Определение значения незнакомых слов



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Определение значения незнакомых слов



ЦЕЛИ И СОДЕРЖАНИЕ ОБУЧЕНИЯ

Дисциплина «Иностранный язык» входит в цикл общих гуманитарных дисциплин федерального государственного образовательного стандарта среднего профессионального образования и составляет часть профессиональной и общекультурной подготовки студентов.

Основной целью обучения студентов иностранному языку является овладение навыками практического пользования языком, что при заочном обучении предполагает формирование умения самостоятельно читать литературу по специальности с целью извлечения информации из иноязычных источников.

В процессе обучения решаются воспитательные и общеобразовательные задачи, способствующие повышению образовательного, культурного и профессионального уровня студентов.

В течение всего курса обучения рекомендуется использовать технические средства обучения и компьютерные обучающие программы, а так же различные тексты, упражнения, видеофильмы, учебные, документальные и художественные фильмы.

По завершении курса обучения студент должен иметь следующие умения:

Чтение:

· умение читать со словарем тексты страноведческого, общенаучного характера и тематически связанные с профессией.

· умение читать без словаря тексты, лексику по пройденной тематике и ситуациям общения.

Письмо:

· умение правильно писать слова и словосочетания, входящие в лексический минимум.

· умение с помощью словаря изложить в письменной форме содержание текста.

Устная речь:

· умение участвовать в несложной беседе на темы повседневной жизни, учебы, работы и знание речевого этикета.

· умение выражать свои мысли в устной форме по темам, относящимся к учебной и профессиональной деятельности студента.

· понимать на слух речь, в том числе фонозаписи, содержащие усвоенный языковой материал.

· иметь представление о культурных традициях и правилах речевого этикета в странах изучаемого языка.

 

ТРЕБОВАНИЯ К СДАЧЕ ЗАЧЕТА

Для получения зачета студент должен уметь:

а) прочитать со словарем незнакомый текст на английском языке, содержащий изученный лексический и грамматический материал. (Форма проверки — письменный или устный перевод.)

б) устно изложить на английском языке одну из тем, предусмотренных программой курса обучения.

Время подготовки – 8-10 минут.

 

ЯЗЫКОВОЙ МАТЕРИАЛ

Фонетический минимум. Звуковой строй английского языка; особенности английского произношения; чтение гласных в различных типах слогов; ударение; особенности интонации английского предложения.

Лексический минимум. За полный курс обучения студент должен приобрести словарный запас в объеме 1000 лексических единиц, а так же усвоить наиболее употребительные словообразовательные средства английского языка: префиксы, суффиксы имен существительных, прилагательных, наречий, глаголов, приемы словосложения, явление конверсии. Потенциальный словарный запас может быть расширен за счет интернациональной лексики.

Грамматический минимум. Студенты должны усвоить основные грамматические формы и структуры английского языка:

Морфология.

Имя существительное. Артикль как признак существительного; предлоги – выразители его падежных форм. Образование множественного числа. Притяжательный падеж. Существительное в функции определения и его перевод на русский язык.

Имя прилагательное. Степени сравнения. Перевод конструкций типа the more …the less.

Числительные. Количественные, порядковые; чтение дат.

Местоимения. Личные местоимения в формах именительного и объектного падежей; притяжательные местоимения; возвратные и усилительные местоимения; местоимения вопросительные, указательные, относительные. Неопределенное местоимение one и его функции. Неопределенные местоимения some, any и их производные.

Глагол. Образование видо-временных форм глагола Simple, Progressive, Perfect и Perfect Progressive. Активный и пассивный залог. Особенности перевода пассивных конструкций на русский язык. Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.

Образование повелительного наклонения и его отрицательной формы.

Неличные формы глагола: инфинитив и его формы; инфинитивные конструкции. Причастие I и причастие II. Герундий и герундиальные обороты.

Синтаксис.

Простое распространенное предложение. Члены предложения. Порядок слов в предложении; образование утвердительной и отрицательной формы. Оборот there is (are), его перевод.

Безличные предложения. Сложносочиненное и сложноподчиненное предложения. Союзное и бессоюзное подчинение.

Определение значения незнакомых слов

С помощью словаря

Для формирования этого умения предлагается несколько основных рекомендаций:

1. Запомните английский алфавит.

2. Запомните в искомом слове три первые буквы (это облегчит его поиск в словаре).

3. Прежде чем искать слово в словаре, восстановите его исходную форму (инфинитив глагола, единственное число существительного и т. д.).

4. Из всех значений слов выберите в словаре то, которое подходит по контексту.

Без помощи словаря

К категории слов, значение которых можно определить без помощи словаря, относятся интернациональные слова, производные слова, слова, образованные по конверсии.

Интернациональные слова. В английском языке большое место занимают слова, заимствованные из других языков, в основном латинского и греческого. Эти слова получили широкое распространение и стали интернациональными. По корню таких слов легко догадаться об их переводе на русский язык, например: mechanization – механизация, atom – атом и т.д., поэтому очень важно уметь выявлять их в тексте и делать опорами для извлечения смысла.

