The History of Scotland Yard



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The History of Scotland Yard



The task of organizing and designing the 'New Police' was placed in the hands of Colonel Charles Rowan and Sir Richard Mayne. These two Commissioners occupied a private house at 4, Whitehall Palace, the back of which opened on to a courtyard, which had been the site of a residence owned by the Kings of Scotland and known as 'Scotland Yard'. Since the place was used as a police station, the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police became known as Scotland Yard.

These headquarters were removed in 1890 to premises on the Victoria Embankment and became known as 'New Scotland Yard'; but in 1967, because of the need for a larger and more modem headquarters building, a further removal took place to the present site at Victoria Street (10 Broadway), which is also known as 'New Scotland Yard'.

The Force suffered many trials and difficulties in overcoming public hostility and opposition. But, by their devotion to duty and constant readiness to give help and advice coupled with kindliness and good humor, eventually gained the approval and trust of the public. This achievement been fostered and steadily maintained throughout the history of the Force, so that today its relationship with the public is established on the firmest foundation of mutual respect and confidence.

 

Task 1. Answer the following questions:

1. Who was responsible for organizing and designing the 'New Police?

2. Why did the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police become known as Scotland Yard?

3. What is 'New Scotland Yard' and where is it currently located?

4. What difficulties in relations with the public did the force suffer?

5. What is the main principle of the Force's relationship with the public?

 

 

Task 2. Find in the text above the English equivalents for the fallowing words and expressions:

1. главное полицейское управление

2. Столичная полиция

3. комиссар полиции

4. претерпевать невзгоды

5. преодолеть враждебное отношение

6. завоевать доверие общественности

7. на основе взаимного уважения

 

 

Scotland Yard

At first the new police force encountered little cooperation from the public, and when Scotland Yard stationed its first plainclothes police agents on duty in 1842, there was a public outcry against these 'spies' The police force had gradually won the trust of the London public by the time Scotland Yard set up its Criminal Investigation Department (CID) in 1878. The CID was a small force of plainclothes detectives who gathered information cm criminal activities.The CID was subsequently built up into the efficient investigative force that it now constitutes. It presently employs more than 1,000 detectives.

The area supervised by the London Metropolitan Police includes all of Greater London with the exception of the City of London, which has its own separate police force. The Metropolitan Police's duties are the detection and prevention of crime, the preservation of public order, the supervision of road traffic and the licensing of public vehicles, and the organisation of civil defense in case of emergency.

The administrative head of Scotland Yard is the commissioner, who is appointed by the Crown on the recommendation of the Home Secretary Beneath the commissioner are a deputy commissioner and four assistant commissioners, each of the latter being in charge of one of Scotland Yard's four departments: administration, traffic and transport, criminal investigation (the CID), and police recruitment and training. The CID deals with all aspects of criminal investigation and comprises the criminal records office, fingerprint and photography sections, the company fraud squad, a highly mobile police unit known as the flying squad, the metropolitan police laboratory, and the detective-training school.

Scotland Yard keeps extensive files on all known criminals in the United Kingdom. It also has a special branch of police who guard visiting dignitaries, royalty, and statesmen. Finally, Scotland Yard is responsible for maintaining links between British law-enforcement agencies and Interpol.Although Scotland Yard's responsibility is limited to metropolitan London, its assistance is often sought by police in other parts of England, particularly with regard to difficult cases. The Yard also assists in the training of police personnel in the countries of the Commonwealth.

