I have known him for 5 years.



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

I have known him for 5 years.



We have known Aiman since 2000.

The Past Perfect

Formation. The Past Perfect is formed analytically by the auxiliary to have in the past indefinite (had) and participle II of the notional verb. The interrogative and negative forms and built in the way usual for all analytic forms.

 

Affirmative: When I came into the room, the teacher had already explained the rule.

Interrogative: Had the teacher already explainedwhen I came into the room?

In all its uses the past perfect denotes actions the beginning of which (always) and the end (usually) precede a certain moment of time in the past. The prepast period of time to which the actions in the past perfect refer is unlimited, that is, they may take place either immediately before some moment in the past or in the very remote past.

This tense is used with both actional and statal verbs. Its sphere of application is mainly that of narratives, though it is also used in conversation.

 

The past perfect is used:

To denote an action of which both the beginning and the end precede some moment of time in the past.

When I came into the room, the teacher had already explained the rule.

2. To denote an action in progress which began before a certain moment of time in the past and went on up to that moment and sometimes into it.In such cases either the starting point of the action is specified (by means of the adverb since,

He had been away for some months before his first letter came.

When we first met she had lived in the country for two years and was quite happy.

 

The future perfect

Formation.The future perfect is formed analytically by means of the auxiliary to have in the future indefinite (shall have, will have) and participle IIof the notional verb.

I shall have graduated from this college by 29th of June.

In the interrogativethe corresponding negative forms of the first auxiliary (shall/will) is used in the front position and the second auxiliary (have) and participle II follow the subject.

In the negativethe corresponding negative forms of shall/will are used and the second auxiliary (have) and participle II follow them.

In the negative-interrogativethe corresponding negative-interrogative forms of shall/will are used in the front position and the second auxiliary and participle II follow the subject.

The paradigm of the verb in the future perfect

Affirmative Interrogative

I shall have spoken shall I have spoken?

He(she, it) will have spoken will he(she, it) have spoken?

We shall have spoken shall we have spoken?

You will have spoken will you have spoken?

They will have spoken will they have spoken?

 

Negative

I shall not (shan’t) have spoken

He (she, it) will not (won’t) have spoken

We shall not (shan’t) have spoken

You will not (won’t) have spoken

They will not (won’t) have spoken

The future prefect is very rarely used either in conversation or in writing.

 

It is used to denote:

1. An action that both begins and ends before, a definite moment of time in the future(the exclusive future perfect)

I shall have graduated from this college by 29th of June.

An action that begins before a certain moment of time in the future and goes up to it or into it.

She will have been in your service fifteen years next year.



The perfect continuous tenses

The present perfect continuous

The present perfect continuous is formed analytically by means of the auxiliary to be in the present perfect (have/has been)plus participle I of the notional verb.

I have been +studyingat this college since 2011.

He has been studying …

 

In the interrogative the first auxiliary (have/has) comes before the subject, the second auxiliary (been) and participle I follow the subject.

I have been +studyingat this college since 2011.

How long have you (subject) been studying at this college?

In the negative the corresponding negative forms of the first auxiliary (have) are used with negative particle ‘not’, the second auxiliary (been) and participle I follow them.

She hasn’t been studying at this since 2011.

The paradigm of the verb in the present perfect continuous

The present perfect continuous is used with actional verbs to denote:

1. Actions in progress which begin at a certain moment in the past and continue into the present.In this case either the starting point of the action or the period of time during which it has been in progress is usually specified.

I`ve been writing since morning, and so I`ll soon stop.

They`ve been living here since 1970. Now they are going to move to N.

All these forms denoting actions continuing into the present (the so-called present perfect continuous inclusive) are translated. Russian by the present tense, imperfective(in the sentences above: пишу, живут, дождь, идет, учит,)

2. Actions in progress which begin in the past continue up to the moment of speaking or till just before it. It is the present continuous exclusive.

Oh, here you are at last! I’ve been waiting for you all day!

You look so sad. Have you been crying?

Actions in progress that both begin and end at some indeterminate time before the moment of speaking, though connected with it through their importance for the present.

My brother has been using my bicycle and has got the tyre punctured.

I have been thinking over your offer, but still can`t tell you anything definite

 

The past perfect continuous

Formation. The past perfect continuous is formed analytically by means of the auxiliary to be in the past perfect (had been) and participle I of the notional verb.

 

He had been writing a letter for two hours when I came.

 

In the interrogative the first auxiliary (had) comes before the subject, and the second auxiliary (been) and participle I follow the subject.

What had you been writing when I came?

 

In the negative the corresponding negative forms of the first auxiliary (had) are used, the second auxiliary (been) and participle I follow the negation.

He had not been writing a letter for two hours when I came.

 

1. The past perfect continuous denotes an, action which began before a given moment in the past, continued for a certain period of time up to that moment and possibly still continued at that past moment.

The moment of time in the past before which the action begins is usually indicated by other past actions in the past indefinite or, rater rarely, by the past continuous. Sometimes it is indicated directly by adverbials ( by, that, time, by the Ist of August, etc.)

2. Actions in progress that began before a certain moment of time in the past and continued into it.In this case either the starting point of the action or its duration is indicated (the inclusive past perfect continuous).

Ever since his return he had been losing strength and flesh.

She had been acting for a long time without a rest and she badly needed one.

The past perfect continuous is usually rendered in Russian by the past tense, imperfective.

 

The future perfect continuous

Formation. The future perfect continuous is formed analytically by means of the auxiliary to be in the future perfect (shall/will have been) and participle I of the notional verb.

Their interrogative, negative and negative-interrogative forms are built similar to other future forms.

He will have been writing a letter for two hours when I came

 

It denotes actions which begin before a certain moment of time in the future and go on up to that moment or into it: I shall have been living there for five years next February.

 

 

The Pronoun

The pronounis a notional part of speech, which points to objects, their properties and relations, their local or temporal reference, or placement, without naming them.

Morphological composition and their characteristics

Pronouns may be of different structure:

1) Simple pronouns- I, You, he, she

2) Compound pronouns comprise more than one morpheme (stem).

Everybody, something, somebody, nothing

3) Composite pronouns have the form of a phrase:

Each other, one another

 

Classification of pronouns

According to the semantic meaning pronouns are divided into the following groups:

Personal pronouns Жіктеу есімдіктері

2) Тәуелдеу есімдіктері - Possessive pronouns



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