Однако, нужно помнить, что многие интернационализмы расходятся в своем значении в русском и английском языках, поэтому их часто называют «ложными друзьями» переводчика. Например: accurate – точный, а не аккуратный, resin – смола, а не резина, control – не только контролировать, но и управлять и т.д.

Производные слова. Эффективным средством расширения запаса слов служит знание способов словообразования. Расчленив производное слово на корень, суффикс и префикс, легче определить значение известного слова. Кроме того, зная значения наиболее употребительных префиксов и суффиксов, вы сможете без труда узнать, какой частью речи является данное слово и понять значение гнезда слов, образованных из одного корневого слова, которое вам известно. Часто встречаются префиксы, имеющие международный характер, например:

anti — анти: антитело; со – со: сосуществовать; de – де: дестабилизировать.

Определение грамматической формы слов и их синтаксические связи в предложении

Данное умение формируется в опоре на информацию, изложенную в учебниках английского языка для заочных факультетов. Необходимо отметить, что не следует начинать работу с текстом с его дословного перевода. Сначала нужно попытаться по заголовку, по известным вам словам текста и в опоре на имеющиеся у вас знания определить, о чем идет речь в тексте. Это поможет вам в процессе работы над ним прогнозировать содержание и тот лексико-грамматический материал, которым это содержание выражено, поможет определить по контексту значение части незнакомых слов, отыскать в словаре то значение многозначного слова, которое требуется.

Для того чтобы достичь указанного в целевой установке уровня владения языком, следует систематически тренировать память, заучивая иноязычные слова и тексты. Надо помнить, что способности развиваются в процессе работы, что осмысленный материал запоминается легче, чем неосмысленный, что навык вырабатывается путем многократно выполняемого действия.

 

UNIT 1

РHONETICS

Упражнение 1. Прочтите несколько групп слов. Гласный звук указан, все согласные читаются по правилам:

[a:] [O:] [q:] [au] [oi]

part port fir row boy

dark sort fur bow boil

park from firm found soil

car your first south point

large north work mouth toiler

[Fq] [ou] [O] [i:] [Oi]

their go on we look

there pole top see put

where note pot read full

'Mary low box mean good

[q] [ai] [i] [x] [A]

west side hit bag just

bell find hid lamp gun

get white live black come

[ei] [u:] [ju:] [e]

game loop you friend [frend]

grey root cube let

make loom tube text

gate tomb [tu:m] huge tell

eight wound few 'Helen

Упражнение 2. Прочтите слова с трудными согласными звуками: [T] [D] [N]

thin they thing

north there bang

south that long

thich this sting

mathematics with spring

Упражнение 3. Прочтите слова сначала сверху вниз, а потом парами по горизонтали (по строчкам). Гласные буквы читаются по правилам. Помните, что конечные звонкие согласные нельзя заменять глухими:

let led wet wed

bat bad write ride

got god site side

rot rod white wide

lock log

Упражнение 4. Прочтите следующие слова:

west, warm, lid, fint, hay, quick, fling, flight, site, sight, prey, ray, burn, lone, lord, cord, circle, line

 

UNIT 2

INTONATION

Упражнение 1. Прочитайте следующие предложения, обращая внимание на интонацию.

1. I have two rooms, a living-room and a kitchen.

2. My brother has two children, a boy and a girl.

3. My wife like to read in the evening, but I don’t.

4. The boy goes to school, but the girl doesn’t.

5. We have many English, French and Russian books.

6. Are you a student at college?

Упражнение 2. Прочитайте с правильной интонацией и переведите на русский язык.

By chance he drops his axe into the river. Mercury, whose river it is, says: “Who are you crying?” When Mercury brings up the man’s axe, he takes it saying that it is his. Going home, the man meets his friend and tells him about Mercury.

Упражнение 3. Распределите слова по типам чтения.

Egg, bet, on, girl, fine, sole, ice, serve, make, set, pie, term, bird, five, men, pin, big, free, spot, large, part, game, port, born, be, part, home, shop, ill, glad, card, lord, go, rent, miss, circle, like, pin, pale, sport, corn, alert, sit, fifty, side, hot, arm, stone, tree, perfect, type, bus, purse, cube.

