjective

The adjectiveis a part of speech which modifies the noun. Adjectives can express qualities (large, modern, and quiet), physical and emotional states(cold, busy, friendly, happy), origin(American, Asian), opinions (excellent, fantastic, cool),frequency (weekly, daily, regular).

All adjectives fall into two groups — qualitativeand relative.

Qualitative adjectives denote properties of a substance directly (great, calm, gold, beautiful).

Relative adjectives describe proper­ties of a substance through relation to material (woolen, wooden, golden) to place (Italian, European), to time (ancient, contemporary).

According to their morphological composition adjectives can be simple, derived/derivative, compound.

 

Simple Derivative Compound
good red new unkind beautiful foolish hopeless four-wheeled snow-white deaf-mute cold-hearted

 

ADJECTIVES FORMED WITH SUFFIXES:

 

Many adjectives related to verbs or nouns have a characteristic ending (or suffix): We enjoyed the party. – The party was very enjoyable.

-able(capable of being) manageable

-ful(full of) boastful

-icenergetic

-ive(capable of being) attractive

-anthesitant

-ible (like – able) permissible, likeable

-(i)an(historical period, etc.) Victorian

-ish(having the quality of) foolish, selfish

-ly (having this quality) friendly

-oushumorous

-al occasional

And note –ingforms used as adjectives: running water.

 

ADJECTIVES FORMED WITH PREFIXES:

prefix (e.g. im-) added to an adjective generally has a negative effect:

I think it’s possible to solve the problem. I think it’s impossibleto solve the problem.

Un- uncooked, unimaginable

in- incapable, inhuman

il- illegal, illegible

im- immoral, impractical

dis-dishonest, disagreeable

ir- irresponsible, irregular

And note pre- (pre-war) and hyper- (hyperactive), which do not create opposites but modify the meaning of the word in some way.

 

The Adverb

The adverbis a word denoting circumstances or characteristics which attend or modify an action, state, or quality.

 

Morphological composition

Adverbs vary in their structure. There are simple, derived, compound, and composite adverb.

Simple adverbs are after, here well now, soon, etc.

In derived adverbsthe most common suffix is – ly, by means of which new adverbs are coined from adjectives and participles: occasionally, lately, immediately, constantly, purely, slowly, charmingly.

The less common suffixes are the following:

-wiseclock wise ,crab wise, corkscrew-wise, education - wise

-ward(s)on ward(s), back ward(s), home ward(s), east ward(s)

-foldtwofold, manifold

- likewarlike

- mostinnermost, outermost

- way(s)long ways, side ways

Of these suffixes the first two are more productive than the rest.

Compound adverbsare formed of two stems:

Sometimes, somewhere, everywhere, downstairs, etc.

Composite phrasal adverbsconsist of two or more word- forms, as

a great deal, a little bit, for enough, now and then, from time to

time, sort of, kind of, a hell of, a lot of, a great deal of.

Semantic characteristics

According to their meaning adverbs fall into many groups.

Here are the main ones:

Adverb of place: outside, there, in front etc

Adverb of timeinclude those denoting duration ( long, continually), interval (all day), timing ( yesterday, today, recently, lately, immediately, once, at once, now), frequency ( often, now and then, occasionally). Several of them denote an indefinite time – soon, yet, always, already, never, ever.

Adverb of manner: well, carefully, intentionally, silently, clearly, etc.

Adverb of degree: thoroughly, very, much, completely, quite, rather, a lot, a little, a great deal, badly, greatly, hardly, barely, scarcely, narrowly, just, almost, mostly, enormously, largely, tremendously, keenly, somewhat, too, so, most, all but.

THE NUMERAL

The numeral denotes an abstract number or the order of thing in succession.

In accordance with this distinction the numerals fall into two groups cardinal numerals (cardinals) and ordinal numerals (ordinals).

 

Cardinals Ordinals

One 1st the first

2 two 2nd the second

Three 3rd the third

4 four 4th the fourth

5 five 5 th the fifth

100 one (a) hundred 100th the (one) hundredt

 

All ordinals are formed by adding the suffix ‘th’ to the cardinals except 1,2,3. And answer the question ‘which’, ‘what’

Which month is it now?

What date is it today?

 

The Cardinals

Among the cardinals there are simple, derived, and compound words.

