Text 2. The Evolution of Democracy



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Text 2. The Evolution of Democracy



Read the text and do the tasks that follow.

Between the 700s and 400s B.C., the Athenians developed a new form of government that put the power to make decisions into the hands of the people. This form of government is called a democracy, which means government by the people.

The idea of democracy was developed over several centuries.

Before the Dark Age, the people in the Greek city-states were ruled by kings. A system of government in which a king rules over a group of people is called a monarchy. In ancient Greece, the king of a city-state was also usually the head of the most powerful family.

When the king died, he usually passed on his power to govern to his eldest son.

During the Dark Age, Greek kings began to rely on wealthy landowners, or nobles, to help them defend their land from invaders. Not surprisingly, the nobles began to demand some of the king’s powers. By the end of the Dark Age, a small group of nobles shared power equally with the king in many-states. This system of government in which a few people hold over a larger group is called an oligarchy. This system was a step toward democracy, since a group of men, rather than just one man, held power.

The leaders of the oligarchies improved the government of the city-states, but during the 500s B.C. some city-states had problems of a different kind.

Some grew to be so large that their farmers could not provide enough food. Food shortages caused unrest and discontent. During this period, poorer farmers suffered greatly. Many lost their land to the wealthy and were forced to sell themselves into slavery. The discontent with the leaders of the oligarchies led to the rise of new leaders called tyrants.

Greeks called a leader who seized power by force and ruled the city-state single-handedly a tyrant. Many people supported tyrants because these leaders promised to reform the laws and to aid the poor. The tyrants of Athens, for example, accomplished their aims by canceling all debt, redistributing land, and allowing other people besides the nobles to have a say in government.

The tyrants played an important role in the development of democracy. They taught citizens that by uniting behind a leader, they could gain the power to make changes. However, some tyrants were harsh and greedy. The people of a city-state sometimes threw out one tyrant and replaced him with another.

About 510 B.C., the citizens of Athens became upset with the harsh rule of a tyrant named Hippias. With the help of soldiers from the city-state of Sparta, Hippias was driven out of Athens. But he was not replaced by a new tyrant. Instead, the citizens of Athens chose to share the decision-making power among themselves. This was the beginning of the world’s first democracy.

Several institutions assured citizens of Athens a voice in their government. A council of 500 citizens, chosen at random every year, proposed new laws. An assembly of all the citizens of Athens met about every nine days to vote on the laws. In the law courts, citizens served as jurors. They interpreted the laws and decided guilt or innocence in cases such as that of the navy generals.

All of these institutions had existed before 500 B.C. However, now they were open to more people and they were administered more fairly. For example, the government of Athens paid council members and jurors for their services. Thus, poorer citizens, as well as rich ones, could afford to take time off from their work to take part in the government of their city-state.

Not all citizens of Athens liked this new form of government. Some wealthy citizens believed the democracy gave too much power to poor citizens. Nevertheless, most Athenians appreciated their form of government.

The development of democracy has greatly influenced Western civilization. It also was an important step for the Athenians.

 

Comprehension

Ex. 1. On your own paper, use each word below in a sentence that shows what the word means. Write your sentence as if it were the beginning of a story.

1. democracy

2. monarchy

3. oligarchy

4. tyrant

5. city-state

6. a king

Ex. 2.Answer the following questions about the above-mentioned words.

1. Which two words are words for people? If you could be one of these people, which would you be? Why?

2. Which three words name forms of government? If you could live under one of these government, which would you choose?

Ex. 3.Complete the sentences, use the information from the text.

1. The Athenians developed a new form of government that … .

2. A system of government which a king rules … .

3. During the Dark Age, Greek Kings began to rely on wealthy landowners, or nobles … .

4. The system of government called on oligarchy was a step toward democracy, since … .

5. The discontent with the leaders of the oligarchies led … .

6. The tyrants of Athens accomplished their aims by … .

7. The beginning of the world in first democracy was that the citizens of Athens chose … .

8. Power citizens as well as rich ones, could afford to take time from their work … .

Ex. 4.Answer the following questions.

