Read the text and assimilate its information



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Read the text and assimilate its information



In 1939, conflict broke out in Europe. This was the final nail in the Coffin for the League of Nations, which had been set up at the end of the First World War. Nationalism, isolationism, aggression and territorial competitiveness all led to the collapse of the League; it had proved itself ineffective against the whilms of the expansionist foreign policy of certain nations. Yet the outbreak of conflict led some nations to call for a new international security system that would guarantee peace.

On 12 June 1941, the inter-allied Declaration was signed in London. Later in 1941, Winston Churchill, prime minister of Great Britain, and Franklin Delano Roosevelt, president of USA, met on board a ship, HMS Prince of Wales, in the mid-Atlantic and devised a Charter which called for the establishment of new body to maintain peace. On 1 January 1942, the wartime Allies declared themselves the United Nations. This declaration was signed by 26 nations which joined forces in a “ common struggle against savage and brutal forces”.

In the summer of 1944, representatives of the USA, Great Britain and USSR met at the Dumbarton Oaks Conference in Washington DC to draft plans for the structure and responsibilities of a United Nations Organization (UNO). China’s representatives attended the second stage of discussions. The representatives outlined the role of the Security Council as an arbiter of peace for all nations. Nevertheless, The USSR expressed concern about its isolation within the Security Council.

At the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Americans proposed the use of veto so any permanent member of the Security Council could reject a motion. Yet it was not until the San Francisco Conference in April of that year that representatives from “smaller” nations were invited to attend the discussions. By 26 June 1945, a charter of 111 points had been drawn up and was signed by the 50 nations in attendance – the decision having been made to have as wide a membership as possible. On 24 October, the UNO was opened.

The role of the UNO includes:

· maintaining peace and security, using collective measures to remove threats to peace, to suppress aggression and to settle disputes – any action taken should be assisted by all members;

· enabling self-determination and respect between nations;

· achieving international cooperation and solving humanitarian crises;

· promoting human rights.

The role of the UNO excludes:

*interfering in the working of a country;

*forcing a country to take action.

 

There are six main organs of the UN

1. General Assembly.

The General Assembly meets annually and all nations that are members have one vote. Special sessions can be called in a crisis by any member or the Security Council. It is a debating chamber, discussing crises and budgets. It is also a supervisory body for all other UN organs. Decisions are made on two-thirds majority.

Security Council.

The Security Council has five permanent members: China, France, Great Britain, Russia and the USA. They have the right of veto. They are joined by ten temporary members ( six up to 1965) elected by the General Assembly. The members decide on what action should be taken in times of crisis. However, peacekeeping forces can only be used if a minimum of nine out of the 15 members support the action. The action may be either persuasive or coercive.

Economic and Social Council.

The Economic and Social Council has 27 members, elected by the General Assembly. Each year one third of the Council retires. It is responsible for tackling socioeconomic issues including health, education and human rights. It supervises the commissions and agencies which investigate and seek solutions for these problems.

Trusteeship Council.

The Trusteeship Council was responsible for helping nations prepare for independence where self-determination was sought. More than 70 colonial territories have attained independence with its help. By 1994, its function was largerly complete.

International Court of Justice.

The International Court of Justice has 15 judges , each from different countries. They are elected for 3-year term by the General Assembly and resolve legal disputes between nations, not between individuals.

Secretariat.

The Secretariat is the civil service of the UN, its staff come from across the member states. It is headed by the Secretary General who is appointed on the recommendation of the Security Council but with ratification by the General Assembly. The current Secretary General, appointed in 1997, is Kofi Annan.

Since 1948 there have been over 50 peacekeeping operations. The peacekeeping forces are a combination of forces from different member countries and their role is to act as a police force between the various opponents in a war zone. Their tasks might involve maintaining a cease-fire or supervising an election.

In 1948, the UNO adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This recommended standards which all nations should uphold to protect the rights of the individual. In 1949, the General Assembly adopted conventions relating specifically to the rights of children; it stated that children under 15 year old should not take part in wars. More generally, the UN is concerned to protect children from poverty, disease and war.

Member states have been backed up by the agencies of the Economic and Social Council. The World Health Organization (WHO) has sent emergency medical teams to areas where disasters such as floods and earthquakes have occured. Immunisation programmes have also been carried out, so that by the 1990s,WHO announced an 80% success rate in elimination the six main diseases ( diphteria, measles, whooping cough, polio, turberculosis and tetanus) in the developing world. In the 1980s WHO had totally eradicated small pox.

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) aimed to established programs to educate and train people to enable them to become economically viable, and to develop media and communications systems in the developing world. By the 1980s Britain and The USA had concluded the UNESCO was too involved in political issues and withdrew their support.