Task 5. Answer the following questions:

1. What was the public sentiment about the first Scotland Yard plainclothes police agents?

2. When did Scotland Yard set up its Criminal Investigation Department?

3. What were the CID's initial duties?

4. What is the CID nowadays?

5. Which parts of London are covered by the Metropolitan Police?

6. What are the Metropolitan Police's duties?

7. Who is the administrative head of Scotland Yard?

8. What is the structure of the CID?

9. What assistance does the Yard render to the countriesof theCommonwealth?

Task 6. Find in the text above the English equivalents for the following words and expressions:

1. 'Большой' Лондон

2. правоохранительные органы

3. отдел регистрации преступлений и преступников

4. 'летучий отряд'

5. чрезвычайное положение

6. министр внутренних дел

7. Департамент уголовного розыска

8 выдача водительских удостоверений

9. отдел по борьбе с мошенничеством

10. полицейский в штатском

11. преступная деятельность

12. завоевать доверие

13. быть назначенным королевой

14. направлять на место работы

15.собирать сведения

 

 

Task. 7. Fill in the gaps in the text below with the words and expressions ;

"Sherlock and Holmes" is a________ which offers a complete range of security services. We have _____ _____ with special______ windows to transport money and other valuable items. We can supply trained _____ to protect exhibits at art shows and jewellery displays. We can advise you if you think someone is trying to ____ your phone or ____ your private conversations at home or in the office with hidden microphones. We have ex-policemen whom you can hire a; ____ ____ and special ______ to deliver your valuable parcel' anywhere in the world. We can protect you or your children against possible__________.

 

Guards, tap, armored vehicles, bullet proof, kidnappers, couriers, bug, securities firm, private detectives.

 

 

UNIT 16

JURY.TRIAL. KINDS OF CASES.

Earley Juries

A jury is a body of laymen and women randomly selected to determine fasts and to provide a decision in legal proceeding. Such a body traditionally consists of 12 people and is called a petit jury or trial jury.

Selection of the trial jury

The first step in the selection of the trial jury is the selection of a ‘jury panel’. When you are selected for a jury panel you will be directed to report, along with other panel members, to a courtroom in which a case is to be heard once a jury is selected. The judge assigned to that case will tell you about the case and will introduce the lawyers and the people involved in the case. You will also take an oath, by which you promise to answer all questions truthfully. Following this explanation of the case and the taking of the oath, the judge and the lawyers will question you and the other members of the panel to find out if you have any personal interest in it, or any feelings that might make it hard for you to be impartial. This process of questionings is called Voir Dire, a phrase meaning “to speak the truth”.

Those jurors who have not been challenged become the jury for the case. Depending on the kind of case, there will be either six or twelve jurors.

Courtroom Personnel

In addition to the lawyers and the judge, three other people will play an important role in the trial. The court reporter, who sits close to the witnesses and the judge, puts down every word what is spoken during the trial and also may record the proceedings on tape. The clerk, who sits right below the judge, keeps track of all documents and exhibits and notes down important events in the trial. The bailiff helps to keep the trial running smoothly. The jury is in the custody of the bailiff, who sees to the jurors comfort and convenience and helps them if they are having any problems related to jury service.

Kinds of cases

Civil Cases

Civil cases are usually disputes between or among private citizens, corporations, governments, government, agencies, and other organizations. Most often, the party bringing the suit is asking for money damages for some wrong that has been done. For example, a tenant may sue a landlords for failure to six a leaky roof, or a landlord may sue a tenant for failure to pay rent. People who have been injured may sue a person or a company they feel is responsible for the injured.

The party bringing the suit is called the plaintiff; the party being sued is called the defendant. There may be many plaintiffs or many defendants in the same case.

The plaintiff starts the lawsuit by filing a paper called a complaint, in which the case against the defendant is stated. The next paper filed is usually the answer, in which the defendant disputes what the plaintiff said in the complaint. The defendant may also feel that there has been a wrong committed by the plaintiff, in which case a counterclaim will be filed along with the answer. It is up to the plaintiff to prove the case against the defendant. In each civil case the judge tells the jury the extent to which the plaintiff must prove the case. This is called the plaintiff’s burden of proof, a burden that the plaintiff must meet in order to win. In most civil cases the plaintiffs burden is to prove the case by a preponderance of evidence, that is, that the plaintiff’s version of what happened in the case is more probably true than not true.

Jury verdicts do not need to be unanimous in civil cases. Only ten jurors need to agree upon a verdict if there are 12 jurors: five must agree if there are six jurors.

