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ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Техника нижней прямой подачи мяча.
Франко-прусская война (причины и последствия)
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Смысловое и механическое запоминание, их место и роль в усвоении знаний
Коммуникативные барьеры и пути их преодоления
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Образцы текста публицистического стиля
Четыре типа изменения баланса
Задачи с ответами для Всероссийской олимпиады по праву
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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?
Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Text 3. The Fall Of The Roman Republic
Read the text and do the tasks that follow.
By 50 B.C., Rome ruled the Mediterranean world, but it had serious problems at home. Before the Punic Wars, Italy was a land of small family farms and farmer-soldiers. Wars were fought nearby between planting and harvest. In 458 B.C., Cincinnatus, a citizen farmer, laid down his plow to lead the Roman army. At the request of his fellow citizens, he was made dictator. Accord
However, as Rome expanded, ing to legend, within 16 days he had defeated the neighboring tribe, resigned his dictatorship, and gone back to his farm. wars were fought farther away, and farmers were gone for longer periods of time. Many of them were killed in battle.
The Second Punic War had destroyed Roman farms. Returning from war, farmers often did not have the money needed to begin farming again. Wealthy Romans bought up the land and created plantations run by slave labor, thus putting more farmers off the land.
Many landless farmers moved to the city, but few found jobs. Slaves, captured in Rome’s many wars, provided cheap labor, putting poor Romans out of work. As the numbers of poor and unemployed people grew, the Roman leaders feared that violent mobs would demand a solution to their troubles. Some Roman leaders wanted to help the poor, but their efforts were blocked by wealthy senators. In fact, two tribunes who tried to help the poor were killed for their efforts.
Rome’s large population of slaves caused other problems. Most slaves, who had been free in their homelands, were treated brutally by their Roman masters. Desperate for freedom, the slaves rebelled. In 73 B.C., the slave Spartacus gathered an army of more than 100,000. They fought the Roman army for two years. In 71 B.C., the Romans killed Spartacus and crucified 6,000 slaves.
By 50 B.C., Rome ruled an area about the size of the United States. Rapid expansion brought about change in the Republic. The small farm society had changed, the gap between rich and poor had grown, and the slave population had greatly increased. And wealth from the wars had made Roman leaders greedy.
Dishonest leaders had huge incomes and ignored the poor. The poor, in turn, felt no loyalty to a government that was keeping them poor. Conflicts broke out between rich and poor.
Also, b 50 B.C., the army was made up of professional soldiers, mostly poor citizens who couldn’t find work elsewhere. They were fighting for money, not for Rome. And money depended on victory in battle. Thus, these soldiers were loyal only to the generals, who hired them and paid them with land and money. Power-hungry generals fought one another for control of the government.
One of those generals was Julius Caesar. Caesar came from an old patrician family, and he was very ambitious. In 59 B.C., Caesar was elected consul, but he knew he must win military glory to fulfil his ambitions. He took command of Roman troops and left to tame the Gauls, who still threatened Italy. Nine years later, he had succeeded.
Caesar’s successes in Gaul worried his rivals in Rome. They feared that Caesar was becoming too powerful. They persuaded the Senate to declare Caesar a public enemy.
The Senate ordered Caesar to return to Rome without his troops. But Caesar feared that if he did, his life would be in great danger. Instead, he decided to lead his troops to Rome.
On January 11, 49 B.C., Caesar and his army crossed the Rubicon River, which divided Gaul and Italy. Since it was treason for a general to leave his assigned province and bring his army to Rome, this was a serious action. Caesar knew he must win or die.
Civil war broke out and lasted for three years. Eventually, Caesar defeated his rival, Pompey, and in 46 B.C. declared himself dictator. A dictatoris ruler who has absolute power.
Earlier Roman dictators had been chosen by the city officials only for emergencies. The citizen farmer, Lucius Cincinnatus, you recall, resigned 16 days after saving the city. When Caesar made himself dictator for life, he ended the Republican system.
Ex. 1.Match the words in column A with their definitions in column B.
Ex. 2.Fill in the following prepositions: down, at, of by, out of, for, between, to.
