The main functions of the infinitive in sentences



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The main functions of the infinitive in sentences



 

Subject Part of Predicate Object

To live is to learn. I must do it. He started He wanted to help the girl.

to speak at 9.00

 

The infinitive

 

Attribute Adverbial Modifier Complex of Purpose Object He wanted He invited a witness He wanted me to

this a problem to get some evidence help the girl

To discuss

.

 

Exercises

AUnderline the Infinitives, write down what parts of sentences they are

and translate the sentences into Russian:

 

1 His duty is to make sure that the place of work is safe. …(Part of the Predicate)……………………………………………………………….

2 He could not refuse to fulfill demands of court. ………………………

3 He has just finished to read the sentence. ………………………………

4 I expect him to be acquitted. ……………………………………………….

5 Please telephone him to send this message. ……………………………..

6 I would like to see this again. ……………………………………………

7 This is the place to see. ………………………………………………….

 

 

Unit 11

 

From the History of Police Forces

Police is the agency of a community or government that is responsible for maintaining public order and preventing and detecting crime.The basic police mission — preserving order by enforcing rules of conduct or laws — was the same in ancient societies as it is in the contemporary sophisticated urban environments.

The conception of the police force as a protective and law enforcement organisation developed from the use of military bodies as guardians of the peace, such as the Praetorian Guard — bodyguard of the ancient Roman emperors.The Romans achieved a high level of law enforcement, which remained in effect until the decline of the empire and the onset of the Middle Ages.

During the Middle Ages, policing authority was the responsibility of local nobles on their individual estates. Each noble generally appointed an official, known as a constable, to carry out the law. The constable'sduties included keeping the peace and arresting and guardingcriminals.For many decades constables were unpaid citizens who took turns at the job, which became increasingly burdensome and unpopular.By the mid-16 century, wealthy citizens often resorted to payingdeputies to assume their turns as constables; as this practice becamewidespread, the quality of the constables declined drastically.

Police forces developed throughout the centuries, taking various forms. In France during the 17th century King Louis XIV maintained a small central police organisation consisting of some forty inspectors who, with the help of numerous paid informants, supplied the government with details about the conduct of private individuals. The king could thenexercise the kind of justice he saw fit.This system continued during the reigns of Louis XV and Louis XVI. After the French Revolution, twoseparate police bodies were set up, one to handle ordinary duties andthe other to deal with political crimes.

In l663 the city of London began paying watchmen (generally old men who were unable to find other work) to guard the streets at night. Until the end of the 18th century, the watchmen — as inefficient as they were — along with a few constables, remained the only form of policing in the city.

The inability of watchmen and constables to curb lawlessness, particularly in London, led to a demand for a more effective force to deal with criminals and to protect the population.After much deliberation in Parliament, the British statesman Sir Robert Peel in 1829 established the London Metropolitan Police, which became the world's first modern organised police force.

The force was guided by the concept of crime prevention as a primary police objective; it also embodied the belief that such a force should depend on the consent and cooperation of the public, and the idea that police constables were to be civil and courteous to the people. The Metropolitan Police force was well organised and disciplined and, after an initial period of public skepticism, became the model for other police forces in Great Britain. Several years later the Royal Irish Constabulary was formed, and Australia, India, and Canada soon established similar organisations. Other countries followed, impressed by the success of the plan, until nations throughout the world had adopted police systems based on the British model. The development of the British police system is especially significant because the pattern that emerged had great influence on the style of policing in almost all industrial societies.

In the U.S., the first full-time organized police departments were formed inNew York City in 1845 and shortly thereafter in Boston, not only in response to crime but also to control unrest.The American police adopted many British methods, but at times they became involved in local politics.The British police, on the other hand, have traditionally depended on loyalty to the law, rather than to elected public officials, as the source of their authority and independence.

TASK 2. Answer the following questions:

1. What is the basic police mission?

2. How did the police force as law enforcement organization arise

and develop?

3. Why did the quality of the constables in England decline?

4. How were policing functions performed in France?

5. What was the form of policing London in the 17th century?

6. Why was there a need for a more effective force to deal with

criminals in England?

7. What factors brought about the establishment of the Metropolitan

Police Force? "•

8. What principles were the British police guided by?

9. Why did the Metropolitan Police Force become the model for other

police forces in Britain and abroad?

10. Why is the development of the British police system especially

significant?

TASK 3. Find in the text above the English equivalents for the following words and expressions:

1. дебаты в парламенте

2. обеспечивает соблюдение правил поведения

3. основная задача полиции

4. оставаться в силе

5. платный осведомитель

6. нести полицейскую службу

7. предупреждение преступности

8. раскрывать преступности

9. сдерживать рост преступности

10. следить за соблюдением законов

11. постоянно действующая организация

12. полицейские структуры

13. обеспечение правопорядка

14.блюститель порядка

 

Grammar

 

Some specific nouns

Evidence

Глагол-сказуемое В единственном числе

Information

News

Money

Advice

 

It is unexpected evidence.

Theinformation was received through the internet.

Thenews speaks for itself.

The money was transferred yesterday.

His advice was very helpful.

Note: a piece ofevidence

a piece of information

a piece of news.

 

Policeare searching for the killer.

The jury find the prisoner not guilty.

 

Exercise

aTranslate the following sentences into English:

1. Это важные новости. Когда вы их получили?

2. Она дола очень сомнительные показания. Неужели вы верите им?

3. – Где он спрятал деньги?

4. – Я думаю никто не найдет их.

5. Это в полнее надежная информация.

6. Полиция находится совсем неподалеку.

7. Присяжные находятся в комнате 23.

8. Все присяжные уже собрались.

bWrite a few short sentences of your own with the following words and word combinations:

important information

financial news

friendly advice

lack of evidence

lack of money

cComplete the following sentences:

1. Police believe

2. the jury think

 

Exercise

a) Translate the following sentences into English:



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