Criminal Cases

A criminal case is brought by the state or by a city or country against a person of persons accused of having committed a crime. The state, city, or country is called the plaintiff; the accusedperson is called the defendant. The charge against the defendant is called an information or a complaint. The defendant has pleaded not guilty and you should presume the defendant’s innocence throughout the entire trial unless the plaintiff proves the defendant guilty. The plaintiff’s burden of proof is greater in a criminal case than in a civil case. In each criminal case you hear the judge will tell you all the elements of the crime that the plaintiff must prove; the plaintiff must prove each of these elements beyond reasonable doubt before defendant can be found guilty.

In criminal cases the verdict must be unanimous, that is, all jurors must agree that the defendant is guilty in order to overcome the presumption of innocence.

 

 

Task 1. Find in the text above the English equivalents for the following words

and expressions:

1. заявление об обвинении

2. элемент (состава) преступления

3. презумпция невиновности

4. показания (2)

5. истец

6. судебное разбирательство (3)

7. частные лица

8. денежная компенсация ущерба

9. единогласное решение присяжных

10. наличие более веских доказательств

11. письменные объяснения, возражения ответчику по делу

12. ответчик

13. встречный иск

14. бремя доказывания

15. ответственность за ущерб

16. подать иск/возбудить дело

17. заслушать показания

18. заявить о своей невиновности

 

Task 2. The word EVIDENCEhas the following meanings in Russian:

Свидетельство

evidence of law-судебные разбирательства

2) показания

 

Match the following English expressions with their Russian equivalents:

 

1. evidence in the case а) вещественное доказательство

2. evidence on oath b) давать показания, представить

доказательства

3. to give/offer/introduce/ c) доказательства вины, улики

produce evidence

4. to plant evidence d) доказательства или показания по делу

 

5. to weigh evidence e) доказательства, показания, по-

лученные с нарушением закона

6. to withhold evidence f) доказательство из первых рук

7. evidence wrongfully g) заключение эксперта

obtained

8. evidence of guilt h) косвенное доказательство

9. circumstantial evidence i) лжесвидетельство

10. conclusive/decisive j) ложное доказательство,

evidence показание

11. expert evidence k) недостаточное доказательство

12. false evidence l) неопровержимое доказатель-

ство

13. first hand evidence m) окончательное, решающее

доказательство

14. insufficient evidence n) оценить доказательства

15. irrefutable evidence o) показания под присягой

16. perjured evidence p) скрыть доказательства

17. physical evidence q) сфабриковать доказательства

 

 

Keys

Unit 2.

Ex. 4

1. c

2. f

3. e

4. a

5. b

6. d

7. g

Unit 3.

Ex. 2

1. h

2. p

3. m

4. f

5. b

6. n

7. g

8. c

9. k

10. o

11. d

12. a

13. I

14. e

15. j

16. l

Unit 4

Ex. 3

1. g

2. f

3. b

4. a

5. h

6. c

7. e

8. d

 

Unit 5.

Task 2.

1. criminology deals with the nature and causes of crime.

2. case study

3. criminology draws on the findings of other fields

4. the problem of apprehending offenders

5. the problem of prevention of crime

6. to have practical application

7. correctional institutions

8. to determine the causes of crime

9. to evolve valid principles

 

Task 3. 1b; 2d; 3e; 4f; 5c; 6a.

 

Unit 6.

Task 2.

1. inmates

2. criminal types

3. investigation

4. multiple

5. upbringing

6. case studies

7. rehabilitative

8. capital punishment

9. suspended

10. unthinkable.

 

Task 5.

1. capital punishment

2. investigation

3. a professor of psychiatry and forensic medicine

4. criminal type

5. hereditary causes of crime

6. environmental factors

7. penal system

8. more humane and constructive treatment of convicts

9. more productive member of society

10. criminal instinct

 

Unit 7.

Task 1.

1e; 2b; 3f; 4d; 5a; 6c.

 

Task 3.

1.