UNIT 3

UNIT 4

SIMРLE TENSES

Уровень 1. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present, Past или Future Simple.
1. I (to go) to bed at ten o'clock every day.
2. I (to go) to bed at ten o'clock yesterday.
3. I (to go) to bed at ten o'clock tomorrow.
4. I (not to go) to the cinema every day.
5. I (not to go) to the cinema yesterday.
6. I (not to go) to the cinema tomorrow.
7. You (to watch) TV every day?
8. You (to watch) TV yesterday?
9. You (to watch) TV tomorrow?
When you (to leave) home for school every day?
When you (to leave) home for school yesterday?
When you (to leave) home for school tomorrow?
My brother (to go) to work every day. He (to leave) home at a quarter past eight. The office where he (to work) is near our house, he (to walk) there. He (not to take) a bus. Yesterday he (not to go) to work. Yesterday he (to get) up at nine o'clock.
You (to have) a PT lesson yesterday? — No, I....
15. What you (to buy) at the shop yesterday? — I (to buy) a book.
16. Yesterday my father (not to read) newspapers because he (to be) very busy. He (to read) newspapers tomorrow.
Уровень 2. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present, Past или Future Simple.
1. Не (to turn) on the television to watch cartoons every morning.
2. He (to turn) on the television to watch cartoons yesterday morning.
3. He (to turn) on the television to watch cartoons tomorrow morning.
4.I always (to go) to the village to visit my granny there.
5. I (to be) very busy last summer and I (not to go) there.
6. I (not to go) there next year.
7. They (to enjoy) themselves at the symphony yesterday evening?
8. Who (to take) care of the child in the future?
9. How often you (to go) to the dentist's?
10. We (not to have) very good weather, but we still (to have) a good time during our short stay in London.
11. She (to do) all the washing in their house.
12. He even (not to know) how to use the washing machine.
13. Two years ago they (to be) rich and money (to be) never a problem.
14. You (to think) you (to be) happy in your new neighborhood?
15. When the cabbage soup (to be) ready?
16. The customs officers at JFK airport in New York (to arrest) that young man when he (to arrive).
17. I (to like) to get on with my friends, so I often (to do) what they (to want).
18. When (to be) your birthday?
19. When you (to get) your watch?
20. Who (to create) Mickey Mouse?

Тест
1 Закончи предложения, выбрав правильный вариант.
1. Не ...all the questions at the last lesson.
answers
answered
will answer
2. My sister ...English in a year.
learned
learns
will learn
3. I... my homework everyday.
a) do
b) did
c) will do
4. I... a funny cat yesterday.
draw
drew
will draw
5. Last year I... this interesting film.
see
saw
will see
6. They ...last year.
meet
met
will meet
7. There ...no TV in our classroom.
a) is b) are c) —
10. Did he ...a letter yesterday?
writes
wrote
write
12. ... it rainy yesterday?
Is
Will be
Was
13. ... there much snow last year?
a) Is b) Was c) Were

TEST

(Past, Present, Future Simple)

1. Дополни следующие предложения, выбрав следующие обстоятельства времени:

1. She watched TV

a) yesterday, b) every day, c) now, d) next month.

2. She watches TV

a) often, b) tomorrow, c) two days ago.

3. She will watch TV

a) usually, b) next Sunday, c) not long ago.

2. Подбери названиям времен соответствующие им формы глагола:

1)V1 Vs a) Past Simple.

2)V2 b) Present Simple

3)will + V1 c) Future Simple

3. Подбери английской форме глагола русский перевод:

1) Translate а) переводил (вчера)

2) will translate b) переводит (обычно)

3) translated с)переведет (скоро)

4. Выбери форму глагола, нужную для перевода сказуемого в предложениях:

1) На доске мы пишем мелом.

a) write b) wrote с) will write

2) Мы будем читать этот текст в будущем году,
a) reads b) read c) will read

3) В субботу он ездил в деревню.

a) goes b) went с) will go

5. Употреби глагол в нужной форме:

1) cook

We … very well.

We ... yesterday evening.

We ... tomorrow.

2) watch TV

Father ... every evening.

He ... in two hours.

Father ... last morning.

3) Study

Mike ... at school.

He ... in the eleventh form next year.

He ... in the ninth form last year.

6. Употреби правильно вспомогательный глагол:

1) What... he usually do in the evenings?
a) do b) did c) does d) will

2) ... you write a letter to your friend next Sunday?
a) will b) do c) did d) does

3) Where ... they go last month?
a) do b) did c) will d) does

7. Переведи на английский язык выделенные глаголы:

1) Я делаю уроки по утрам.

2) Мы будем делать упражнение позже.

3)Вчера он делал уроки очень поздно.
8. Напиши по-английски:

 

1) Что вы любите читать?

2) Куда ты ездил вчера?

3) Кто будет готовить обед?

UNIT 5

EDUCATION IN THE USA

Table 1 US SCHOOL SYSTEM

Name of School Grade Age of Students Subjects
Nursery   3—4 Games, songs, creative playing
Kindergar­ten К 5—6 Games, drawing, crafts, beginning reading and writing
Elementary 1 2 3 6—7 7—8 8—9 Reading, writing, spelling, adding, drawing, music English, subtraction, spelling, drawing, music English, social studies, multiplica­tion, music
  4 5 6 9—10 10—11 11—12 English, social studies, division English, social studies, fractions English, social studies, decimals, science
Junior High or Middle School 7 8 12—13 13—14 English, social studies (history), math, science, foreign language, home economics English, social studies (history), math, science, foreign language, home economics
High School Freshman or Ninth grader 14—15 Core Courses:English, algebra, so­cial studies (history), biology, foreign language Electives: Music, art, typing, book­keeping, technical education, home economics, computer sci­ence, drama
Sophomore or Tenth grader 15—16 Core Courses: English, geometry, social studies (history), chemis­try, foreign language Electives: Music, art, typing, eco­nomics, technical education, home economics, computer sci­ence, drama
Junior or Eleventh grader 16—17 Core Courses:English, trigonome­try, social studies (history), physics, foreign language Electives: Music, art, typing, eco­nomics, technical education, home economics, computer sci­ence, drama
Senior or Twelfth grader 17—18 Core Courses:English, calculus, so­cial studies (history), foreign language Electives:Music, art, typing, eco­nomics, technical education, home economics, computer sci­ence, drama
         

 

Vocabulary:

core course — основной курс

a thesis, a dissertation — диссертация

electives — факультативные дисциплины

a residency — аспирантура

a degree — научная степень

UNIT 6

CONTINUOUS TENSES

Упражнение 1. Откройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous.
1. Timothy (to feed) his dog.
2. Mr. Jones (to clean) his yard.
3. Nancy (to paint) her kitchen.
4. Our neighbors (to wash) their car.
5. I (to wash) my hair.
6. Who (to fix) your sink?
7. What she (to do) now? – She (to dance).
8.I(to listen) to the radio.
9.She (not to type) her tests.
10.Why you (to shout)?

