TASK 1. Translate into Ukrainian



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TASK 1. Translate into Ukrainian



VARIANT 1

TASK 1. Translate into Ukrainian

Business Culture in Germany

The decision-making process in Germany is much slower than in the United States, and this can be troublesome to U.S. executives. Be prepared for the process to take much longer, as there is often a “hidden” group of advisors and decision makers that must approve of any transaction that is to occur.

Punctuality is necessity in Germany. Arrive on time for every appointment, whether for business or social. Being late, even if it is only by a few minutes, is very insulting to a German executive.

Business dress in Germany is very conservative. Businessmen wear dark suits; solid, conservative ties, and white shirts. Women also dress conservatively, in dark suits and white blouses. Don’t be surprised if occasionally you see a fashion statement with white socks being worn with a dark suit.

Germans are strongly individualistic. The German thought process is extremely thorough, with each aspect of a project being examined in great detail. This process is often very time-intensive. However, once the planning is over, a project will move very quickly and deadlines are expected to be honored. Germans do not like surprises. Sudden changes in business transactions, even if they may improve the outcome, are unwelcome. In business situations, shake hands at both the beginning and the end of a meeting. Additionally, a handshake may be accompanied with a slight bow. When being introduced to a woman, wait to see if she extends her hand. People that have worked together for years still shake hands each morning as if it were the first time they met.

Business is viewed as being very serious, and Germans do not appreciate humor in a business context. In business meetings, age takes precedence over youth. If you are in a group setting, the eldest person enters first. Germans keep a larger personal space around them, approximately 6 inches more space than North Americans do. However, it is not unusual that when in line at a store cash register, Germans will crowd up very close to the person in front of them.

Germans are able to consume large quantities of beer in one evening, but public drunkenness is not acceptable. It is best to know your limits, especially in Bavaria where two liters of beer is an ordinary evening. Pace yourself and eat plenty of food. Typically, you do not wait to be seated in German restaurants, and it is not uncommon to share a table with strangers. However, most Germans will think it odd if you try to initiate a conversation with them beyond just establishing that the chairs are available.

Germans love to talk on the telephone. While important business decisions are not made over the phone, expect many follow up calls or faxes. Germans guard their private life, so do not phone a German executive at home without permission.

 

TASK 2. Give your name and the following Ukrainian names in English according to the rules of transliteration

Березний Іван Петрович; Гала Артем Валерійович; Зубко Лідія Володимирівна; Йовенко Тетяна Михайлівна; Рубаненко Віталій Валерійович; Рябушечко Владислав В’ячеславович; Марчишин Василь Михайлович; Шваб Андрій Валентинович; Шафрай Олег Миколайович

 

TASK 3. Make a thumbnail (an esquisse) of your business card in English

TASK 4. Fill in the application form

TASK 5. Write your CV in English

TASK 6. Write your Resume in English

TASK 7. A general import agent dealing with hardware goods wishes to handle an English firm’s plastic ware. Write a letter for the agent making an offer of services and quoting terms


VARIANT 2

TASK 1. Translate into Ukrainian

Business Culture in France

The French dress conservatively and invest in well-tailored clothing. Patterned fabrics and dark colors are most acceptable, but avoid bright colors. French businessmen do not loosen their ties or take off their jackets in the office. Women should also dress conservatively. Avoiding bright or gaudy colors is recommended. Women should also avoid any glitzy or overpowering objects, such as flashy jewelry.

French is the official language in France. If you do not speak French, it is very important that you apologize for your lack of knowledge. Most individuals in business speak English. The French have a great appreciation for the art of conversation. The French frequently interrupt each other, as the argument is a form of entertainment. The French often complain that North Americans lecture rather than converse. Be sensitive to the volume of your voice. Americans are known to offend everyone in a restaurant, meeting, or on the street with their loud voices and braying laughter.

The most important characteristics of French business behavior are its emphasis on courtesy, and a certain formality. Shaking hands upon greeting and parting is customary in France. The French handshake is brief, and is accompanied by a short span of eye contact. An aggressive handshake is considered impolite. The French handshake is a light grip and a single quick shake. Professional attire is expected. Generally, the French take great care to dress fashionably, whether they are wearing formal or casual attire, and they feel more at ease with visitors who show the same degree of attention to appearance.

Business can be conducted during any meal, but lunch is best. Today, many French executives put less emphasis on long, heavy business lunches for reasons of health and time. Nevertheless, informal business discussions in restaurants where everyone appreciates a good meal are one of the best ways to promote good working relations. Etiquette is important. Both hands remain above the table at all times. A man may rest his wrists, and a woman her forearms, on the table edge. Avoid drinking hard liquor before meals or smoking cigars between courses. The French believe this permeates the taste buds, compromising the taste of the meal.