The Atlantic Charter, Drafted by Roosevelt and Churchill, stated that a United Nations organization had to defend four freedoms:

· freedom of want;

· freedom from fear;

· Freedom of speech;

· Freedom of religious belief.

Yet since its creation in 1945, over 30 million people have been killed in conflicts and over 100 million people have become refugees. Many negotiations have occured outside the remit of the UN – until the 1980s, political groups were based around the allegiances of the Cold War.

Nevertheless, when the UN was established, it had only 51 members. Now 189 nations have committed to its aims. Whilst the UN has not prevented wars, it has often brought about change and cooperation by negotiation, coercion or persuation. Its social and health programmes have brought about speedier recovery from disaster than would otherwise have been possible. Most significally it is the standard bearer for the flag of humanity which its member states are expected to salute.

 

Word Check

 

Ex. 1.Study the vocabulary and make sure you know the words:

Конкуренция; падение; прихоть, каприз; убедительный;

Принудительный; приниматься; столбняк; пока

 

Ex. 2.Match the words from column A with those from B and make up the sentences of your own with them.

A B
1) to break out a) искать решение
2) threat to peace b) разгораться; разразиться
3) settle disputes c) время кризиса
4) time of crisis d) решать споры
5) seek solution e) урегулировать спор, конфликт
6) resolve dispute f) период к-н кризиса

 

Comprehension

 

Ex. 1.Split the text into parts and think of appropriate title for each one.

Ex. 2.Explain what the following names and abbreviations mean: HMS; the Dumbarton Oak Conference; WHO; UNESCO; the San Francisco Conference; the Yalta Conference.

 

Ex. 3.Complete the sentences:

1. … led to the collapse of the League of Nations

2. … met in the mid- Atlantic and devised…

3. On 1 January 1942…

4. … to draft plans for the structure and …

5. At the Yalta Conference in February 1945…

6. … a charter of 111 points…

7. There are 6… . They are …

8. … the Universal Declaration of Human Rights…

9. The WHO has sent …

10. The UNESCO aimed to …

11. The Atlantic Charter had to defend….

12. Now there are … members…

 

Ex. 4.Define the following statements as true or false. Correct the false ones.

1. The UNO was opened on 24 October 1946.

2. The role of the UN excludes enabling self-determination and respect between nations

3. There are eight main organs of the UN.

4. UNESCO aimed to establish programmes to educate and train people to make them free of any regime.

5. The International Court of Justice resolves legal disputes between nations and between individuals.

6. The Economic and Social Council has 27 members.

7. The current head of WHO is Kofi Annan.

8. The UN adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1945.

9. THE Atlantic Charter, drafted by Roosevelt and Churchill, stated that a United Notions organization had to defend four freedoms.

10. There have been about 50 peacekeeping operations since 1948.

 

Ex. 5.Give full answers to the questions using the information from the text and your own knowledge.

1. What led to collapse of the League of Nations?

2. With what did the movement toward the UNO begin?

3. What were the stages of the creation of the UNO?

4. When was it opened?

5. What does the role of the UN include and exclude?

6. How many organs are there in the UNO? What are they?

7. When was the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted?

8. When did the UNO adopt the convention relating to the rights of children?

9. What freedoms does the UNO have to defend?

10. Are there any success or failures during the period of the UNO existence?

 

Discussion

Ex. 1.Work in groups and make the chronology of the UN creation.

 

Ex. 2.Discuss in groups:

a) organs of the UN and their responsibilities;

b) success and failures of the UNO.

Ex. 3.Write an essay on the topic ”The UNO and the World”

 

Translation

 

Ex. 1.Translate into Russian:

NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty of April 1949 Brought into being an Alliance of independent countries with a common interest in maintaining peace and defending the freedom through political solidarity and adequate military defense to deter and ,if necessary, repel all possible forms of aggression against them. Created within the framework of Article 51 of the United Nations Charter, which reaffirms the inherent right of individual or collective defense, the Alliance is an association of free states united in their determination to preserve their security through guarantees and stable relations with other countries.

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization ( NATO) provides the structure which enables the goals of the alliance to be implemented, it is an intergovernmental organization in which member countries retain their full sovereignity and independence. The Organization provides the forum in which they consult together on any issues they may choose to raise and take decisions on politically and military matters affecting their security. It provides the structures needed to facilitate consultation and cooperation between them, in political, military and economic as well as scientific and other non-military fields.