1. When did the Athenians develop a new form of government?

2. What system of government is called a monarchy?

3. What was the king of a city-state in ancient Greece?

4. Why did the nobles begin to demand some of the king’s power?

5. What is an oligarchy?

6. Can you prove that this system was a step toward democracy?

7. What problems did some city-states have during 500 s B.C.?

8. What is a tyrant?

9. Why did many people support tyrants?

10. Was Hippias replaced by a new tyrant when he was driven out of Athens?

11. What did the citizens of Athens choose instead?

12. What were these institutions?

Ex. 5.Speak on

1. Describe the four different forms of government used in Ancient Greece.

2. How democracy developed and worked in Athens.

Text 3. Sparta and Athens

Read the text and do the tasks that follow.

At the time of the battle of Marathon, Sparta and Athens were the two largest city-states in Greece. Size, however, was about all the two cities had in common.

Unlike Athens, which held on to its Mycenaean culture during the Greek Dark Age, Sparta was invaded and conquered by the Dorians around 1100 B.C. During the next few hundred years, the Dorians took over the region surrounding the city-state of Sparta. They enslaved the former inhabitants of Sparta. Although people in towns near Sparta remained free, they were forced to serve in the Spartan army.

The slave population of Sparta was much larger than the population of Spartan citizens. When Sparta was at the height of its power, its population consisted of 25,000 citizens and 250,000 slaves. The Spartans were concerned about the possibility of uprisings by their slaves. Because of this fear, they built a strong army. In fact, Spartan men spent almost their entire adult lives in military service. The Spartans bragged that they needed no walls to protect their city; their soldiers were the only walls they needed.

Like the government of Athens, Sparta’s government began as a monarchy. However, Sparta had two kings who ruled together. This custom probably began because the original Dorian invaders of Sparta included two tribes, each with its own leader. As in Athens, the Spartan monarchy developed into an oligarchy. The two kings became part of a 30-man senate. The members of the senate were elected by the citizens, who included all male landholders over age 30. However, a person could not become a senator until he reached 60 ears of age.

All Spartan citizens belonged to an assembly similar to the one held in Athens. However, Spartan citizens could not propose laws. They could only vote yes or no on laws proposed by the senate or by the ephors, five government leaders elected by the assembly. Even if the assembly voted down a law, the senate and ephors often ignored this vote.

Although the Spartans had an assembly and held elections for government offices, power was really in the hands of a few families. These families dominated the senate and could control the ephors. A truly democratic government never developed in Sparta. This city-state remained an oligarchy throughout its history.

Sparta’s emphasis on maintaining a strong army shaped the economy. By law, the only occupation a Spartan man could hold was that of a soldier. The people living in the communities around Sparta provided trade and craft items for the city-state. During much of Sparta’s history, the government forbade Spartans to have luxury goods.

Each Spartan citizen received a plot of land from the government. Helots– state slaves assigned to a particular plot – farmed the land. They received some of the crops as wages and turned over the rest to the owner. The owner gave a portion of his crops to the government, which provided him daily meals. If, for some reason, a Spartan could not pay for these meals, he lost his rights as a citizen.

The differences between the two city-states were also reflected in the ways children were treated.

The Spartan government had a huge influence on the daily lives of its citizens. In fact, when a Spartan baby was born, a government inspector came to look it over. If the baby did not seem healthy, the inspector took the baby to a distant cave on a mountainside and left it there to die. The Spartans wanted only babies who they thought would grow into strong adults.

All Spartan children lived at home until they were seven years old. Then the boys had to leave their families to live in barracks with other boys their own age. From that moment on, the government took over their education and controlled their lives.