The cardinals from one to twelve, hundred, thousand, million are simple words; those from thirteen to nineteen are derived from the corresponding simple ones by means of the suffix -teen; the cardinals denoting fens are derived from the corresponding simple ones by means of the suffix -ty.

The cardinals from twenty-one to twenty-nine, from thirty-one to thirty-nine, etc. and those over hundred are compounds.

21 - twenty-one, 35 - thirty-five, 72 - seventy-two, etc.

103 - one hundred and three.

 

The ordinals

Among the ordinals there are also simple, derivative and compound words.

The simple ordinals are first, second and third.

The derivative ordinals are derived from the simple and derivative cardinals by means of the suffix -th:

four-fourth, ten-tenth, sixteen-sixteenth, twenty-twentieth, etc.

Before the suffix -th the final у is replaced by ie:

thirty - thirtieth, etc.

The compound ordinals are formed from composite cardinals. In this case only the last component of the compound numeral has the form of the ordinal:

twenty-first, forty-second, sixty-seventh, one hundred and first, etc.

Indefinite tenses

The Present Indefinite

Formation. The present Indefinite tense is formed by the Infinitive of the notional verb without the particle ‘to’ for the 1st person Singular and plural –I go, we go, 2nd person Singular and plural you go, 3rd person plural-they go.

+I goto school. affirmative form synthetic way.

Some of the forms of the present indefinite are synthetic (affirmative forms), some – analytic (interrogative and negative forms).

?Doyou go to school? Analytic form = auxiliary verb + notional verb

-I do not go school.

The 3rd person singular form is built from the same stem by means of the inflexion –s, - es: to speak – he speaks.

As can be seen from the above examples, the pronunciation and spelling of the inflection of the 3rd person singular vary:

1. Verbs ending in vowels and voiced consonants take the inflection –s which pronounced [z]: to see – he sees, to play – he plays, have – has

2. Verb stems ending in sibilants and affricates take either the inflection –s or –es. Both are pronounced [iz]: -es if the final letters of the stem are –s, -sh, -ss, -ch, -tch: to push – he pushes, to box – boxes.

The interrogative form is built by means of the auxiliary verb ‘do,does’ + the infinitive of the notional verb without the particle ‘to’

Where do you go? (Special question)

Do you go to school? (general question )

Negative form

I do not go to school.

She does not

The negative form is built by means of the auxiliary verb ‘do,does’ + the negative particle ‘not’+ the infinitive of the notional verb without the particle ‘to’

The Present Indefinite may denote:

1. A permanent action (a fact) She speaks English.

2. The general truth Vegetables grow well in this climate.

3. A repeated, customary action The Browns go to the seaside every summer.

4. A future action if planned beforehand The train leaves at 10 tomorrow.

 

The Past Indefinite Tense

Formation.The affirmative forms of the past indefinite are synthetic; the interrogative, negative and negative – interrogative forms are analytic.

Affirmative (synthetic) formsare represented by the second of the basic verb forms.

I came home late yesterday.

You came.

She came

We use the same form for all persons.

Interrogative forms are built by means of the auxiliary to do in the past indefinite (did) and the infinitive stem of the notional verb.

Didyou comehome late yesterday?

Yes, I did.

Where did you come late yesterday?

When did you come home late? Yesterday.

The negative form is built by means of the auxiliary verb ‘to do’ in the past indefinite ‘did’+ the negative particle ‘not’+ the infinitive of the notional verb without the particle ‘to’

I did not come home late yesterday

You did not ……

I did notgo to school.

She did not …

Future Simple

Formation.The future indefinite is formed analytically by means of the auxiliary verb shall for the first person singular or plural and will for the second and third person singular or plural and the infinitive of the notional verb without the particle to.

The modern tendency is to use will for all the persons.

i.e. (id est)=that is яғни by means of the auxiliary verbs “shall, will” +the infinitive of the notional verb (without the particle ‘to’).

Affirmative

I shall speak

You will speak +(‘ll speak

He, she, it will speak

We shall speak

You will speak

They will speak

Interrogative

Interrogative forms are built by means of the auxiliary shall, will in the present indefinite and the infinitive stem of the notional verb without the particle ‘to’

Shall I speak?

Will you speak?

Will he,she,it speak

Shall we speak?