NATO’s essential purpose is to safeguard the freedom and security of all its members by political and military means in accordance wit the principles of the United Nations Charter. Base don common values of democracy, human rights and the rule of law, the Alliance has worked since its inception for the establishment of a just and lasting peaceful order in Europe. This central Alliance objective remains unchanged , NATO also embodies the transatlantic link by which the security of North America is permanently tied to the security of Europe. It is the practical expression of effective collective effort among its members in support of their common interests

 

Ex. 2. Translate into English.

В 1991 году, спустя 5 лет после аварии на Чернобыльской АЭС, в городе Корк (Ирландия) в офисе Компании за ядерное разоружение было принято решение о создании белорусско-ирландской волонтерской организации, целью которой стало осуществление финансовой, медицинской и гуманитарной помощи детям Беларуси, пострадавшим в результате самой губительной техногенной катастрофы 20 века.

Со дня основания в 1991 Фонд год от года набирает силу и новых членов как в Ирландии, так и в Беларуси. За годы работы Фонд внес денежный вклад, эквивалентный 58 млн. евро для медицинской и гуманитарной помощи жертвам и тем, кто пережил Чернобыльскую аварию. Около 12 тысяч детей побывали на оздоровлении в Ирландии.

Фонд разработал 6 программ, которые призваны поддерживать и осуществлять помощь гражданам Беларуси, позволяя им смотреть в будущее с надеждой и уверенностью. Такими программами являются: Отдых и Оздоровление; Программа по Гуманитарной Помощи; Программа по Медицинскому Обслуживанию Населения; Забота о детях и социальная поддержка; Программа по социальным службам; Образование и информация о последствиях аварии на ЧАЭС.

Фонд помощи детям Чернобыля (Chernobyl Children’s Project) получил официальный статус в ООН. Некоторые из его программ частично спонсируется этой организацией. Также Фонд имеет тесные связи со Всемирной Организацией Здравоохранения, ЮНИСЕФ, ЮНЕСКO, БАН, Международным Красным Крестом, Европейским Банком Реконструкции и Развития и многими другими.

 

 


Unit II

OUTSTANDING PEOPLE

Preview

1. Can you name the outstanding people of the country you live?

2. What is their contribution to the cultural, political and scientific heritage?

3. Can we say that famous people influence the course of events in the history of any country? In what way?

4. What is your favourite person in the worlds history? Why?

Text 1. The “Father of History”

Read the text and say whether there is some new information for you and explain why Herodotus was called the “father of history”.

Herodotus (485 – 425 B.C.), Greek historian, called the “Father of History”, was born at Halicarnassus in Asia Minor. Herodotus was thus born a Persian subject and as such he continued until he was 30 or 35 years old.

The family of Herodotus belonged to the upper rank of the citizens. It is clear from the extant work of Herodotus that he has devoted himself to the literary life. It is probable that from an early age he was interested in travels both in Greece and in the foreign countries. He traversed Asia Minor and European Greece, he visited all the most important islands of the Archipelago, Rhodes, Cyprus, Delos, Crete, Aegina. He undertook the long and dangerous journey from Sardis to the Persian capital Susa, visited Babylon and the western shores of the Black sea – as far as the estuary of the Dnieper; he travelled in Scythia and in Thrace, explored the antiquities of Tyre, coasted along the shores of Palestine and made a long stay in Egypt. During his journeys he accumulated materials. Having in his mind the scheme of his great work, he gave much time to the elaboration of all its parts, and took care to obtain by personal observation a full knowledge of the various countries.

The great work of Herodotus has been called “a universal history”, “a history of wars between the Greeks and the barbarians”, and “a history of the struggle between Greece and Persia”. But these titles are too comprehensive. Herodotus, who omits wholly the histories of Phoenicia, Carthage and Etruria – three of the most important among the states existing in his day – cannot have intended to compose a “universal history”, the very idea of which belongs to a later age.

He speaks in places as if his object was to record the wars between the Greeks and the barbarians; but as he omits the Trojan War, the wars connected with the Ionian colonization of Asia Minor and others, it is evident that he doesn’t really aim at embracing in his narrative all the wars between the Greeks and the barbarians. Nor does it ever seem to have been his object to give an account of the entire struggle between Greece and Persia.

His intention was to write of a particular war-the great Persian war of invasion. In tracing the growth of Persia from a petty subject Kingdom to a vast dominant empire, he has occasion to set out the histories of Lydia, Media, Assyria, Babylon, Egypt, Scythia, Trace; and to describe the countries and the people inhabiting them, their natural productions, climate, geographical position, monuments, etc.; while in noting the contemporary changes in Greece, he is led to tell of the various migrations of the Greek race, their colonies, commerce, progress in the arts, revolutions, internal struggle, wars with one another, legislation, religious tenets and the like.

 

Notes:

cannot have intended – не мог иметь намерений

Nor does it seem to have been his object – он также не ставил себе целью



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