1. In 458 B.C., Cincinnatus, a citizen farmer, laid … his plow to lead the Roman army.
2. … the request … his fellow citizens, he was made dictator.
3. Wealthy Romans bought up the land and created plantations run … slave labor.
4. Slaves provided cheap labor, putting poor Romans … … work.
5. Most slaves were treated brutally … their Roman masters.
6. Desperate … freedom, the slaves rebelled.
7. The small farm society had changed, the gap … rich and poor grew.
8. Caesar took command … Roman troops and left to tame the Gauls.
9. It was treason … a general to leave his assigned province and bring his army … Rome.
10. Earlier Roman dictators had been chosen by the city officials only … emergencies.
Ex. 1.Answer the following questions.
1. What problems did Rome have at home?
2. What change did rapid expansion bring about in the Republic?
3. What situation was in the army?
4. Who (What) was Julius Caesar?
5. Why did the Senate declare Caesar a public enemy?
6. Did Caesar obey the Senate’s order? Why?
7. What ended the Republican system in Rome?
Ex. 2.Discuss the following point.
Caesar crossed the Rubicon Rives during his return to Rome. Today, we use the expression “crossing the Rubicon” as a figure of speech. What does it mean? Have you ever crossed a Rubicon?
Text 4. Greece and Rome
Read the text and do the tasks that follow.
Although we conquered Greece, she conquered us: “She brought Art to rustic Rome”, wrote Horace, the great Roman poet, in about 35 B.C. Many Roman citizens agreed with him. The Romans may have triumphed militarily over Greece in 146 B.C. However, the resulting close contact with Greek culture dramatically changed many parts of Roman life. Greek ideas, art, and customs all were to become an important part of the Roman heritage.
The Greek roots of Roman culture run deep. As early as the 600s B.C., Greece had established powerful colonies in southern Italy and Sicily. Greek culture spread quickly as Greek merchants traded Greek goods, such as fine pottery and metalwork, with neighboring peoples. By the 200s B.C., the Greek epic the Odyssey had been translated into Latin.
Greek influence grew even more when the two cultures came into greater contact after Rome’s conquest of Greece. Victorious Roman troops brought Greek statues and painting back to Rome, where they were admired and copied. Greek scholars were brought to Rome as slaves to teach wealthy Roman children.
In fact, Greek culture influenced Roman culture so much that the result is called Greco-Roman culture. With the growth of the Roman Republic, Greco-Roman culture spread throughout the Mediterranean world.
The Romans borrowed heavily from the Greeks. They worshiped Greek gods and gave them Roman names. The Greek god Zeus, ruler of the gods, became the Roman god Jupiter; Aphrodite, goddess of love, became Venus; Ares, the god of war, became Mars.
Roman writers often turned to the Greeks for inspiration. The Roman poet Virgil began to write the Aeneid, his epic poem, as the Trojan War was ending. This is where the Greek epic closes.
In the Aeneid, a Trojan hero known as Aeneas escapes from the Greeks and sails to Italy. It is then Aeneas’s descendant, Romulus, who found the city of Rome. In this way, Virgil links one of the central myths of Greek culture with the birth of Rome.
In architecture, the Romans adopted basic Greek forms. A number of Roman temples, for example, have columns surrounding the main structure, just as most Greek temples do.
Many Romans, including Horace, were not pleased that Greek culture was so widely admired and imitated in Rome. One of the most vocal critics was a well-known Roman senator of the 100s B.C., Cato the Elder.
Cato, who had a great love for Rome, feared that Greek ideas would make the Romans weak. The Romans did borrow very heavily from Greek culture. However, they also created many original works of their own.
The Greeks were inventive, bringing out new ideas and new art forms. The Romans were practical, using and adapting whatever ideas and forms suited their needs. The early Romans were bent on expansion, and they mastered the skills necessary for building and governing and empire. Among these skills were military organization, legal administration, and special engineering ability.
The Roman army was one of the greatest military forces the world has ever seen. Before the Romans, most armies triumphed over their enemies simply by outnumbering them. The Roman army, however, won its victories mainly of its determination and discipline.