Although the boys were taught to read and write, their training emphasized physical skills, including running, jumping, boxing, and wrestling. Conditions in the Spartan schools were harsh, and discipline was strict.

Beginning at age 18, young men devoted all their time to the army. By age 30, a Spartan man completed his military training and gained full citizenship.

Although the training Spartan girls received was not as extensive as that of boys, the girls did get a strong physical education. They practiced running, wrestling, and discus throwing.

Although the Spartans emphasized military training, they also enjoyed several forms of entertainment. At religious festivals they participated in chorus contests, with boys and girl singing traditional songs. Dance contests were also popular.

The Athenians valued cultural education as well as physical education. However, only boys in wealthy families received formal education. Upon reaching seven years of age, wealthy Athenian boys began school. Unlike Spartan boys did not have to live in barracks with other boys. They lived at home with their families.

Athenian schoolboys learned reading, writing, arithmetic, poetry, music, and dance. They also devoted much time to athletics. When they reached 18 years of age, they joined the army for two years of military training. Upon graduation, these young men received a shield and spear and joined a reserve force. The reserve force was called to duty in times of war.

Unlike the Spartan government, which trained girls in athletics, the Athenian government basically ignored the training of women. Girls learned crafts and poetry from their mothers.

Because of the rich culture of Athens, an Athenian’s education continued throughout his or her adult life. Athenians often discussed the myths about the goods and the poetry of Homer. They looked forward to seeing new plays at the yearly festival to Dionysus. In addition, during the late 300s B.C., Athens developed academies where wealthy adult could continue their schooling.

The different values of Sparta and Athens produced different cultures. Ancient Greek thinker admired the Spartans because their military background made for a stable society. Although Athens is admired today for its democracy and its personal freedoms, many ancient Greeks thought Athenian freedom made its citizens restless and unpredictable.

Word check

 

Vocabulary extension.

Ex. 1. Match up the words on the left with the definitions on the right.

1) citizens 2) invaders 3) a senator 4) ephors 5) a soldier 6) spartan 7) helots a) five government leaders elected by the assembly b) a person 60 years of age elected by the citizens c) all made landholders over age 30 d) the only occupation a Spartan man could hold e) state slaves assigned to a particular plot f) a person who enters a country in order to attack g) a simple lifestyle without luxuries

Ex. 2.Use these words in the situations from the text.

1. to brag – to boast of what one has done.

2. to vote down a law – to resect a proposal

3. luxuries – things that please the senses (good food and drink, clothes, comfort, beautiful surroundings, smth. expensive).

4. barracks – large building for soldiers to live.

5. harsh – cruel, severe smth.

6. to forbid – to order not to do smth.

Ex. 3.Complete the sentences, use the words and expressions from the text.

1. Size was about all the two cities had … .

2. Unlike Athens, which … to its Mycenaean culture during the Greek Dark Age, Sparta … by the Dorians around 1100 B.C.

3. During the next few hundred years, the Dorians … the region surrounding the city-state of Sparta.

4. Although people in towns near Sparta remained free, they … to serve in the Spartan army.

5. When Sparta was … of its power, its population consisted of 25,000 citizens.

6. The Spartans … the possibility of uprisings by their slaves.

7. The Spartans … that they needed no walls to protect their city.

8. The two kings became part of … senate.

9. However, Spartan citizens could not … laws.

10. Even if the assembly … a law, the senate and ephors often ignored this vote.

11. The people living in the communities around Sparta … trade and craft items for the city-state.

12. During much of Sparta’s history, the government … Spartans to have luxuries goods.

13. Today we refer to a simple lifestyle without … as “spartan”.

14. Helots received of the crops as wages and … the rest to the owner.

Words for reference: turned over, luxuries, forbade, provided, bragged, were concerned about, at the height, were forced, a 30-man, propose, voted down, had in common, held, was invaded and conquered, took over.

Ex. 4.Fill in the following prepositions: in, on, over, by, at, with, upon, to, from, forward to, for, between.