Упражнение 2. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present или Past Continuous.
1. I (to write) an English exercise at this time yesterday.
2. My little sister (to sleep) at this time yesterday.
3. My friends (not to do) their homework at seven o’clock yesterday. They (to play) volleyball.
4. She (to read) the whole evening yesterday.
5. You (to drink) tea at this time yesterday? – No, I (not to drink) tea at this time yesterday.
6. My sister is fond of reading. She (to read) the whole evening yesterday, and now she (to read) again.
7. I (to sleep) when she came home
8. She (not to read) now.
9. When I went into the garden, the sun (to shine) and the birds (to sing) in the trees.
10. What your father (to do) from eight till nine yesterday?

Упражнение 3. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple или Past Continuous.
1. I (to go) to the cinema at four o’clock yesterday.
2. I (to go) to the cinema when you met me.
3. I (to do) my homework the whole evening yesterday.
4. When the World War (break), John (live) in Holland.
5. I (to work) in the library from five till eight yesterday.
6. I (not to play) the piano at four o’clock yesterday. I (to read) a book.
7. When I (to draw) yesterday, I (to break) two pencils.
8. We (to listen) to an interesting lecture yesterday.
9. They (to get) ready to go out when it (to begin) raining.
10. What you (to do) yesterday? - I (to translate) a very long article.

Упражнение 4. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple или Past Continuous.
1. When I (to work) in the garden, my little sister (to sleep).
2. When Nick (to return) home, his brother (to play) with his toys.
3. When mother (to ring up) home, I (to do) my homework.
4. When father (to repair) the car, Pete (to watch) the process.
5. When mother (to come) home, the children (to play) on the carpet.
6. When I (to get) up, my mother and father (to drink) tea.
7. When I (to open) the door, the cat (to sit) on the table.
8. While I (to wash) the floor, I (to find) my gold earring.
9. He (to turn off) the electricity when I (to listen to) the radio.
10. She (to look) out of the window when I (to see) her.

Упражнение 5. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple или Past Continuous.
1. Father (to watch) TV at ten o’clock yesterday.
2. I (to go) to bed at nine o’clock yesterday.
3. I (to finish) my homework at nine o’clock yesterday.
4. I (to play) the piano at five o’clock yesterday.
5. He (to begin) to do his homework at four o’clock yesterday.
6. She (to wash) the floor at four o’clock yesterday.
7. He (to get) up at 7 yesterday.
8. She (to fall) asleep at 11 yesterday.
9. Mother (to drink) tea at 11 yesterday.
10. They (to meet) at the street 2 hours ago.

Упражнение 6. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в одном из будущих времен: Future Simple, Future Continuous.
1. I (to do) my homework at six o’clock tomorrow.
2. When I get home tomorrow, my family (to have) supper.
3.When you come to my place tomorrow, I (to read) your book.
4. Don’t call on us tonight! We (to pack).
5. I (not to go) to the cinema tomorrow. I (to watch) TV the whole evening.
6. What you (to do) at eight tomorrow?
7. You (to play) volleyball tomorrow?
8. When we arrive in St.-Petersburg, it probably (to rain).
9. When you (to go) to see your friend next time?
10. I (to wait) for you when you (to come).

Упражнение 7.
Переведите предложения на английский язык.
1. Приходи сегодня, я буду ждать.
2. Где он сейчас работает?
3. Кто-нибудь читает эту газету? Я хочу ее взять.
4. Он вошел в комнату, где его ждал экзаменатор.
5. Ты увидишь ее сегодня в институте?
6. Звонок раздался, когда я заканчивала писать сочинение.
7. Ты что, целую библиотеку несешь в портфеле? Он очень тяжелый.
8. Почему вы в свитере и брюках?
9. Интересно, над чем ты смеешься?
10. Он живет со своими родителями сейчас. Я думаю, он ищет работу.

 

UNIT 7

EDUCATION IN RUSSIA

The Russian children usually start to go to school when they are seven years old. First the children learn at the elementary school. They visit the elementary school for four years. The children get there the elementary education. It means they learn to count, to read and to write. In the most schools the children also learn a foreign language beginning from the second form.

The fifth form means the beginning of the secondary education. The children learn different subjects, for example Biology, Literature, Chemistry, Physics, Informatics. In Russia the nine-year basic incomplete secondary education is compulsory. After that the children have to decide what they will do from now forth. On the one hand, they can continue their schooling and get the complete eleven-year secondary education. On the other hand, they can enter a college giving them the complete secondary education and trade training. After graduating from college the young people became financially independent and can start to work.