Although the early Republic relied on citizen-farmers, after about 100 B.C., Rome began to build a full-time army. Roman soldiers enlisted for periods of up to 20 years. They became hardened by years of fighting.
The Roman army was well organized with a strict chain of command. The army was divided into legions of 6,000 men each. Each legion was a self-contained unit with all the workers necessary to supply the army during long campaigns. Arrow makers, nurses, and engineers traveled with the soldiers. Thus the army could wage long battles without returning to Rome for supplies.
The Roman army was also unusually good at adapting to changing conditions. Specially trained troops of skilled archers, spear throwers, or horse riders could be called into battle.
In contrast, most Greek city-states (except for Sparta) had small armies of citizens, not professional soldiers. These armies served only when needed.
To unify and control their huge Republic, the Roman built more than 50,000 miles of roads – many of them paved with stone. With the paved roads, both messengers and troops could race to remote Roman provinces in case of enemy attack. The network of road was also a great help to trade and communication.
Roman roads were built so well that some are still in use. In the city of Rome, honking cars and buses filled with commuters and sightseers clatter over the Appian Way, one of the very first Roman roads, built in 312 B.C.
In contrast, the mountainous countryside of Greece made road-building difficult. Since no part of their country was very far from the sea, the Greeks turned to it instead. Sea lanes became Greek highways.
Romans also used their engineering skills to perfect the arch they had inherited from the Etruscans. In addition, they invented a new building material – concrete. Concrete is long-lasting, but compared to stone, lightweight. With arches and concrete, the Romans were able to build huge public works – bridges, aqueducts, and stadiums.
Among the engineering skills developed by Roman builders was surveying.
Romans used arches and concrete to build huge bridgelike structures. These aqueductswere built to carry water from mountain springs to the public fountains and baths in nearby cities. One of the longest of these supplied water to the Roman city of Carthage. It ran for more than 50 miles from its source in the mountains to the city.
Roman laws were first written as the Twelve Tables in 450 B.C. Over time, the Roman developed a legal system with courts, judges, and lawyers. Judges based their decisions on common sense, fairness, and individual rights.
The Athenian system of justice was more direct. There were no judges or lawyers. Instead, the accused and accuser argued their own cases before the assembly, which acted as a jury.
As the Romans extended citizenship to a conquered people, they spread their legal system throughout the Mediterranean world. Roman law is the origin of modern-day legal systems in many parts of the world.
The Romans owed much to Greek culture. Yet in practical matters, such as military organization, engineering, and legal administration, the Romans made their own mark on the world.
Ex. 1.Match the words in column A with their derivates in column B.
Ex. 2.Complete the sentences, use the words and expressions from the text.
1. “She (Greece) brought Art to … Rome”, wrote Horace.
2. Greek ideas, art, and customs all were to become an important part of the Roman … .
3. Greek merchants traded Greek goods, such as fine … and metalwork, with neighboring peoples.
4. Roman writers often turned to the Greeks for … .
5. This is where the Greek … closes.
6. It is then Aeneas’s … , Romulus, who found the city of Rome.
7. A number of Roman … have columns surrounding the main structure, just as most Greek … do.
8. The Greeks were inventive, … … new ideas and new art forms.
9. The early Romans were … … expansion.
10. Among these skills were military organization, legal administration, and special … … .
11. Before the Romans, most armies triumphed over their enemies simply by … them.
12. The Roman army, however, won its victories mainly of its … and discipline.
13. The early Republic relied on citizen-farmer.
14. Each legion was a … unit with all the workers necessary to supply the army.
15. With the … roads, both messengers and troops could race to remote Roman provinces … … … enemy attack.
16. … is long-lasting, but compared to stone, lightweight.
17. Among the engineering skills developed by Roman builders was … .
Words for reference: surveying, pared, concrete, self-contained, rustic, heritage, pottery, inspiration, epic, descendant, bringing out, bent on, engineering, ability, out numbering, temples, determination, relied on.
Ex. 1. Answer the following questions.