1. The differences … the two city-states were also reflected … the ways children were treated.

2. The Spartan government had a huge influence … the daily lives of its citizens.

3. … fact, when a Spartan baby was born, a government inspector came to look it … .

4. … that moment …, the government took … their education and controlled their lives.

5. … age 30, a Spartan man completed his military training and gained … full citizenship.

6. … religious festivals they participated … chorus contests, … boys and girl singing traditional songs.

7. … reaching seven years of age, wealthy Athenian boys began school.

8. The reserve force was called … duty … times of war.

9. Girls learned crafts and poetry … their mothers.

10. Athenians looked … seeing new plays … the yearly festival … Dionysus.

11. Ancient Greek thinker admired the Spartans because their military background made … a stable society.

Comprehension

Ex. 1.Say if the statements true or false.

1. Cultural education was about all the two cities had in common.

2. Although people in towns near Sparta remained free, they were forced to farm the land.

3. When Sparta was at the height of its power, its population consisted of 250 000 citizens and 25 000 slaves.

4. The Spartans said that they needed walls to protect their city.

5. As in Athens, the Spartan monarchy developed into a democracy.

6. Spartan citizens could propose laws.

7. By law, the only occupation a Spartan man could hold was that of a helot.

8. Today we refer to a simple life style without luxuries as “Epicureanism”.

9. The similarities between the two city-states were also reflected in the ways children were treated.

10. If the baby did not seem healthy, the inspector took the baby to a hospital and left it there to be cured.

11. By age 25 a Spartan man completed his military training and became a slave.

12. During the late 300 s B.C., Athens developed academies where girls could continue their schooling.

13. Many Greeks thought Athenian freedom made its citizens calm and confident.

Ex. 2.Answer the following questions.

1. What were the two largest city-states in Greece at the time of the battle of Marathon?

2. What facts prove that Sparta and Athens went in different directions?

3. What can you say about the slave and citizen population of Sparta at that time?

4. Why did they build a strong army?

5. How did Sparta government begin?

6. Why was Sparta ruled by two kings?

7. How was Sparta ruled when it developed into an oligarchy?

8. How did Sparta’s assembly function?

9. Did this city-state remain an oligarchy throughout its history? Why?

10. What shaped Sparta’s economy?

11. How were children treated in Sparta? Why?

12. How did education differ in Sparta and in Athens?

Ex. 3.Speak on

1. how the cultures of Athens and Sparta were similar? How they were different.

2. how the economy of Sparta centered on a strong army?

3. why some ancient Greek thinkers admire Sparta more than Athens?

4. if you had a choice, would you rather be an Athenian or a Sparta? Why?

Text 4. The Age of Pericles

Read the text and do the tasks that follow.

The Greeks defeated the Persians in 479 B.C., just one year after the invasion of Athens. Pericles then returned home. As a young man, he became well known in the law courts, where he won many cases because of his intelligence and his excellent speaking ability. The Greek historian Plutarch wrote the following about Pericles’ ability: “Like Zeus, he was said to speak with thundering and lightning, and to wield a dreadful thunderbolt in his tongue”.

Because he was a persuasive speaker, Pericles was able to convince the citizens that his ideas were important. As a result, in 460 B.C. they elected him as one of the generals, the main elected officers in the Athenian democracy. The term for generals lasted just one year, but Pericles was elected over and over again.

Pericles set three major goals for Athens. His military goal was to protect Athens. His artistic goal was to make Athens beautiful. His political goal was to strengthen democracy.

Pericles’ first goal was to protect Athens from its enemies. He was determined to prevent another disaster such as the burning of the city by the Persians just 20 years earlier.

The Athenians had already built a strong stone wall around Athens after the war with Persia. But enemies could still surround the city and block Athens from Piraeus, its harbor five miles away.

So the Athenians extended the wall to the sea. The new barricaded corridor became known as the Long Walls.