Currently there are different types of schools in Russia. The children and their parents can choose a regular school, a school with advanced study of some subject, a private school. Private schools in Russia are always fee-paying.

After graduating from school or college our young people can enter universities or institutes, where they get higher education.

UNIT 8

UNIT 9

 

Упражнение 1.
В следующих предложениях измените время глагола на Present Perfect. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Look! Someone is coming up to the back door.
2. My friend is helping me to solve a difficult problem.
3. I am learning a poem.
4. She is telling them an interesting story.
5. Kate is sweeping the floor.
6. The waiter is putting a bottle of lemonade in front of him.
7. The students are writing a dictation.
8. They are having tea.
9. I am buying milk for milk shakes.
10. You are putting the dishes on the table.

Упражнение 2.
Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple или Past Perfect.
1. By two o’clock the teacher (to examine) all the students.
2. On my way to school I (to remember) that I (tо leave) my report at home.
3. All my friends (to be) glad to hear that I (to pass) all the examinations successfully.
4. Poor Oliver was lying unconscious on the spot where Sikes (to leave) him.
5. By the time we (to come) to see him, he (to return) home.
6. When they (to enter) the hall, the performance already (to begin).
7. Where you (to work) before you (to enter) the University?
8. Lanny (to say) that he (to get) his education in Cape Town.
9. When I came home, my mother (to tell) me she (to receive) a letter.
10. She (to think) Gert and Lanny (to quarrel).

Упражнение 3.
Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в одном из будущих времен.
1. I (to do) my homework by 6 tomorrow.
2. I (to do) all my work by the time you come.
3. You (to repair) this car by next Sunday?
4. You (to come) to my place tomorrow?
5. She (to see off ) me after they (to arrive) next time?
6. All the students (to pass) their exams by the end of this year.
7. I (to eat) before I (to go) to the university.
8. You (to give) all the documents for checking by the end of the working day.
9. I (to check up) my homework before she (to question) me.
10. I (to call) you every week.

Упражнение 4.
Переведите предложения на английский язык.
1.Ты съел весь кекс?
2. Что вы делаете? – Мы собираем яблоки. – Сколько вы уже собрали? – Мы собрали пять корзин.
3. Я сегодня делала покупки и наконец нашла тебе новые туфли.
4. Я работаю над этой темой с весны.
5. Секретарь еще не напечатала всех писем, когда я пришел.
6. Дождь еще не прекратился, кода мы вышли из дома.
7. Я вспомнил, что обещал своему приятелю вернуть ему английский учебник.
8. Я пойду домой после того, как закончу работу.
9. Она будет обедать после того, как распакует свои вещи.
10. Я дам вам знать, как только получу письмо от него.
11. К тридцати годам он станет великим музыкантом.

UNIT 10

MASS MEDIA

Classify the words into categories and add some of your own to each category:

Chat show, blog, magazine, sitcom, social media, reality show, web page, chat room, documentary, newspaper, soap opera, tabloid, text message updates, game show, text voting.

Skim the text and choose the most suitable word/phrase to substitute the words in bold in the given context:

1) audiences -a)people,b)viewers,c)listeners;

2) tool – a)means, b)device, c)appliance;

3) current – a)modern, b)real, c)happeningnow;

4) can be classified – a)can be divided, b)can be split, c)can be called;

5) fortnightly – a)every forty weeks, b)every two weeks, c)every four nights;

6) yearly – a)very early, b)during one year, c)once a year;

7) has taken a back seat – a)has become less important, b)has failed, c)has taken a vacation;

8) gadgets – a)things, b)smart devices, c)smart phones;

9) provides – a)gives, b)recommends, c)promotes;

10) participate – a)make parts, b)take part, c)impersonate;

11) booming – a)successful, b)very loud, c)making a lot of noise;

12) to evolve – a)to become different, b)to adapt, c)to develop.

 

Mass media is a term which refers to communication devices, used to communicate and interact with a large number of audiences in different languages.Mass media are an inseparable part of our lives. They have become an effective tool of communication, spreading information, advertising and marketing, as well as entertainment and sharing views and ideas.

Print media include newspapers, magazines, booklets and brochures, newsletters, flyers, billboards, press releases, and books. Before electronic communication was invented, newspapers had been the best way to reach a wider audience. They were the only way people could learn about the daily news. Today newspapers carry all kinds of information from topics related to politics, current events and economy to entertainment, book and movie reviews. In general, newspapers can be classified into three main groups: popular newspapers or “tabloids” which have gossip and no serious news; quality newspapers, also called “broad sheets” which have more pages and serious articles about business, politics and science; and finally, local newspapers which report local news.

Magazines are another type of the culture print media. They can be published weekly, fortnightly, bi-monthly, quarterly, half-yearly, or yearly. Magazines are often more popular and have a longer “lifespan” than newspapers.

All in all the printed form of communication was popular earlier. However, with the coming of electronic media, print media has taken a backseat.

Electronic media is the kind of media which requires the user to utilize an electric connection to access it. It is also known as 'Broadcast Media'. It includes television, radio, the Internet, computers, telephones, and other modern gadgets.