The negative form is built by means of the auxiliary verbs ‘shall, will’ in the present indefinite + the negative particle ‘not’+ the infinitive of the notional verb without the particle ‘to’

Negative

I shall not (shan’t) speak.

You will not (won’t) speak

We shall not (shan’t) speak.

 

The Future indefinite is used to denote:

Simple facts in the future.

He will return tomorrow

It will be cold in the evening.

The Continuous tenses

The present continuous

 

The present continuous denotes an action which is in progress at the moment of the speaking.

 

Formation.The present progressive tense is formed analytically, by means of the auxiliary verb ‘to be’ in the present indefinite tense-am, is are + the participle I of the notional verb without the particle ‘to’.

Paradigm

I am + playing.

You are +playing.

He, she, it is playing.

We/you/ they are playing.

 

In the interrogative the corresponding form of the auxiliary to be is placed before the subject and participle I follows it.

 

What are you doing now?

Are you writing now?

Yes, I am.

No, I am not.

Are you writing or reading now? (Alternative question)

Who is writing? I am.

 

In the negative the negation 'not' is placed after the auxiliary.

I am not listening to you.

 

Negative-interrogative

A ) Am I not speaking? b) Aren’t I speaking?

Is he (she, it) not speaking? Isn’t he speaking ?

Are we not speaking?

 

Use

1. To denote continuous actions going on at the moment of speaking .

Look, how happily they are playing.

 

2. To denote future actions.

With verbs of motion to arrive, to come, to go, to leave, to return, to sail, and some others , usually the actions are only intended or planned. The future time is usually indicated y some adverbials. She is leaving tomorrow.

 

 

THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

 

Formation. The past progressive tense is formed analytically, by means of the auxiliary verb ‘to be’ in the past indefinite tense- was, were + participle I of the notional verb without the particle ‘to’.

I was + playing.

You were +playing.

He, she, it was playing.

We/you/ they were playing.

Use: The past Continuous tense denotes a temporary action taking place at a given/ definite moment in the past.

Adverbials of time: at 5 o’ clock yesterday, whole [houl] morning, from 2to (till) 5 o’clock.

My grandfather was working in the garden the whole morning.

 

The interrogative form

The interrogative form is built analytically, by means of the auxiliary verb ‘to be’ in the past indefinite tense- was, were + before the subject and participle I of the notional verb without the particle ‘to’.

Wherewas your grandfather working the whole morning yesterday?

Who was working… ?

How long was your grandfather working in the garden?

In the negative the negation 'not' is placed after the auxiliary.

He was not working in .

May denote

1. An action performed in the past

He met us at the station

2. A succession of past actions

He shut the window, switches off the light and went upstarts.

3. A repeated action in the past

He made an entry in his diary every night.

The Future continuous

All the forms of the future continuous are analytic. They are formed with the future indefinite of the auxiliary to be (shall be, will be) and participle I of the notional verb.

In the interrogativethe corresponding form of the first auxiliary be and participle I follow the subject.

In the negativethe corresponding form of the first auxiliary shall, will are used, the second auxiliary be and participle I follow them.

In the negative- interrogativethe corresponding negative-interrogative forms of the first auxiliary shall, will are used, the second auxiliary be and participle I follow the subject.

Perfect tenses

The Present Perfect Form (Аяқталған осы шақ)

The Present Perfect is formed analytically by means of the auxiliary verb ‘to have’ in the Present Indefinite (have/ has) and Participle II of the notional verb.

 

Example:

Affirmative: I have seen him today.

He has done his home task.

Interrogative: Have I seen him today?

Has he done his home task?

 

The Present Perfect (negative form) is formed analytically by means of the auxiliary verb ‘to have’ in the Present Indefinite (have/ has) and the negative particle ‘not’ and Participle II of the notional verb.

 

Negative: I have not seen him today.

He has not done his home task.

 

The Present Perfect form denotes the action preceding the moment of speaking. Though it is connected with it either directly or indirectly, that is

1) It continuous ups before the speaking moment – exclusive The Present Perfect;

2) It takes place within the including the moment of speaking – the inclusive present perfect.

 

The adverbs of time which used in The Present Perfect tense: ever, never ешқашан, jus жәнеt, already әлдеқашан, yet, (not) yet, lately (за последние дни и недели), recently (за последние месяцы и годы), today, this year, for, since.

