Conditional Sentences (Условные предложения).



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Conditional Sentences (Условные предложения).



В английском языке имеется 3 типа условных предложений.

1. В условных предложениях 1 типа сказуемое обозначает реальное действие или реальный факт действительности.

Главное предложение Придаточное предложение

Simple Future Simple Present

I shall tell this story. If I see an attorney to night

Я расскажу эту историю. Если увижу сегодня адвоката.

 

 

2. В условных предложениях 2 типа сказуемое выражает предполагаемое или желаемое действие, которое может относиться либо к настоящему, либо к будущему времени.

 

Главное предложение Придаточное предложение

Would (should) +infinitive (без to) формы, совпадающие с Simple

Past и Past Continuous

I should tell the real story. Я бы рассказал правду If I saw an attorney to night. если бы я увидел адвоката сегодня

 

He would give evidence. Он бы дал показания If a lawyer asked him. eсли бы судья попросил его.

 

 

3. В условных предложениях 3 типа сказуемое обозначает предполагаемое или воображаемое действие, которое относится к прошлому. Это невыполнимое или невыполненное действие.

 

Главное предложение Придаточное предложение

Would (should)+perfect infinitive(без to) форма, совпадающая с Past

Perfect

She would have informed you. If I had asked her last night

Она бы проинформировала бы вас. eсли бы я попросил её вчера

 

The judge would have sentenced earlier If the lawyer had prepared all the papers last week

Судья вынес бы приговор раньше Если бы адвокат подготовил бы.

все документы на прошлой неделе.

 

 

4. Условные предложения могут также вводиться союзами if onlyесли бы (только), supposeесли бы, предложим, что (а что если бы); сочетание but forесли бы не может вводить условное выражение.

If only he had checked himself then. Если бы он только сдержался тогда.

Suppose he had missed the train.А что если бы он опоздал на поезд?

.But for you we would not be able to prove his innocence.Если бы не вы, мы бы не смогли доказать его невиновность.

But for his mother he wouldn’t have became a lawyer.Если бы не его мама, он не стал бы адвокатом.

Exercise 1. Read and translate.

1) I would certainly give you the number of the civil case if I had one.

2) What would you do if the policeman stopped and searched your vehicle.

3) If I only had reasonable grounds for suspecting him, I would tell him about it.

4) If you had informed us about his arrest, we would have immideately gone to police station.

5) If my son hadn’t made up his mind to become a lawyer, I would have tried to persuade him.

6) If you had made an appointment with the lawyer last week; it would have been possible to settle the matter.

7) But for ALFA they could not be able to arrest the atrocious murder.

8) If he knew his rights to keep silent he would refuse to answer police questions.

9) I will give you some information ,if you have reasonable grounds1

10) Suppose she had recognized the criminal

 

 

Unit 14

 

POLICE AND PUBLIC

In 1829 Sir Richard Mayne, one of the founders of Scotland Yard, wrote: "The primary object of an efficient police is the prevention of crime and detection and punishment of offenders if crime is committed. To these ends all the efforts of police must be directed. The protection of life and property, the preservation of public tranquility, and the absence of crime, will alone prove whether those efforts have been successful and whether the objects for which the police were appointed have been attained."

In attaining these objects, much depends on the approval and cooperation of the public, and these have always been determined by the degree of esteem and respect in which the police are held. Therefore, every member of the Force must remember that it is his duty to protect and help members of the public, no less than to bring offenders to justice. Consequently, while prompt to prevent crime and arrest criminals, he must look on himself as the servant and guardian of the general public and treat all law-abiding citizens, irrespective of their race, color, creed or social position, with unfailing patience and courtesy.

By the use of tact and good humor the public can normally be induced to comply with directions and thus the necessity for using force is avoided. If. however, persuasion, advice or warning is found to be ineffective, a resort to force may become necessary, as it is imperative that a police officer being required to take action shall act with the firmness necessary to render it effective.

TASK 1. Answer the following questions:

1. What are the objects of the police work according to Sir Richard Mayne?

2. How should the co-operation between the police and the public be achieved?

3. Why is the principle of police-public co-operation so important?

Police Discipline

The police are not above the law and must act within it. A police officer isan agent of the law of the land and maybe sued or prosecuted for any wrongful act committed in the performance of police duties. Officersare also subject to a disciplinary code designed to deal with abuse of police powers andmaintain public confidence in police impartiality. If found guilty of breaching the code, an officer canbe dismissed from the force.

Members of the public have the rightto make complaints against police officers if they feel that they have beentreated unfairly or improperly. In England and Wales theinvestigation and resolution of complaints is scrutinized by the independent Police Complaints Authority. The Authority must supervise any case involving death or serious injury and has discretion to supervise in any other case. In addition, the Authority reviews chief constables' proposals on whetherdisciplinary charges should be brought against an officer who has beenthe subject of a complaint. If the chief constable doesnot recommend formal disciplinary charges, the Authority may, if it disagrees with the decision, recommend and, if necessary, direct that charges be brought.

The Government aims to ensure that the quality of service provided by police forces in Britaininspires public confidence, and that the police have the activesupport and involvement of the communities which they serve. The police service is taking effective action toimprove performance and standards. All forces in England and Wales have to consult with the communities they serve and develop policing policies to meet community demands. They have to be more open and explicit about their operations and the standards of service that they offer.

Virtually all forces haveliaison departments designed to develop closer contact between the force and the community. These departments consist of representatives from the police, local councilors and community groups.

Particular efforts are made to develop relations with young people through greater contact with schools and their pupils.

The Government has repeatedly stated itscommitment to improve relations between the police andethnic minorities. Central guidance recommends that all police officers should receivea thorough training in community and race relations issues. Home Office and police initiatives are designedto tackle racially motivated crime and to ensure that the issue is seen as a priority by thepolice. Discriminatory behavior by police officers, either to other officers or to members of the public, is an offence under the Police Discipline Code. All police forces recognize the need to recruit women and members of the ethnic minorities in orderto ensure that the police represent the community. Every force has an equal opportunities policy.

Task 3. Answer the following questions:

1. What disciplinary measures are police officers subject to?

2. What authorities supervise police conduct?

3. What helps improve police-public co-operation?

4. What is a liaison department?

5. How are race related issues tackled by the police?

Task 4 Complete the following text with the words and expressions given below:

misconduct; opinion polls; justice; sympathy; b violence; failures; complaints; terrorist offence; to confess

Most people have a positive attitude to the police, and ______ _______ have indicated that there is much public _____________ with men and women who have to deal with ________ _______. There is formal system through which __

_________________ of police behavior may be investigated, but in the late 1990s it was found that these procedures had not prevented some serious ________________ in the system of administering __________. Some Irish people had been convicted of a ___________ ____________ on the basis of confessions which had been improperly extracted from them, and the truth was discovered only after they had spent several year in prison. There were other cases too in which there were grounds for suspecting that the police had persuaded people _______ to crimes which they had not committed/ Some other inquiries revealed more cases of ________ by the police.

Task5 Fill in the gaps with the prepositions given below:

From; to; with; to; of

1. What is your attitude ____ the problem of crime prevention?

2. All the sympathies of the jury were ___ the defendant/

3. Finally the criminal was convicted ___ a violent assault/

4. The detective took pains to extract information ___ the eye-witness.

5. After a long questioning the suspect had to confess ___ committing a robbery.

 

UNIT 15

Scotland Yard



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