The French have a great respect for privacy. Knock and wait before entering into a room. Additionally, do not “drop in” unannounced. Always give notice before your arrival. Gift giving is left to the foreigner’s discretion. Good gifts include books or music, as they demonstrate interest in intellectual pursuits.

Business hours in France are generally 9:00 am to 6:00 pm (banking hours 9:00 am -1:30 pm) Monday through Friday while stores are generally open 10:00 am to 7:00 pm, Monday through Saturday. To ensure availability, advance appointments are recommended.

 

TASK 2. Give your name and the following Ukrainian names in English according to the rules of transliteration

Биба Христина Олексіївна; Довгальов Олег Михайлович; Козачок Наталія Миколаївна; Пригодська Богдана Анатоліївна; Свінтак Оксана Вікторівна; Кульчицький Вадим Володимирович; Перетятя Віталій Юрійович; Щевкун Людмила Володимирівна; Ходацький Дмитро Святославович

 

TASK 3. Make a thumbnail (an esquisse) of your business card in English

TASK 4. Fill in the application form

TASK 5. Write your CV in English

TASK 6. Write your Resume in English

TASK 7. Owing to rising costs in his country an export manufacturer finds he must raise his prices. Write a letter to a foreign agent asking the agent if he thinks the market will stand the proposed increases


VARIANT 3

TASK 1. Translate into Ukrainian

TASK 2. Give your name and the following Ukrainian names in English according to the rules of transliteration

Будько Сергій Васильович; Дідик Костянтин Володимирович; Ґудзь Інга Олегівна; Кетлінська Ольга В’ячеславівна; Окрошко Валерій Вікторович; Старинський Юрій Ярославович; Косач Олексій Миколайович; Яковенко Маріанна Анатоліївна; Улицький Антон В’ячеславович

 

TASK 3. Make a thumbnail (an esquisse) of your business card in English

TASK 4. Fill in the application form

TASK 5. Write your CV in English

TASK 6. Write your Resume in English

TASK 7. An import agent thinks his foreign suppliers fixed prices too high for the market, and competitors are winning customers from him. Write to his suppliers making suggestions for reduced prices


VARIANT 4

Business Culture in Spain

The Spanish lifestyle is more relaxed than many other nations. For example, many businesses are closed between 1:30 p.m. and 4:30 p.m. for a siesta, allowing families to get together for a meal. The family is the most important thing to people in Spain.

The Spanish dress more formal than many other Europeans. In Spain, it is important to project good taste in apparel. Business attire includes well-made, conservative suits and ties. Avoid flashy colors, as it is not popular to stand out. Shorts are not usually worn in public. If you pull down on your eyelid in Spain, you are insinuating to “be alert” or that “I am alert”. In Spain, crossing you fingers has several good meanings, usually things such as “protection” or “good luck”. This is a nice gesture to be friendly.

Time is very relaxed. It is wise for foreigners to be punctual, but Spaniards do not put a great emphasis on time themselves. The Spaniards often consider deadlines an objective that will be met if possible, but do not become overly concerned if the deadline is not achieved.

Much like Mexico, business in Spain is often obtained as a result of personal relationships. While the relationship building process takes time, it is imperative to gain such relationships if you are to be effective in Spain. Also, you must be very selective when choosing your Spanish representative, as it is extremely difficult to change to another person.

Be prepared for chaotic business negotiations. Often numerous people will be speaking simultaneously. Negotiations are usually an extremely long and arduous task, so do not be in a rush to close a deal in Spain. During business negotiations, rules and systems are only used as a last resort to solving a problem. During business meetings, doors are usually kept shut. Men who are close friends will often exchange a hug. Women who are close friends usually meet and part with a small hug and a kiss on each cheek.

A large portion of your communication will take place over lunches and dinners. They are an extremely important part of business life in Spain and are usually associated with establishing business relationships in Spain, so be prepared for your business associate(s) to join you at any or all of your daily meals. When attending a business dinner, be prepared to stay up late. Most restaurants do not open until after nine o’clock, and often do not get active until around eleven! Dinner is usually served after 9:00 p.m., so you may want to take full advantage of the siesta and get in a nap. In Spain business colleagues often dine together, but different ranks within a company do not mix.

Business cards should be two-sided, one side having English and the other side containing Spanish. When presenting your business card, place the card with the Spanish side facing your Spanish colleague.