1. How strong was Greece’s influence on Rome?
2. Name two ways Greek culture influenced Roman culture.
3. Why did some Romans fear Greek culture?
4. What is Greco-Roman culture?
5. Why is the Roman army considered one of the greatest military forces the world has ever seen?
6. At what skills did the Romans excel?
7. How did Roman engineers use the environment to meet the needs of the Republic?
8. How did the Romans develop a legal system?
Ex. 2.Speak on the following points.
1. Do you think the Greeks “conquered” the Romans? Explain your answer.
2. Describe the ways Roman genius has benefited the world. Give concrete examples.
Ex. 1.Translation the text into Russian
The Birth of Rome
Down the river floated a tiny reed basket carrying two babies, left to die. The basket came ashore at the foot of a hill. There a wolf found the crying orphans and cared for them. Later, a shepherd came upon the children and took them home to raise as his own. They were twin boys, and he named them Romulus and Remus.
Years later, the two brothers decided to build a city. This would be a city where others who were homeless, as they once were, could come to live. But the brothers argued where to build the city.
One night Romulus and Remus agreed to watch for an omen,a sign from the gods, to settle their argument. At dawn, Remus saw six vultures flying overhead. However, as the sun rose higher in the sky, Romulus saw 12 vultures.
The brothers quarreled over the meaning of the omens, and in a rage, Romulus killed Remus. He then began to build his city on the spot he had chosen – the hill where the tiny basket containing the two babies had come to rest years before. He named his new city after himself – Rome.
Much of the early history of Rome comes to us in the form of legends, like the story of Romulus and Remus. Though they are not historically accurate, legends are useful. They tell us what qualities people admired and the values they wished to pass on to future generations.
According to legend, Rome was founded in 753 B.C., and Romulus was the first of seven kings. He was believed to be a great warrior-king and is credited with starting Rome’s first army and its first government.
Rome’s second king was Numa Pompilius. He brought peace to Rome and, according to legend founded the Roman religion.
The early kings were advised by a Senate(from the Latin word for “old men”), a council of elders from Rome’s leading families. A citizens’ assembly voted on decisions made by the king and the Senate.
At the time of the early kings government and religion were closely linked. The king was also the chief priest. He chose other priests from members of the Senate. In addition, the king and his priests performed religious duties and interpreted omens.
During the rule of the early Roman kings, Rome’s powerful neighbors to the north, the Etruscans, were expanding their territory, Etruria. The Etruscans traded in the western Mediterranean and had established many wealthy city-states in northern Italy. About 575 B.C., the Etruscans moved into Rome. Etruscan kings ruled Rome for the next 66 years.
The Etruscans had an older, more advanced civilization. Rome made rapid progress under their influence. The Etruscans introduced their alphabet and taught the Romans new building techniques, including the use of the arch.
Under the Etruscan kings, Rome grew from a village of straw-roofed huts into a walled city with paved streets. During this time, the Romans began a tradition of great building that eventually far surpassed that of their teachers. The Romans built the Circus Maximus, an arena that seated thousands, and the Temple of Jupiter in honor of their highest god. They also built the Cloaca Maxima, a sewer that is still in use today. The sewer drained a marshy valley that became the Forum.
Rome flourished under the Etruscans, until Tarquin the Proud, the seventh and last Roman kings, came to power. He was a cruel ruler who ignored the Senate and terrorized the people. In 509 B.C., the people rebelled against him and finally sent him into exile. Never again would Romans be ruled by a king.
1. What internal and external struggles occurred during the rise of the Roman Republic?
2. What were the differences between patricians and plebeians in the early Republic?
3. What were the major steps in the plebeians’ struggle for greater rights?
4. How was the government of the Roman Republic organized?
5. What made the Romans successful Conquerors?
6. How was Rome able to control the Mediterranean world?
7. What were the Punic Wars?
8. What problems did Rome have at home?
9. Who was Julius Caesar?
10. How strong was Greece's influence on Rome?
11. At what skills did the Romans excel?
Summarize the information from the Unit 3 and be ready to speak on the following points.
1. The rise of the Republic.
a) Patricians and plebeians
b) Struggle for rights
c) Roman government
2. Overseas expansion.
a) The Punic Wars
b) Control of eastern Mediterranean
c) Trouble at home
d) The Fall of the Roman republic
3. Greco-Roman culture.
Text 5. The Early Empire
Read the text and do the tasks that follow.