Have you ever been to Astana? No, never.

I have never been to Almaty.

We have just had our lunch.

I have already been to Pavlodar.

Have you read the text yet?

I have not graduated from my college yet.

They have been to the practice lately.

I have been abroad recently.

They have celebrated the 20th anniversary of our Independence this year.

The Past Perfect

Formation. The Past Perfect is formed analytically by the auxiliary to have in the past indefinite (had) and participle II of the notional verb. The interrogative and negative forms and built in the way usual for all analytic forms.

 

Affirmative: When I came into the room, the teacher had already explained the rule.

Interrogative: Had the teacher already explainedwhen I came into the room?

In all its uses the past perfect denotes actions the beginning of which (always) and the end (usually) precede a certain moment of time in the past. The prepast period of time to which the actions in the past perfect refer is unlimited, that is, they may take place either immediately before some moment in the past or in the very remote past.

This tense is used with both actional and statal verbs. Its sphere of application is mainly that of narratives, though it is also used in conversation.

 

The past perfect is used:

The future perfect

Formation.The future perfect is formed analytically by means of the auxiliary to have in the future indefinite (shall have, will have) and participle IIof the notional verb.

I shall have graduated from this college by 29th of June.

In the interrogativethe corresponding negative forms of the first auxiliary (shall/will) is used in the front position and the second auxiliary (have) and participle II follow the subject.

In the negativethe corresponding negative forms of shall/will are used and the second auxiliary (have) and participle II follow them.

In the negative-interrogativethe corresponding negative-interrogative forms of shall/will are used in the front position and the second auxiliary and participle II follow the subject.

Affirmative Interrogative

I shall have spoken shall I have spoken?

He(she, it) will have spoken will he(she, it) have spoken?

We shall have spoken shall we have spoken?

You will have spoken will you have spoken?

They will have spoken will they have spoken?

 

Negative

I shall not (shan’t) have spoken

He (she, it) will not (won’t) have spoken

We shall not (shan’t) have spoken

You will not (won’t) have spoken

They will not (won’t) have spoken

The future prefect is very rarely used either in conversation or in writing.

 

It is used to denote:

1. An action that both begins and ends before, a definite moment of time in the future(the exclusive future perfect)

I shall have graduated from this college by 29th of June.

The past perfect continuous

Formation. The past perfect continuous is formed analytically by means of the auxiliary to be in the past perfect (had been) and participle I of the notional verb.

 

He had been writing a letter for two hours when I came.

 

In the interrogative the first auxiliary (had) comes before the subject, and the second auxiliary (been) and participle I follow the subject.

What had you been writing when I came?

 

In the negative the corresponding negative forms of the first auxiliary (had) are used, the second auxiliary (been) and participle I follow the negation.

He had not been writing a letter for two hours when I came.

 

1. The past perfect continuous denotes an, action which began before a given moment in the past, continued for a certain period of time up to that moment and possibly still continued at that past moment.

The moment of time in the past before which the action begins is usually indicated by other past actions in the past indefinite or, rater rarely, by the past continuous. Sometimes it is indicated directly by adverbials ( by, that, time, by the Ist of August, etc.)

2. Actions in progress that began before a certain moment of time in the past and continued into it.In this case either the starting point of the action or its duration is indicated (the inclusive past perfect continuous).

Ever since his return he had been losing strength and flesh.

She had been acting for a long time without a rest and she badly needed one.

The past perfect continuous is usually rendered in Russian by the past tense, imperfective.

 

The Pronoun

The pronounis a notional part of speech, which points to objects, their properties and relations, their local or temporal reference, or placement, without naming them.

Classification of pronouns

According to the semantic meaning pronouns are divided into the following groups:

Relative pronouns

Personal pronouns

Personal pronounsare noun-pronouns, indicating persons (I, you, he, she, we, they) or non-persons (it, they) from the point of view of their relations to the speaker.

Thus I (me) indicates the speaker himself, we (us) indicates the speaker together with some other person or persons, youindicates the person or persons addressed, while he, she, they (him, her, them) indicate persons or things which are neither the speaker nor the persons addressed to by the speaker.

Personal pronouns have the category of person, number, case and gender.