 

VARIANT 5

Business Culture in Italy

Officially called the Republic of Italy, Italy is located in southern Europe, and has a population of roughly 58.2 million. Italy has much to offer its citizens and visitors. Surrounded by the four seas of the Mediterranean, Italy is famous for its coastline activities. Italy also has a mountain range with elevations over 13,500 feet for the skiing and hiking enthusiast.

Fashions and fashion design are trademarks of Italy. Therefore, in the business world, good clothes are a signature of success. Men should wear fashionable, high quality suits. Shirts may be colored or pin-striped, and they should be paired with an Italian designer tie. Women dress in quiet, expensive elegance. Slacks are generally not worn by either sex. Quality accessories such as shoes and leather goods will make a good impression with the Italians.

Italian history has played a crucial role in the modern business world. Some of their contributions include banking, insurance, and double-entry bookkeeping. “Time is money” is not a common phrase in Italy. Foreign businessmen/women should be punctual for business appointments, although the Italian executive may not be. Handshakes are common for both sexes, and may include grasping the arm with the other hand. Do not expect quick decisions or actions to take place, as the Italian bureaucracy and legal systems are rather slow. Italian companies often have a rigid hierarchy, with little visible association between the ranks.

It is common for everyone to speak simultaneously at Italian gatherings. This applies to business meetings as well as social events. When entering a business function, the most senior or eldest person present should always be given special treatment. Do not exchange business cards at social occasions; but it is the norm at business functions and meetings. Italians often have two different business cards, one with business credentials for formal relationships, and another with personal information for less formal relationships. Italian cards are often plain white with black print.

When invited to someone’s home, bring gift-wrapped chocolates, pastries, or flowers. Flowers must be given in even numbers, except for a dozen (12) or half-dozen (6), especially if roses. If you bring wine as a gift, make sure that it is of excellent vintage, as many Italians are wine connoisseurs. Avoid giving anything in a quantity of 17, as 17 is considered to be bad luck, or a doomed number.

Italian is the official language, although there are many diverse dialects. English is spoken by many businesspeople. Avoid talking about religion, politics, and World War II. At social gatherings, it is considered insulting to ask someone you have just met about their profession. Good conversational topics include Italian culture, art, food, wine, family, and films.

 

TASK 7. Write to an airline, booking seats for an executive who is about to travel from your city to London, where he will be staying for five days, and from there to New York. He will be returning after a week in New York


VARIANT 6

TASK 7. Write a letter from buyers in an eastern country, informing suppliers that certain articles they sent have been affected by the heat, in spite of a guarantee that this would not happen; say what you propose in the matter


VARIANT 12

Business Culture in India

India is officially called Republic of India (Hindi Bharat), is located in southern Asia and is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. India consists geographically of the entire Indian Peninsula and portions of the Asian mainland. To its north lies Afghanistan, China, Nepal, and Bhutan; to its east is Bangladesh, Myanmar (formerly known as Burma), and the Bay of Bengal; Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar (which separate it from Sri Lanka) and the Indian Ocean are to the south; and on the west is the Arabian Sea and Pakistan. India is predominantly Hindu, with 81 % of the population practicing that religion. Next is Muslim at 12 %, Christian at 2 %, and all others within the last 5 % of the society.

The current leadership of India is implementing sweeping changes to encourage international business in India, from privatization to the liberalization of trade.

Men are generally expected to wear a suit and tie for business, although the jacket may be removed in the summer. Women should wear conservative dresses or pantsuits. When dressing casual, short-sleeved shirts and long pants are preferred for men; shorts are acceptable only when exercising. Women must keep their upper arms, chest, back, and legs covered at all times. Women should wear long pants when exercising. The use of leather products including belts or handbags may be considered offensive, especially in temples. Hindus revere cows and do not use leather products.

The head is considered the seat of the soul. Never touch someone else’s head, not even to pat the hair of a child. Beckoning someone with the palm up and wagging one finger can be construed as an insult. Standing with your hands on your hips will be interpreted as an angry, aggressive posture. Whistling is impolite and winking may be interpreted as either an insult or a sexual proposition. Never point your feet at a person. Feet are considered unclean. If your shoes or feet touch another person, apologize. Gifts are not opened in the presence of the giver. If you receive a wrapped gift, set it aside until the giver leaves.

Business lunches are preferred to dinners. Hindus do not eat beef and Muslims do not eat pork. Do not thank your hosts at the end of a meal. “Thank you” is considered a form of payment and therefore insulting.

There are more than fourteen major and three hundred minor languages spoken in India. The official languages are English and Hindi. English is widely used in business, politics and education.

The word “no” has harsh implications in India. Evasive refusals are more common, and are considered more polite. Never directly refuse an invitation, a vague “I’ll try” is an acceptable refusal. Titles are very important. Always use professional titles.