Caesar had seized control of the government of the Roman world in 49 B.C., making himself dictator for life. As dictator, Caesar seemed to have little respect for the constitution. According to the constitution, a Roman leader was supposed to share power with the senators. But many senators thought Caesar acted as if he were above the law. They thought he treated them as servants. They saw his behavior as haughty and insulting. Many began to think of him as both a personal enemy and an enemy of the Roman Republic.
Senators and other Roman citizens whispered among themselves that Caesar intended to make himself king. If he did so, he could establish a dynasty. His family line would rule the Roman world even after his death, and the Senate would then have no role in choosing the next leader. Outraged, more than 60 senators met secretly. They planned how they would assassinate Caesar – murder him for political reasons. One leader of the group was Brutus, the so-called friend of Caesar.
When Brutus and his men killed Caesar on the ides of March, they thought had saved the Republic. But by the end of that day, the assassins had to hide from angry mobs of Romans citizens. Many were outraged by Caesar’s murder. Caesar was well liked because he made many reforms that improved people’s lives. For example, he reorganized the government and lowered taxes. He founded new colonies and gave people land to farm. He hired people to build temples and public buildings. He made citizens of many people in the colonies.
A power struggle followed Caesar’s death. Caesar’s adopted son Octavian was the leader of one group that was fighting to control Rome. He defeated his rivals in 32 B.C. and led Rome into a new era.
Octavian brought peace to the Roman Empire and became a popular leader. In 27 B.C., the Senate voted to give him the title Augustus, meaning “respected one.” He ruled the empire until A.D. 14.
Augustus learned from his father’s mistakes. He continued many of the reforms that had been started by Caesar. He knew that the people wanted a republic.
But Augustus held the real power. He controlled almost all of the military troops. He appointed the most important officials of the government – those who governed the provinces. He carefully avoided using the title of king. Instead, he called himself “first citizen” to show that he was one of the people.
Augustus ruled an empire. He is considered to be the first Roman emperor. The people welcomed him. They desperately wanted peace and order after the time of turmoil that followed Caesar’s death.
During the 41 years of his rule, Augustus built or restored 82 temples. Most of them were dressed in the smooth marble from the quarries that were just opening north of Rome.
Augustus also worked to improve life in the city of Rome. With a population of nearly one million people, Rome had no city services. Augustus created a police force and fire brigade. He set up a department to supply food to the city’s citizens.
The Roman Empire beyond Italy was divided into about 40 provinces, or territories. Each province had a governor, who was appointed by the emperor or named by the Senate. The governors’ work included keeping order and collecting taxes.
Augustus and the emperors who followed him expanded the empire by conquering new territories. At its peak in A.D. 117, the Roman Empire had a population of about 60 million. This was more than one-fifth of the total population of the world at that time.
Augustus’s reign marked the beginning of a remarkable period in Rome’s history. For more than 200 years, the vast Roman Empire was united and, for the most part, peaceful. This period from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180 is called the Pax Romana, or “Peace of Rome.”
Augustus established a new way of choosing emperors. Each emperor chose his successor from his family or adopted someone he thought would make a good emperor.
During the 200 years after Augustus’s death, four family lines, or dynasties, ruled the Roman Empire. Some emperors in each dynasty ruled wisely. Others were cruel or foolish. Each of the four dynasties ended with the violent overthrow of an unpopular or unfit emperor.
Despite resistance to Roman rule in some provinces, the empire remained unified during the PAX ROMANA. However, maintaining unity was a large task. Over the centuries, the Romans conquered vast areas and diverse peoples. These millions of people spoke many different customs, and worshiped different customs, and worshiped different gods. The Roman emperors, though, managed to unify them.
They did so in several ways. They encouraged the conquered people to build cities. They made these people Roman citizens. And they involved them in the government of Rome.
These new cities that the people in the provinces built followed the model of Rome. The city center surrounded a main square called the forum, like the one in Rome. The new cities also had temples for Roman gods, as amphitheater for games, and public baths. These and other public buildings were patterned after the ones in the city of Rome. The ideas of the Romans, their customs, and their Latin language gradually spread from the cities into the surrounding areas.