For many people, it is impossible to imagine a life without their television sets, be it the daily news, or even the soap operas. It is a popular means of communication which provides both information and entertainment. This category also includes electronic media like movies, CDs and DVDs.

Radio lost its popularity with the boom of television. But even today, radio remains one of the favourite means of electronic communication. Moreover, it is an interactive means of communication with all the dial-in programmes which give the listeners an opportunity to participate.

Mobile phones, computers, and Internet are often referred to as the new-age media. Internet has opened up several new opportunities for mass communication which include e-mail, websites, podcasts, e-forums, e-books, blogging, Internet TV, and many others which are booming today. Internet has also started social networking sites which have redefined mass communication all together. Sites like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube have made communication to the masses all the more entertaining, interesting, and easier! More and more people are choosing e-newspapers, eBooks, e-brochures, etc. Internet has completely transformed the traditional ideas of communication.

With the advancements in technology, mass media will continue to evolve and all you will have to do is to keep yourself informed about the latest innovations in mass communication!

Read the text again and ask/answer the questions in pairs:

1) Using the information from the text explain the meaning of the term “Mass Media”

2) How did people know what was happening in the world before TV and the Internet appeared?

3) What print media do you use in your everyday life?

4) What is the other name for “electronic media”?

5) What media do you use for everyday communication?

6) In your opinion what new hi-tech communication gadget will be invented in the next five years?

7) Why radio is still one of the favourite types of the media?

UNIT 11

INTERNET-ADDICTION

1. Pros and cons of the Internet.Choose advantages and disadvantages among the given statements

- it can provide us with a huge amount of useful information

- you can find out the latest news there

- you neglect (пренебрегать, игнорировать) work, school, our relatives

- you can’t stop surfing the Internet for hours

- using the computer for a long time can cause headaches and loss of sleep

- it gives us a unique possibility to communicate online with people living in another country, even on another continent

-you can shop online

- you can download innumerable games, music, videos, movies, most of which are free

- your personal information such as your name, address, etc. can be accessed by other people

- … your own ideas

 

2. Text “Caught in the Net”

Glossary solitaire – вид пасьянса custody - опека compound -осложнять cure -лечение     Maressa Orzak, a Harvard University psychologist, runs a special clinic for computer addicts. She is researching computer addiction, which she sees as a growing problem. She experienced it herself when she became hooked on playing solitaire on the computer instead of teaching herself a difficult new software programme, and since then she has studied people whose lives have been taken over by computers. One of them was a divorcee who lost custody of her children when her husband discovered she was neglecting them to spend ten or more hours a day on the web. Orzak defines computer addiction as “a disorder suffered by people who find virtual reality more attractive than everyday reality”. Symptoms include strange behavior, spending large sums of money on computers and software, and even mental health problems, but most sufferers compound the problem by denying it. One of the strategies Orzak uses to treat the condition, based on her own experience of addiction, is to encourage her patients to limit the amount of time they spend in front of a computer.

3. Make a list of signs of computer addiction mentioned in the article:

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

UNIT 12

РASSIVE VOICE

 

1. Перепишите предложения из активного залога в пассивный

1. Nobody has used this room for ages.

2. We will give you the keys tomorrow.

3. Someone is interviewing Dr Johnson at the moment.

4. By the time I arrived, someone had already opened all your letters.

5. We usually talk briefly about the problems of the family at dinner time.

2. Выберите правильный вариант

1. This theatre … (build) over 100 years ago.

a. had been built

b. has been built

c. was built

2. Is your car still for sale? — No. It … already (sell).

a. has been sold

b. had been sold

c. was sold

3. Sometimes mistakes … (make).

a. are made

b. are being made.

c. have been made

4. For the past few days I (work) in Jack’s office, as my own … (decorate).

a. have been working/ is being decorated

b. worked/ decorated

c. am worked/ is being decorated.

5. While my friend … (talk) to me, his wallet .. (steal).

a. was being talked/ was being stolen

b. was talking/ was stolen

c. talked/stole

6. Where is your friend Bob? — - I don’t know. He … (not/ seen) recently.

a. hasn’t seen

b. didn’t see

c. hasn’t been seen

7. If someone … (report) you to the police, you … (make) to pay a big fine.

a. reports/ will be made

b. will report/ will make

c. is reported/ will be made

8. Professor … ( give) another lecture at the same time next week.

a. will have been given

b. will be given

c. will give

9. Look at the dust in here! It … (look) as if this room (not/clean) … for a month.

a. is looked/ hasn’t cleaned

b. looks/ hasn’t been cleaned

c. has looked/ isn’t cleaned

10. The door … (open) and a young lady … (come in). It should be admitted that the door … (open) by herself.

a. opened/ came in/ was opened

b. was opened/ came in/ was opened

c. opened/ came in/ opened

UNIT 13

MODAL VERBS

Упражнение 1. Вставьте модальные глаголы «can, may, must».

1. ". . . you help me with my English?" "Yes, I . . . ." 2. We . . . all have a good rest. 3. ". . . I sit down?" "Yes, you . . . ." 4. I . . . study English hard because I want to read technical literature. 5. You . . . speak English at the lesson. 6. ". . . she go home now?" "No, she . . . because she has much work to do."”

Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, стараясь сформулировать перевод, так, чтобы смысл модальных глаголов был совершенно ясен:

You must open the gate. Our little friend may take these pencils. They can go by railway, but they must go by air. To come to our city may take them five hours. You can find the city on the map of the world. The ship can come into the mouth of the river. You can write these letters and you must write them well. You can see the docks from the top of the tower. Big Ben is a big clock, which strikes the hours, and we can see it from Westminster Bridge. We can translate this English text. When you look at the map of the world you can see many black lines: they are

railway lines. I must study this book. I want it for my special work. You may take my pen. Children, you must listen well.

Упражнение 3. Заполните пропуски в ниже приведенных предложениях одним из

модальных глаголов, требующихся по смыслу.

1. Tell your son that he … not drink cold water.

2. … you help me? — I am afraid not.

3. You … take this book, I don’t need it now.

4. I am free and I … read you aloud a little.

5. My sister … not translate this article. It is very difficult.

6. I … see her tonight.

7. My father … not finish his work today. He is tired.

8. She … be leaving now.

Упражнение 4. Переведите на английский язык.

1. Вы не должны делать ошибок. 2. Я не могу прочесть этот текст, потому что я не знаю французского языка. 3. Вы можете посещать занятия в институте. 4. Могу я помочь вам по английскому языку? 5. Я должна сделать уроки вечером. 6. Можете ли вы принять участие в этом вечере (party)? 7. Эти книги мои. Вы можете взять их.

Упражнение 5. Дайте ответы на следующие вопросы, используя образец.

Copy the letter now/to do it later.

—Must I copy the letter now?

—No, you needn’t. You can do it later.

1. translate the letters today/to do it next week.

2. send the cable right away/to do it in half an hour.

3. do on business this week/to do it in half an hour.

4. type the letter right away/the matter can wait.

5. telephone the chief right away/to do it later.

Упражнение 6. Выразите запрещение при помощи отрицательной

формы глагола “must” (mustn’t)

You mustn’t do it Вы не должны (вам нельзя) этого делать

to come late to your classes; to miss your English classes; to make noise

here; to talk at the lectures; to read in the darkness; to call him so late; to smoke

in the children’s room;

Упражнение 7. Преобразуйте следующие предложения, выразив возможность, вероятность, предположение при помощи глагола “may”. Переведите предложения.

It is possible that he will go there = He may go there.

1. It is possible that he will come tomorrow.

2. He’ll prolably give you a call tonight.

3. Perhaps she is ill.

4. It is possible that Peter is in Moscow now.

5. Perhaps Ann will go on an expedition.

Упражнение 8. Выразите предположение, граничащее с уверенностью при помощи глагола “must”.

Evidently (obviously) he is busy = He must be busy now.

1. Evidently he is away from Moscow.

2. It is very early. Evidently they are at home.

3. He is obviously in the library now.

4. The children obviously are asleep.

5. Evidently Ann is against taking such measures.

UNIT 14

ENVIRONMENT РROTECTION

The Vocabulary.

1. chemicals (n.) 2. rubbish(n.) 3. acid rain 4. solution (n.) 5. pollution (n.) 6. dirty air 7. recycle (v.) 8. litter bins 9. petrol (n.) 10. illnesses (n.) 11. pollute (v.) 12. filters (n.) 13. limit (v.) 14. oil (n.) 15. animals (n.) 16. soil (n.) 17. survive (v.) 18. control (v.) 19. aerosoles (n.) химикаты мусор кислотный дождь решение загрязнение загрязненный воздух повторно использовать мусорные баки топливо болезни загрязнять фильтры ограничивать нефть животные почва выживать контролировать аэрозоли

Прочитайте текст и выполните тест после текста:

Environmental protection

The poisoning of the world’s land, air and water is one of the most important problems of our civilization. The seas are in danger. Many companies dump chemical and nuclear waste into water. The Mediterranean is already nearly dead; the North Sea is following. The Aral Sea is on the brink of extinction. Half of the lakes in the word are polluted. If nothing is done about it, one day nothing will be able to live in the seas.

Air pollution is also a very serious problem. Because many factories release sulfates into the air. When the sulfates mix with the clouds, acid rains fall and harm all living creatures. In Cairo just to breathe the air is like smoking two packs of cigarettes a day. Mexico City and 600 cities of Russia have dirty air. This causes different diseases. Because of different kinds of pollution every ten minutes one kind of animal, plant or insect dies out forever.

People begin to realize that environmental problems are our problem. These are lot of international green organizations that take care of the environment and “Green Peace” is one of the most active. Many governments are waking up and making strict laws against pollution. Scientists are trying to make factories and plants cleaner. In many countries there are big plans to clean up the water. And every person must do his best to help our planet survive.

1. Environmental protection is an ________ problem:

a. easy;

b. important;

c. pleasant.

2. Factories pour a lot of ________ into air and water:

a. a storage;

b. waste;

c. pollution.

3. What caused the ________ of wildlife:

a. destruction;

b. poison;

c. population.

4. Many rivers and lakes are _______:

a. poisoned;

b. filled;

c. used.

5. Many scientists try _________ ecology problems:

a. to solve;

b. to know;

c. to protect.