The category of person (Жақ категориясы)

The 1st person I - we

The 2nd person you – you

The 3rd person he, she it - they

The category number (Түр категориясы)

1) The singular number – Жекеше түр

2) The plural number – Көпше түр

The category of case

Personal pronouns have two cases there are corresponding possessive pronouns and their absolute forms

 

NOMINATIVE CASE WHO?/WHAT? OBJECTIVE CASE Whom? POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS/CONJOINT FORM ABSOLUTE FORM
I Me My Mine
You You Your Yours
She Her Her Hers
He Him His His
It It Its Its
We Us Our Ours
They them their Theirs

 

Possessive pronouns indicate possession by persons (my, mine, your, yours, their, theirs) or non-persons (its, their, theirs). They comprise two sets of forms:

1) The conjoint forms – my, your, his, her, its, our, their - which always combine with nouns and premodify them as attributes.

My book is interesting. Whose book is interesting?

2) The absolute forms –mine, yours, hers, his, its, ours, theirs. They don’t combine with nouns, but function as their substitutes.

Mineis interesting.

Demonstrative Pronouns

This (These) / That (Those)/ Such/The same

Singular Plural

This /that These /those

Both this and that can be applied to persons or things;

‘I like thatfellow,’-he said to his brother.

Other people were anxious to get thissoap at thisprice.

 

INTERROGANIVE PRONOUNS

Who/Whose/What/Which/Whom

They are used to form special questions.

Who refers to human beings, what usually refers to things (it may be applied to people when inquirinq about their occupation)

Whowas that? – It was my friend./it was tom waits.

Whatare you looking for? – I`m looking for a pen.

Whatis he? – A painter.

Which has a selective meaning (“который из”).

It may refer to persons or things:

Whichof us does he mean?

 

Reciprocal pronouns

Reciprocal pronouns are each other –бір-біріне,, one another -біреуі екіншісіне, бір-біріне are usually used corresponding two persons or two things.

e.g. Tolegen and kyz-Zhibek looked at each other lovely.

College students always help one another.

Reflexive pronouns

 

Myself/Himself/Itself/Ourselves/Yourself (Yourselves) /Themselves

We often use reflexive pronouns with these verbs: amuse/blame/cut/dry/enjoy/hurt/introduce:

I enjoyed myself very much at the party.

We amused ourselves playing football on the beach.

Jim prides himself on his cooking.

We can use reflexive pronouns after prepositions:

Look after yourself! Take care of yourself.

She lives by herself (=alone).She made the dress by herself (=without help)

We don’t use “myself”, etc.after feet /relax/ concentrate/wash/dress/shave/behave;

I feel great after having a swim

You must try and concentrate

I got up,washed, shaved and dressedquickly.

But:

Wash /dress/ shave yourself!-Помойся/оденься/побрейся!

Behave yourself!-Веди себя прилично!

Compare:

selves (себя) each other /one another (друг друга)

Tom and Ann stood in front of Tom and Ann stood in front in of the

The mirror and looked at mirror and looked at each other themselves. (one another)

 

(Tom looked at Tom, Ann (Tom looked at Tom, Ann

looked Ann) looked Ann)”Each other” generally

implies only two. «one another”-two or more.

Remember set expressions meaning:

 
 

 

 


I like living on own/by myself

Did you go on holidays on your own/by yourself?

Learner-drivers are not allowed to drive on their own/by themselves

 

The Preposition

A preposition is a function word indicating a relation between two notional words. Prepositions as a class of words are used to show how things related in space or in time, they mean express abstract relation and serve to connect the words in a sentence. Its semantic significance becomes evident when different prepositions are used with one and the same word, as in: to go tothe park, to go across the park, to go round the park.

Morphological composition

Most of the common English propositions are simple in structure:

Out, in, for, on, about, but, against

Derived prepositions are formed from other words, mainly participles:

Excepting, concerning, considering, following, including, during, depending, granted, past, except.

There are also many compoundprepositions:

Within, outside, upon, throughout, wherewithin, whereof, herein, hereafter.

Compositeor phrasal prepositions include a word of another class and one or two prepositions, as in by virtue of, but for, because of, by means of, thanks to, opposite to, on account of.