To protect their city further, the Athenians also built up a very powerful navy.

Pericles’ second goal was to make Athens the most beautiful city in the world. To do that, the Athenians built new public buildings and temples.

The most magnificent of these buildings were built on the Acropolis. The Acropolis was a flat-topped, fortified hill in the middle of Athens. It stood about 200 feet above the rest of the city and covered a little more that 10 acres. Temples had adorned the Acropolis for many years. But the Persian troops had destroyed all of them when they invaded the city.

The most beautiful new temple, called the Parthenon, was dedicated to Athene, the city’s patron goddess. The Partheon was 60 feet high, built from marble, and surrounded by 46 tall, graceful columns. The Partheon was a tribute to the Athenians during the Golden Age.

Pericles wanted to make Athenian democracy even stronger by spreading power more evenly between rich and poor. He said to the citizens of Athens:

“It is true that we are called a democracy, for the administration is in the hands of the many and not of the few. When it is a question of settling private disputes, everyone is equal before the law; when it is a question of putting one person before another in positions of public responsibility, what counts is not membership of a particular class, but the actual ability which the man possesses.”

As many as 20,000 citizens were on the public payroll during the Golden Age of Athens. Everyone in the government received a salary. As a result, even poor citizens could afford to hold office and have their voices heard.

During the Golden Age, Athens was called the “school of Greece”, because it was a center for art, literature, and ideas. In the same speech in which he praised the Athenian democracy, Pericles stated some of the basic beliefs of the Athenians:

“Our love of what is beautiful does not lead to extravagance; our love of things of the mind does not make us soft. We regard wealth as something to be properly used, rather than as something to boast about. As for poverty, no one need be ashamed to admit it: the real shame is in not taking practical measure to escape from it. Here each individual is interested not only in his own affairs but in the affairs of the sate as well.”

The citizens of Athens generally enjoyed a pleasant life during the Golden Age. A typical household included a mother, father, two or three children, and one or two slaves or hired servants.

Everyone in the family ate a light breakfast of pieces of bread soaked in wine mixed with water. Afterward, the father headed down the narrow, crooked streets toward the agora, or marketplace. The agora was a large, open square located near the Acropolis. Beautiful public buildings and temples lined two sides of the square. On the other sides of the square, men debated the issues of the day.

Men also might go to the Assembly or serve as jurors at the law courts. At the Assembly, citizens debated current political issues. Some of these debates were so important that citizens walked into the city from 10 to 20 miles away to hear them. At the law courts, jurors listened to speeches for and against an accused person. Then the jury members cast votes of guilty or innocent. Juries in Athens consisted of between 201 and 2,501 citizens.

In the afternoons, Athenian men went to one of the outdoor gymnasiums and exercised. In the evenings, the men socialized together as well.

While men were in the agora, women were at home. Women were not allowed to vote or hold office. Instead, a woman spent much of her time in a double room called the looming room. There she made the family clothes. Next to the looming room was a small kitchen. There women ground grain for bread and baked the bread in small clay ovens. Preparing bread was an important task, because bread was a staple of the family’s diet.

Women also cared for their young children. Once sons reached the age of seven, they attended school during the day. Daughters stayed home and learned how to do household tasks.

Many rich citizens could have lived in more luxury. However, they believed that their wealth should be used for the good of the whole community. The famous Greek speaker Demosthenes noted that the Athenians made public buildings that “their successors can never surpass; but in private life, they practiced so great a moderation” that an observer would not be able to tell the homes of the rich from the homes of the poor.

One reason wealthy citizens enjoyed a pleasant lifestyle was that noncitizens did much of the work. Two groups of noncitizens, metics and slaves, lived in Athens.

In order to live and work in Athens, metics were required to register with the government and pay a monthly tax. They could not own property in Athens. Metics were allowed to attend the theater and religious festivals, and they had the right to use the law courts.

Citizens looked down on metics as inferior or second-class people.