As a second way of unifying the empire, Rome gradually granted citizenship to people in the provinces. In A.D. 212, Emperor Caracalla granted citizenship to the entire free population of the empire. As citizens, the people gained some important new rights. For example, citizens were protected by Roman law. They could do business and own property in Rome. They could also pass their property and citizenship on to their children.
As a third means of unifying the empire, Rome allowed officials in the provinces to govern their own cities. They collected taxes and kept order on Rome’s behalf.
Rome allowed some of these officials from the provinces to participate in the central government in Rome. By A.D. 200, more than half of the 600 senators came from the provinces. Some of these senators even became emperors. Emperor Trajan, for example, came from Spain. Septimius Severus, who ruled from A.D. 193 to 211, came from North Africa.
These policies of Rome made the people who lived in the provinces feel that they were a part of the empire. Therefore, most of them did not have any reason to rebel.
One of Roman’s greatest poets described the purpose of the empire in this way:
Remember, Roman, that it is for you to rule the nations. This shall be your task: to impose the ways of peace, to spare the vanquished and to tame the proud by war.
Virgil, Aeneid, c. 19 B.C.
For 200 years, Rome did just that. That Pax Romana is remembered as the period during which Rome reached the peak of its political and cultural achievement.
Ex. 1.Vocabulary extension:
to seize – to take possession of (property, post) suddenly and violently;
haughty – arrogant, having or showing a high opinion of oneself;
to outrage – to offend, to insult – to give or allow (a title) smth.;
to appoint – to nominative;
to improve – to make better;
to encourage – to give hope, to support;
to involve – to get smb. or smth. into a complicated situation;
to impose – to force;
to spare – to show mercy to.
Ex. 2.Find words or expressions in the text which mean the following:
1. to murder smb. for political reasons;
2. a respected one;
3. a territory;
4. a person appointed by the emperor or named by the Senate;
5. (instance of) trouble, agitation;
6. succession of rulers belonging to one family;
7. the period during which Rome reached the pick of its political, a cultural achievement.
Ex. 3.Complete the sentences, use the words and expressions from the text.
1. Caesar … control of the government of the Roman world in 49 B.C., making himself … for life.
2. Many senators saw his behavior as … and insulting.
3. When Brutus and his men killed Caesar on the ... of March, they thought had saved the Republic.
4. Many were … by Caesar’s murder.
5. The Senate voted to give Octavian the title, meaning “… …”.
6. He … the most important officials of the government – those who governed … .
7. They desperately wanted peace and order after the time of … that followed Caesar’s death.
8. August also worked … life in the city of Rome.
9. Each province had a … who was appointed by the emperor or named by the Senate.
10. They … the conquered people to build cities and … them in the government of Rome.
11. Rome gradually … citizenship to people in the provinces.
Ex. 1.Say if the statements are true or false.
1. Outraged by Caesar’s behaviors the citizens of Rome met at the Senate to plan his resignation.
2. Octavian had seized control of the government of the Roman word and made himself dictator for life.
3. Augustus learned from his father’s mistakes. He intended to make himself king. If he did so he could establish a dynasty.
4. With a population of nearly one million Rome had all city services. There was a police force and a fire brigade. A department to supply food to the city’s citizens was set up.
5. The senator’s work included keeping order and collecting taxes.
6. The Roman Empire beyond Italy was divided into about the 40 Diasporas.
7. Augustus’s reign was beginning a century of decline.
8. These policies of Rome made the people who lived in the provinces feel that they were the vanquished.
Ex. 2.Answer the following questions.
1. Why do you think Caesar’s assassins might have expected the Roman people to approve his murder?
2. Why did the Roman people welcome Augustus’s rule?
3. What did Augustus do for the city of Rome and for the provinces?
4. What policies did the Roman emperor follow in order to unify the empire?
5. How did Virgil describe the purpose of the Empire?
Ex. 3.Speak on the following points:
1. the assassination of Caesar;
2. the Empire of Augustus;
3. the Pax Romana;
4. policies for the provinces.
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