 

Semantic characteristics

Semantically prepositions from a varied group of words. Most of them are polysemantic (in, to, for, at, from), their original meaning having become vague, others have retained their full meaning and are accordingly monosemantic (down, over, across, off, near).

According to the meaning prepositions are divided into:

1. Prepositions of time - in, on, at, after

On Monday

At 2 o’clock

In summer

At night

After work

2. The Prepositions of place: in, behind, in front of ,under, on, at

On the table, behind, at the wall, in the room,

3. The Prepositions of direction (направления): to, at, into, towards, from

THE PASSIVE VOICE

There are two main voices in English: the active voice and the passive voice.

The active voice indicates that the action is directed from the subject thus the subject denotes the doer of the action:

We help our friends in our work..

The passive voice indicates that the action is directed towards the subject. Here the subject expresses a person or non-person who or which is the receiver of the action.

e.g. We are helped by our friends in our work.

Formation.The passive voice is formed analytically by means of the auxiliary verb ‘to be’ in required tense form and Participle II of the notional verb.

To be + Participle II = the passive voice

Passive voice

· Make up sentences:

To be done, to be found, to be read, to be written

Exercise 5 was done yesterday.( Past indefinite passive)

My money was found under my bed. (past indefinite passive)

The text is always read by the students.

The story was written by O.Henry.

 

· Give the interrogative and negative forms of these sentences

1. The delegation was met at the station (the past indefinite passive,+)

Was the delegation met at the station?

Where was the delegation met?

The delegation was not (wasn’t) met at the station

 

2. The question has been discussed ( the present perfect passive,+)

 

What has been discussed?

Has the question been discussed?

The question has been discussed, hasn’t it?

The question has not (hasn’t) been discussed

3. He is being asked. ( the present cont. passive, +)

Who is being asked?

He is being asked, isn’t he?

He is not (isn’t ) being asked.

 

 

THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES

The sequence of tensesis a certain dependence of the tense of the verb in a subordinate clause on that of the verb in the principal clause: if the verb in the principal clause is in one of the past tenses, a past tense (or future- in- the past) must be used in the subordinate clause.

Principal clause (главное предложение) = Subordinate clause (придаточное предложение)

verb in one of the past tenses

He said“ I go home”

He said that he wenthome.

She says ‘I studyat college”

She says that she studies

At college.

Dinara said “we are preparing for our exams”

She said that they were preparing for their exams.

Present cont – past cont.

 

1.If the past action expressed in the subordinate clause is simultaneous with that expressed in the principal clause, the Past Indefinite or the Past Continuous is used in the subordinate clause.

Dinara said “we are preparing for our exams”

She said that they were preparing for their exams.

He lives in New York.

I thought that he livedin New York.

Mother is sleeping.

I knew that mother was sleeping.

2. If the past action expressed in the subordinate clause is prior to that expressed in the principal clause, the Past Perfect is used in the subordinate clause.

He has returned from London.

I was told that he had returned from London.

3.If the past action expressed in the subordinate clause is posterior to that expressed in the principal clause, the Future- in- the Past is used in the subordinate clause.

He will send us a letter.

I supposed that he would send us a letter.

Can could

May might

Could had been able to

Have to had to

Need needed

nowқазір then, at that time

todayбүгін that day

agoбұрын before

yesterdayкеше the day before, on the

Previous day

tomorrowертең the next day

a year agoбір жыл бұрын а year before

last nightөткен кеште the previous night

tonightбүгін кешке that night

 

Translate the following sentences paying attention to the sequence of tenses

1) She said that her parents lived in Moscow

2) My brother said that he would come the next day

3) Tourist said that they had never been there

4) Nick said that he was waiting for his parents

5) Anne asked me if I knew where Kate was living

1. Ол әке-шешесінің Мәскеуде тұратынын айтты. (1)

2. Менің ағам ертең келетінін айтты .(3)

3. Саяхатшы бұл жерде бұрын ешқашан болмағанын айтты. (2)

4. Ник әке-шешесін күтіп отырғанын айтты.(1)

5. Анна менен Кейттің қайда тұратынын білетінімді сұрады. (1)

 

 

 

 

 

The Noun

The noun is a word expressing substance in the widest sense of the word.

 

Morphological composition of nouns

According to their morphological composition we distinguishsimple, derivative,and compoundnouns.