In contrast to metics, slaves had no legal rights. Most Athenian citizens owned at least one slave. Wealthy landowners often kept several slaves to farm their land, including one slave to oversee the others. Even an ordinary farmer kept one slave so the farmer could be free on certain days to go into Athens and attend the Assembly.

Slaves often did the same jobs as other Athenians, working alongside them.

Slaves who saved enough of their earnings could buy their freedom. Once freed, however, slaves did not become citizens. They could only move into the rank of metics.

 

Word Check

 

Ex. 1.Vocabulary extension.

1. to wield – to have and use smth.

2. persuasive – convincing

3. to fortify – to strengthen (a place) against attack (with walls, trenches, guns, etc)

4. to adorn – add beauty or ornaments to

5. payroll – list of persons to be paid and the amounts due to each

6. agora – place of assembly, market place

7. juror – member of a jury

8. loom – machine for weaving cloth

9. staple – chief sort of article or goods produced

 

Ex. 2.Use these words from Ex. 1 in the situations from the text.

Ex. 3. Arrange the following in pairs of synonyms

1) to defeat, to win, ability, to wield, persuasive, term, goal, disaster, to adorn, salary, to boast

2) to brag, wage, intelligence, to conquer, to succeed, to handle, aim, to decorate, convincing, period, catastrophe

Ex. 4.Arrange the following in pairs of antonyms

1) innocent, outdoor, to allow, staple, luxury, wealth, the rich, a citizen, inferior, freedom

2) superior, a noncitizen, slavery, guilty, to forbid, indoor, secondary, Spartan, the poor, poverty

Comprehension

Ex. 1.Complete the sentences, use the words and expressions from the text.

1. Pericles won many cases because of his … and his excellent speaking ….

2. Pericles was said to speak with thundering and lightning and … a dreadful thunderbolt in his lounge.

3. Because he was a … speaker, Pericles was able to … the citizens that his ideas were important.

4. The … for generals lasted just one year, but Pericles was elected over and over again.

5. Pericles set three major … for Athens.

6. He was determined to prevent another … such as burning of Athens by the Persians 20 years ago.

7. The Acropolis was a flat topped … , hill in the middle of Athens.

8. Temples … the Acropolis for many years.

9. As many as 20 000 citizens were on the public … during the Golden Age of Athens.

10. The … was a large, open square located near the Acropolis.

11. Men also might go to the Assembly or serve as … at the law courts.

12. A woman spent much of her time in a double room called the … room.

13. Two groups of noncitizens, … and slaves, lived in Athens.

_______________________________________________________________

Words for reference: metics, looming, agora, jurors, intelligence, ability, disaster, fortified, to wield, term, goals, persuasive, had adorned, to convince.

Ex. 2.Answer the following questions.

1. What did the Greek historian Plutarch write about Pericles’ ability?

2. What goals did Pericles set for Athens?

3. What was his first goal?

4. What was his artistic goal?

5. What was his political goal?

6. How was Athens called during the Golden Age?

7. How did citizens of Athens spend their days?

8. Who did much of the work in Athens?

Ex. 3.Speak on

1. why the years of Pericles’ leadership were called the Golden Age of Athens?

2. what the roles of men and women were in a citizen family?

3. how a metic’s life was different from a slave’s?

Translation

Ex. 1. Translate the text into Russian.

The economy of Athens

Farming was the main economic activity in Athenian society. Most citizens owned just enough land to support their families. However, some wealthy Athenians owned large estates on which slaves did most of the work. On other estates, tenant farmers worked the land. These farmers leased plots from the owner and paid rent by giving the owner part of their crops.

Until the 500s B.C., Athenians did most of their trading through barter. Using this system people exchanged one type of product, such as grain, directly for another, such as olives. As Athens became an international trading center around 600 B.C., barter became an inconvenient way to trade.