2. theft

3. murdering

4. burglary

5. comparative study of jailed criminals and law-abiding persons

6. to relate criminal behavior to natural environment

7. crime against people

8. crime against property

9. to commit crimes deliberately

10. recognizable hereditary physical traits

11. prominent criminologist

12. the whole range of conditions

13. the incidence of crime

14. to be inclinated to criminal activity

15. to throw light on the problem

16. multiple causation theory

17. credible theory

 

Unit 8.

Task 3.

1e; 2d; 3c; 4g; 5f; 6a; 7b.

 

Task 4.

1. a person, who has violated a law

2. punishment is both painful and quilt producing

3. there are 4 basic justifications in the western Culture

4. Capital and corporal punishment were widespread in the 19th century

5. cruel and unusual punishment

6. basic modes of punishment

7. incarceration, community supervision, fine and restitution

8. atrocious murders and treasons.

 

Unit 9.

Task 2.

1. retribution

2. long-term imprisonment

3. interrogation

4. to take prison term

5. the abolition of the capital punishment

6. life imprisonment

7. expository execution

8. to sentences to death

9. to true

10. to commute sentence

11. flogging

Task 3.

During many centuries the capital punishment was used for different kinds of crime. In the middle of the century a man could be punished for larceny, rape and even arson. Treason has been the crime that is sentenced to death. There are may be an opinion that even so-called long-term or life imprisonment has no significant for so-called ideological criminals: treason, spics, terrorists. Capital punishment for these criminals is the lesser of two evils.

 

Unit 10.

Task3.

1. wanton cruelty

2. particular circumstances

3. treatment of criminals

4. parole board

5. communities

6. foster delinquency

7. juvenile crime

8. parole board.

 

Unit 11.

Task 3.

1. deliberation in Parliament

2. to provide public order

3. the basic police mission

4. which remained in effect

5. paid informers

6. to carry out police duties

7. crime prevention

8. to detect crime

9. to curb lawlessness

10. to carry out the law

11. pull time organized department

12. police departments

13. maintaining public order

14. police official

 

Unit 12.

Task 4.

1. e

2. c

3. d

4. a

5. b

6. f

7. g

Unit 13.

Task 5.

1. f

2. j

3. I

4. I

5. k

6. d

7. g

8. a

9. b

10. h

11. e

12. c

 

Task 6.

1. investigate

2. arrest

3. handcuff

4. charge

5. theft

6. fingerprints

7. cell

8. detained

9. magistrate

10. court

11. oath

12. found

13. witnesses

14. evidence

15. fine

16. sentence

 

Task 7.

1. in

2. of

3. of

4. of

5. with

6. before, in

7. to

 

Unit 14

Task 4.

1. opinion polls

2. sympathy

3. justice

4. misconduct

5. evidence

6. justice

7. terrorist offence

8. to confess

9. failures

 

Task 5.

1. to

2. from

3. with

4. to

5. of

 

Unit 15

 

Task 2.

1.Scotland Yard

2.»New Police»

3.a commissioner

4.to suffer difficulties

5.to overcome public hostility

6.to gain the approval and trust of the public

7.on the firmest foundation of mutal respect

Task 6

1.greater London

2.police force

3.the criminal records office

4.higly mobile police, flying squad

5.cfst of emergency

6.the home secretary

7.the criminal investigation department

8.the licensing of public vehicles

9.the company fraud squad

10.plainclothts police agent

11.criminal activity

12.win the trust

13.to be appointed by the Crown

14.to be changed of

15.togather information

 

Unit 16

Task 1

1.complaint

2.his elements of the crime

3.presumtion of innocence

4.evindence

5.a plaintiff

6.trial

7.private citizens

8.money damages

9.unanimous verdict

10.preponderance of evidence

11.answer

12.defendant

13.counterclaim

14.burden of prove

15.to be responsible for in jury

16.to bring the suit

17.to hear the evidence

18.to plead not guilty

 

Task 2 evidence

1.d

2.o

3.b

4.q

5.n

6.p

7.e

8.c

9.h

10.m

11.g

12.j

13.f

14.k

15.l

16.i

17.a

 

 



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