UNIT 15

  • How many nature reserves are there in the Belgorod region?
  • What are some of these parks?
  • What plants and animals can we enjoy there?

VORSKLA FOREST.

The Vorskla River is pure, crystal and transparent nj its golden bed. Like knights in shining armour, mighty oaks stand guard along it. Peter the Great banned lumbering in this luxuriant wood. When the Decree on the protection of Parks and Gardens was passed in the early 1920s, the spot received the status of nature preserve, and the name of Vorskla Forest.

Some of its oaks are three hundred years old. They are interspersed with limes, elms, maples, ashes, birches and wild apple and pear trees – up to 500 varieties of trees, bushes and herbs. Wildlife is amazingly rich in this cherished forest – elk, roe deer, boars, raccoons, foxes, badgers, martens, ferrets, hares, lizards, marsh turtles, snakes – and lots of birds.

 

The region has several other nature preserves, for instance, Yamskaya Steppe near Alexandrovka village, 500 hectares of virgin steppeland known as a natural biological museum.

The Bekaryukovsry forest near Belgorod is another unique spot, with its relic pinewood growing in naked chalk, usually as forbidding to greenery as hard rock.

Here, towering trees of a variety which has survived since the Tertiary period shine velvety- green against the dazzling white of the chalk slope. Voronezh University experts keep these exceptionally hardy trees under close observation.

Relic chalk pines are to be seen in several spots in the vicinity – near the villages Arkhangelskoye, Koshlakovo, Logovoye and Churaevo, the Stenki-Izgorye valley close t Novy Oskol, and in the neighbouring Voronezh Region – they are nowhere to be found in the whole wide world.

Majestic as heavenly music is the rustle of these cherished pine and oak woods. We are grateful for their beauty, so let us preserve them for the generations to follow us.

Учащиеся заполняют пропуски в статье о заповедниках в Белгородской области.

There are two main - parks in the Belgorod region. The first nature reserve was founded in our region in -. It received the name of -. This nature reserve protects 500 kinds of -, - and -, and allows people to - Steppe. The oaks which are 300 years old. - is/are protected in the Yamskaya - forest near Belgorod is famous for its relic chalk pines.

UNIT 16

GLOBAL WARMING

Global warming is sometimes referred to as the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is the absorption of energy radiated from the Earth's surface by carbon dioxide and other gases in the atmosphere, causing the atmosphere to become warmer.

Each time we burn gasoline, oil, coal, or even natural gas, more carbon dioxide is added to the atmosphere. The greenhouse effect is what is causing the temperature on the Earth to rise, and creating many problems that will begin to take place in the coming decades.

Today, however, major changes are taking place. People are conducting an unplanned global experiment by changing the face of the entire planet. We are destroying the ozone layer, which allows life to exist on the Earth's surface.

All of these activities are unfavourably changing the composition of the biosphere and the Earth's heat balance. If we do not slow down our use of fossil fuels and stop destroying the forests, the world could become hotter than it has been in the past million years.

Average global temperatures have risen 1 degree over the last century. If carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases continue to spill into the atmosphere, global temperatures could rise five to 10 degrees by the middle of the next century. Some areas, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere, will dry out and a greater occurrence of forest fires will take place.

At the present rate of destruction, most of the rain forests will be gone by the middle of the century. This will allow man-made deserts to invade on once lush areas. Evaporation rates will also increase and water circulation patterns will change.

Decreased rainfall in some areas will result in increased rainfall in others. In some regions, river flow will be reduced or stopped all together completely. Other areas will experience sudden downpours that create massive floods.

If the present arctic ice melting continues, the sea could rise as much as 2 meters by the middle of the next century. Large areas of coastal land would disappear.

Plants and other wildlife habitats might not have enough time to adjust to the rapidly changing climate. The warming will rearrange entire biological communities and cause many species to become died out.

The greenhouse effect and global warming both correspond with each other. The green house effect is recalled as incoming solar radiation that passes through the Earth's atmosphere but prevents much of the outgoing infrared radiation from escaping into outer space. It causes the overheat of the air and as a result, we have the global warming effect. As you see, greenhouse effect and global warming correspond with each other, because without one, the other doesn't exist.

Questions:

1. What is global warming?

2. What is greenhouse effect?

3. What activities are unfavorable and change the composition of the biosphere and the Earth's heat balance?

4. What can prevent the developing of greenhouse effect?

5. Why are water circulation patterns changing?

6. What might cause disappearing of large areas of coastal land?

7. Does the warming affect biological communities?

8. Is there a correspondence between greenhouse effect and global warming?

Vocabulary:

global warming — глобальное потепление

to refer — иметь отношение, относиться; касаться

greenhouse effect — парниковый эффект

absorption — поглощение, абсорбция

surface — поверхность

carbon dioxide — углекислота, углекислый газ

to burn (past burnt, p.p. burnt) — сжигать

gasoline — бензин

oil — нефть

coal — уголь

ozone layer — озоновый слой

to slow down — замедлить

fossil fuel — ископаемое топливо

average — нормальный, обыкновенный, обычный, средний

to spill into — проливать(ся), разливать(ся)

the Northern Hemisphere — Северное полушарие

destruction — разрушение, уничтожение

evaporation rate



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