Запомните следующие правила орфографии



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Запомните следующие правила орфографии



1. Односложные глаголы с кратким гласным звуком, который передаётся на письме одной буквой, в форме Past Indefiniteудваивают конечную согласную букву: stop — stopped [stƆpt]. Глагол travel также удваивает конечную согласную:travelled [‘trævld]. Если краткий гласный звук передаётся д в у м я буквами, конечная согласная буква не удваивается: look — looked [lukt].

2. Глаголы, оканчивающиеся на букву с предшествующей с о г л а с н о й буквой, меняют на -i: study — studied [‘stÙdid], try — tried [traid].

3. Глаголы, оканчивающиеся на букву с предшествующей г л а с н о й буквой, образуют форму Past Simple по общему правилу: play — played [pleid], stay — stayed [steid]. Исключение: pay — paid [peid].

I lived in a small town fifteen years ago. Пятнадцать лет назад я жил в маленьком городке.
Caroline went to the cinema three times last week. Каролина три раза ходила в кино на прошлой неделе.

Упр. 1. Прочитайте вслух и переведите:

[d]

1. I lived in a small town fifteen years ago.

2. Mr. Brown phoned you ten minutes ago.

3. They showed us a lot of interesting things at the exhibition.

4. Miss Flynn prepared all the documents carefully and filed them last Friday.

5. I listened to the radio till about half past three yesterday.

6. The doctor examined him very carefully last time.

[t]

1. She typed some letters and helped a colleague with a difficult translation.

2. I stopped work at four yesterday, and fetched my daughter home from school.

3. My sister worked hard at her English when she was at college.

4. I watched television till twelve the day before yesterday.

5. We liked all the singers.

6. They asked me a lot of questions.

[id]

1. I repeated my questions several times.

2. We translated the text into English at the last lesson.

3. They visited several factories in Moscow last month.

4. We tested the machine and repeated the test several times.

5. John wanted to talk to you about it.

6. We were all very tired, and decided to take a break.

Упр. 2. Прочитайте и переведите на русский язык:

1. We did a lot of work yesterday.

2. Jim came into the room, took off his coat and sat down.

3. Last year we went to Italy for our holiday.

4. We met at exactly ten and began the discussion at once.

5. Mrs. Flynn sent them a cable the day before yesterday.

Упр. 3. Измените высказывания, как показано в образце:

Дано: He works at a technical college (five years ago).

Требуется: He worked at a technical college five years ago.

1. We test the new machines at the factory (last week).

2. He finishes work very late (the day before yesterday).

3. She listens to her teacher carefully (at yesterday’s lesson).

4. I answer a lot of letters (on Monday).

5. He walks to the office (yesterday morning).

6. We discuss a lot of problems (last week).

7. They want to go to the theater (last Saturday).

Упр. 4. Измените время действия на прошедшее, используя (yesterday / last week etc.)

1. Jim always goes to work by car. Yesterday he went to work by car.

2. Rachel often loses her keys. She __________________last week.

3. Kate meets her friends every evening. She __________yesterday evening.

4. I usually buy two newspapers every day. Yesterday I _________________.

5. We usually go to the cinema on Sundays. Last Sunday we ____________.

6. I eat an orange every day. Yesterday I ___________________________.

7. Tom always has a shower in the morning. This morning he ____________.

8. Our friends come to see us every Friday. They _____________last Friday.

Упр. 5. Закончите предложения глаголами в отрицательной форме

1. I saw Barbara but. I didn’t see Jane.

2. They worked on Monday, but they ........... on Tuesday.

3. We went to the post office, but we ....... to the bank.

4. She had a pen, but she ........ any paper.

5. Jack did French at school, but he ......... German.

Упр. 6. Напишите отрицательную форму Pastclud:

1. Jim always goes to work by car. Yesterday he went to work by car.

2. Rachel often loses her keys. She ...

3. Kate meets her friends every evening.

4. I usually buy two newspapers every day.

5. We usually go to the cinema on Sundays.

6. I eat an orange every day.

7. Tom always has a shower in the morning.

8. Our friends come to see us every Friday.

Упр. 7. Напишите отрицательную форму предложений:

1. We understood the film.

2. They wrote an answer at once.

3. We spoke about these problems at the meeting.

4. I slept very well last night.

5. You told us about the meeting yesterday afternoon.

6. It took me a long time to get there.

7. They lived a long way from here.

8. She had a lot of work to do the day before yesterday.

9. I had an exam last week.

10. We always had discussions after the lectures.

11. Jack had some problems with his car.

Continuous Tenses

Продолженные времена

Продолженные времена употребляются для выражения «неоконченного действия», происходящего в данный момент; происходившего в определенный момент, или действия, которое будет происходить в указанный момент в будущем.