 

Business Culture in Brazil

Nearly 50 percent of the population is under twenty years of age. Despite massive economic problems, Brazil is often regarded as a potentially rich country with a strong industrial sector, large agricultural production, and rich natural resources. An example of its potential for efficient utilization of resources is its processing of sugarcane into ethyl alcohol for fueling 1.5 million Brazilian cars.

In Brazil three-piece suits carry an “executive” connotation, whereas two-piece suits are associated with office workers. Conservative attire for women in business is very important. Also make sure your nails are manicured. The colors of the Brazilian flag are yellow and green. Avoid wearing this combination in any fashion.

Touching arms and elbows and backs are very common. To express appreciation, a Brazilian may appear to pinch his earlobe between thumb and forefinger. Flicking the fingertips underneath the chin indicates that you do not know the answer to a question. Make appointments at least two weeks in advance. Never try to make impromptu calls at business or government offices. Be prepared to commit long term resources (both in time and money) toward establishing strong relationships in Brazil. This is the key to business success. Some regions have a casualness about both time and work. However San Paulo is not one of those, and in Rio casual refers to the personal and social events, not business. In these two cities, business meetings tend to start on time.

Never start into business discussions before your host does. Business meetings normally begin with casual “chatting” first. Giving a gift is not required at a first business meeting; instead buy lunch or dinner.

Midday is the normal time for the main meal. A light meal is common at night, unless entertaining formally. Expect to be served small cups of very strong coffee. In Brazil, restaurant entertainment prevails versus at home. If entertained in the home, it is polite to send flowers to the hostess the next day, with a thank-you note. Be cautious when giving someone purple flowers as they are extensively used at funerals.

Handshaking, often for a long time, is common. Shake hands for “hello” and “goodbye”; use good eye contact. When leaving a small group, be sure to shake hands with everyone present. When women meet, they exchange kisses by placing their cheeks together and kissing the air.

Music and long animated conversation are favorite Brazilian habits. When conversing, interruptions viewed as enthusiasm. Brazilians enjoy joking, informality, and friendships. Good conversation topics: soccer, family, and children. Bad conversation topics: Argentina, politics, poverty, religion, and the Rain Forest.

 

TASK 7. You are a manufacturer of new finishes for passenger carriages. One of your customers is asking for a 60-day bill of exchange, offering references. Write a letter to this company’s referee enquiring a credit rating

 

VARIANT 1

TASK 1. Translate into Ukrainian

Business Culture in Germany

The decision-making process in Germany is much slower than in the United States, and this can be troublesome to U.S. executives. Be prepared for the process to take much longer, as there is often a “hidden” group of advisors and decision makers that must approve of any transaction that is to occur.

Punctuality is necessity in Germany. Arrive on time for every appointment, whether for business or social. Being late, even if it is only by a few minutes, is very insulting to a German executive.

Business dress in Germany is very conservative. Businessmen wear dark suits; solid, conservative ties, and white shirts. Women also dress conservatively, in dark suits and white blouses. Don’t be surprised if occasionally you see a fashion statement with white socks being worn with a dark suit.

Germans are strongly individualistic. The German thought process is extremely thorough, with each aspect of a project being examined in great detail. This process is often very time-intensive. However, once the planning is over, a project will move very quickly and deadlines are expected to be honored. Germans do not like surprises. Sudden changes in business transactions, even if they may improve the outcome, are unwelcome. In business situations, shake hands at both the beginning and the end of a meeting. Additionally, a handshake may be accompanied with a slight bow. When being introduced to a woman, wait to see if she extends her hand. People that have worked together for years still shake hands each morning as if it were the first time they met.

Business is viewed as being very serious, and Germans do not appreciate humor in a business context. In business meetings, age takes precedence over youth. If you are in a group setting, the eldest person enters first. Germans keep a larger personal space around them, approximately 6 inches more space than North Americans do. However, it is not unusual that when in line at a store cash register, Germans will crowd up very close to the person in front of them.

Germans are able to consume large quantities of beer in one evening, but public drunkenness is not acceptable. It is best to know your limits, especially in Bavaria where two liters of beer is an ordinary evening. Pace yourself and eat plenty of food. Typically, you do not wait to be seated in German restaurants, and it is not uncommon to share a table with strangers. However, most Germans will think it odd if you try to initiate a conversation with them beyond just establishing that the chairs are available.

Germans love to talk on the telephone. While important business decisions are not made over the phone, expect many follow up calls or faxes. Germans guard their private life, so do not phone a German executive at home without permission.

 



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