Trade in Athens became easier around 570 B.C., when the government began to make gold and silver coins. People were willing to exchange their goods for coins. In contract to the barter system, the system of trade using coins allowed the purchase of any product.

The use of coins spurred the Athenian economy, and Athens became a very wealthy city. The active trade drew many foreigners, who came to Athens to make their fortunes.

However, wealthy people in Athens usually did not hold on to their wealth for many generations. Foreigners who became wealthy usually went back to their own city-states. Wealthy citizens were expected to contribute large amounts of money to government projects. For example, they might have been asked to give money to outfit one of the navy’s ships or sponsor a religious festival.

The cost of the Athenian government was high. As a result, few families managed to stay rich for more than three generations. By then the family had used up its wealth on projects that benefited all Athenians. This system kept money flowing to citizens throughout the city-state. It also gave work to merchants and craftsmen.

 

Ex. 2. Translate the text into English.

Акрополь (от греч. akros – верхний, polis – город) – укрепленная часть греческого города, размещенная на холме. Известнейшим в Элладе был акрополь в Афинах. Сформировался как комплекс застроек в V в. до н.э.; самая древняя его оборонительная стена датируется II тыс. до н.э. В 480 г. до н.э. был разрушен персами, отстроен заново при Перикле в 444-429 г.г. до н.э. На его территории находились храм Ники Бескрылой, Парфенон, Эрехтейон, пинакотека (собрание картин), туда вел архитектурно оформленный вход (Пропилеи). Павсаний оставил следующее описание афинского акрополя: «В Акрополь ведет всего один вход, другого нет, потому что весь Акрополь – отвесная скала, и обнесен он крепкой стеной. Пропилеи имеют крышу из белого мрамора, и по красоте и размерам камня до сих пор нет ничего лучше… Направо от Пропилей – храм Бескрылой Победы. Здесь, с той стороны, откуда видно море, по преданию, бросился со скалы и окончил свою жизнь Эгей…»

Сегодня акрополь является историко-архитектурным заповедником Афин.

Олигархия (греч. oligarchia – власть немногих) – форма государственного управления, при которой политическое и экономическое господство осуществляет небольшая группа аристократов. Понятие о. впервые встречается у Аристотеля и Полибия при определении формы государственного строя, которая возникает в результате вырождения аристократии.

Перикл (греч. Perikles) (ок. 490 – 429 до н.э.) – полит. деятель, вождь афинской демократии в период ее наивысшего расцвета, афинский стратег 444/443 – 429 гг. Перикл был смелым и энергичным государственным деятелем, талантливым оратором и человеком независимого мышления. При нем афинская рабовладельческая демократия достигла наивысшего расцвета (введение вознаграждения за исполнение государственных должностей, выбор на эти должности граждан на народном собрании по жребию, организация общественных работ, тайное голосование, вывод клерухий). Вместе с тем был сужен круг лиц, пользовавшихся гражданскими правами: закон об афинском гражданстве 451 г. признавал гражданами лишь тех, у кого оба родителя были гражданами Афин. При П. Афины стали крупнейшим культурным центром Эллады.

Discussion

1. What were some of the forces that influenced the rise of civilization in ancient Greece?

2. Why are epic poems such as the Odyssey important sources of information about the Greek civilization?

3. How did democracy develop and work in Athens?

4. Find evidence in Unit I to disprove the following statement: in Athens everyone took part in the government.

5. How was the democracy in Athens similar to the democracy in our republic today? How was it different?

6. How were the cultures of Athens and Sparta similar? How were they different?

7. If you had a choice, would you rather be an Athenian or a Spartan? Why?

8. Why were the years of Pericles’ leadership called the Golden Age of Athens?

9. What were the roles of men and women in citizen family?

Summary

Summarize the information from the Unit and be ready to speak on the following points.

1. The beginning of Greek civilization.

2. The Greek city-states.

3. The evolution of democracy.

4. The Age of Pericles.



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