Говорящий акцентирует внимание на процессе, а не на результате действия.

 
 
Сказуемое образуется вспомогательным глаголом to be в соответствующем времени и причастием 1 смыслового глагола  

 


Примечание: Глаголы, выражающие состояние, чувство или восприятие, но не действие или процесс, в форме Continuous не употребляются. Среди них такие глаголы, как to be, to see, to hear, to know, to understand, to remember, to like, to want, to depend, to peter, to hate, to need, to mean, to believe и др.

Present Continuous

Настоящее продолженное время

Образуется из вспомогательного глагола to be в настоящем времени и причастия I смыслового глагола. Причастие I образуется путем прибавления окончания -ing к основе глагола: go — going, run — running, work — working.

 

The telephone is ringing. Звонит телефон.
You’re listening to the morning news. Вы слушаете утренний выпуск новостей.

Обратите внимание, что действие происходит именно сейчас в момент говорения.

· Please be quiet. I’m working (= I’m working now).

· Look at Sue! She’s wearing her new hat (= she is wearing it now).

· The weather is nice at the moment. It’s not raining.

· «Where are the children?» «They’replayingin the park».

· (on the phone) We’re having dinner now. Can you phone again later?

· You can turn off the television. I’m not watching it.

Упр. 1. Закончите предложения, используя один из данных глаголов:

build, cook, go, have, stand, stay, swim:

1. Please be quiet. I ‘m working.

2. Where’s John? He’s in the kitchen. He ____________.

3. You __________ on my foot. Oh, I’m sorry.

4. Look! Somebody ______________ in the river.

5. We’re here on holiday. We ____________ at the Central Hotel.

6. Where’s Ann? She ________________ a shower.

7. They _______________ a new theater in the city center at the moment.

8. I _________________ now. Goodbye.

Упр. 2. Напишите, что происходит в данный момент:

1. (I / wash / my hair) I’m not washing my hair.

2. (it / snow) It’s snowing. OR It isn’t snowing.

3. (I / sit / on a chair) ______________________________

4. (I / eat) _______________________________________

5. (it / rain) ______________________________________

6. (I / learn / English) ______________________________

7. (I / listen / to music) _____________________________

8. (the sun / shine) ________________________________

9. (I / wear / shoes) _______________________________

10. (I / read / a newspaper) _________________________

 

В вопросах вспомогательный глагол стоит перед подлежащим. Отрицательная форма образуется при помощи отрицательной частицы not после вспомогательного глагола.

What are you doing? — Что ты делаешь?
Is it raining? No, it isn’t. — Идет дождь? Нет.

Упр. 1. Прочитайте и переведите на русский язык:

1.Are you feeling OK? Yes, I’m fine, thank you.

2.Is it raining? Yes, take an umbrella.

3. Why are you wearing a coat? It’s not cold.

4. What’s Paul doing? He’s reading the newspaper.

5. What are the children doing? They’re watching television.

6. Look, there’s Sally! Where’s she going?

7. Who are you waiting for? Are you waiting for Sue?

Упр. 2. Прочитайте и переведите на русский язык:

a)1. Please be quiet. I’m working (not «I work»).

2. Tom is having a shower at the moment (not «Tom has»).

3. Take an umbrella with you. It’sraining.

4. You can turn off the television. I’m not watching it.

5. Why are you under the table? What are you doing?

b)1. I work every day from 9 o’clock to 5.30.

2. Tom has a shower every morning.

3. It rains a lot in winter.

4. I don’t watch television very often.

5. What do you usually do at the weekend?

Упр. 3. Прочитайте и переведите на русский язык предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времен:

1) Listen! The teacher’s explaining a very difficult thing She always explains difficult things carefully.

2) My best friend lives a long way from me, so I don’t visit him very often, but we usually call each other twice a week. «Hello! I can’t hear you. Who’s calling

3) John speaks three foreign languages. Just now he’s speaking French on the telephone.

4) I always drive my wife to work. The road’s bad today, so I’m driving very carefully.



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