1. Simple nouns are nouns which have neither prefixes nor suffixes. They are indecomposable: chair, table, room, map, fish, and work.

2. Derivativenouns are nouns which have derivative elements (prefixes or suffixes or both): reader, sailor, blackness, childhood, misconduct, inexperience.

Productive noun- forming suffixes are:

-er: reader, teacher, and worker

- ist: communist, telegraphist, dramatist

-ess: heiress, hostess, actress

-ness: carelessness, madness, blackness

-ism: socialism, nationalism, imperialism

3Compound nouns are nouns built from two or more stems.

Compound nouns often have one stress. The meaning of a compound of ten differs from the meaning of its elements.

The main types of compound nouns are as follows.

(a) noun-stem+ noun-stem: appletree, snowball;

(b) adjective-stem+ noun- stem: blackbird, bluebell

 

Classification of nouns.

1. Proper and common- Kennie Martin – novel

2. Animate and inanimate – woman – socks

3. Human and non- human – maid –dog

4. Countable and uncountable – case –health

5. Concrete and abstract –muscles-strength

Collective nouns fall under the following groups:

(a)Nouns used only in the singular and denoting a number of things collected together and regarded as a single object: foliage, machinery.

e.g. police, poultry, cattle, people, and gentry.

Nouns of material denote material: iron, gold, paper, water. They are uncountable and are generally used without any article

The noun has the following morphological characteristics:

Nouns that can be counted have two number: singular and plural ( e. g. singular: a girl, plural : girls).

 

The Category of Number

1.The following nouns ending in –f ( in some cases followed by a mute e ) change in into v ( both in spelling and pronunciation) in the plural.

Wife- wives thief- thieves

Knife- knives calf-calves

Life- lives half- halves

Sheaf- sheaves shelf- shelves

Leaf- leaves wolf- wolves

There are some nouns ending in –f which have two forms in the plural:

Scarf-scarfs or scarves

Wharf - wharfs or wharves.

1. Nouns ending in –th [o] after long vowels change [ d] in pronunciation ( which does not affect their spelling )

Bath- baths

Path- paths

Oath- oaths

2. There are seven nouns which form the plural by the changing the root vowel.

Man- men goose- geese

Woman- women mouse- mice

Foot- feet louse- lice

The Category of Case

English nouns denoting living being (and some nouns denoting lifeless thing) haw two cases, an uninflected form called the common case and infected form called the genitive case.

1. The genitive caseis formed by adding –’s (the apostrophe s) to the noun in the singular and only’ (the apostrophe) to plural forms ending in –s.

SINGULAR: a girl’s book PLURAL: a girls’ school

Note: 1. – Nouns forming their plural by changing the root vowel take the apostrophe s in the plural

2.- Nouns ending in –s form the genitive case in two ways: Dickens’ novels, Dickens’s novels.

 

The pronunciation of the genitive case ending follows the same rules as the pronunciation of the plural ending.

 

The category of gender

1. There are three genders in English grammar: Masculine, Feminine, neuter.

Here are Feminine forming suffixes:

Heir – heir –ess

Poet – poet –ess

A woman- a man

A lady –a gentleman

\a hen –a cock

A cow –a bull

A queen –a king

A prince –a princess

 

1 Gender i.e. the distinction of nouns into masenime, feminine and neuter, may be expressed lexically by means of different words or word – compounds:

Father – mother man- woman

Boy –girl gentlemen - lady

Husband – wife cock-sparrow –hen – sparrow

Boy- friend – girl – friend man- servant – maid –servant

 

 

THE ARTICLE

 

The article is a form word that serves as a noun determiner.

There are two articles in English: the definite article the [ði:] and the indefinite article a [ei].

The definite article developed from a demonstrative pronoun, which accounts for its meaning of definiteness. The demonstrative force remains in many phrases, such as at the time, of the kind, in its use before restrictive attributes, and in some situational uses.

The definite article is pronounced as [ði:] when stressed. When unstressed, it is pronounced as [ðǝ] before consonants and [ðɪ] before vowels:

[ðǝ] [ðɪ]

the dog

the house

The indefinite article developed from the cardinal numeral one, The numerical meaning is evident in such phrases and sentences as at a time, in a moment, wait a minute, not a sound was heard.



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