G. Orwell’s “1984” as an example of dystopia.



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G. Orwell’s “1984” as an example of dystopia.



In the novel 1984 George Orwell depicts a dystopia with his use of a futuristic setting while incorporating the fear of technology. A dystopia is a society where people lead dehumanized and often fearful lives. In a dystopia, life is chararacterized by human misery, poverty, oppression, violence, etc.

Governmental tyranny and an exploitation (використання, експлуатація) of the people are also prominent in a dystopia.

George Orwell depicts a dystopia in 1984 by using a futuristic setting with the Thought Police and vaporization (пароутворення). The Thought Police constantly monitors the thoughts of the citizens of Oceania ensuring (забезпечувати, страхувати) that they will not disobey The Party or Big Brother. This ensures that the currently established government will stay in control (a perfect example of a bourgeois society). If the citizens even contemplate(міркувати, мати намір) betraying The Party they will be vaporized which is where the Thought Police captures the citizen and they completely disappear. No one knows where they go only that they are erased from all memory and databases. He clearly generates fear by using these forms of technology currently impossible to enhance the theme of a dystopia. (Speakwrite and Telescreens at the time the novel was written, were considered science fiction)

 

The main character, fights his urge to fight The Party because he knows what his consequence will be but decides to join the Brotherhood for the common good of all mankind. This is how Orwell places his main character in dissent(незгода) with society to enhance(підвищувати) the overall theme of a dystopia.

In conclusion, Orwell creates a “perfect” dystopia by using a futuristic setting, the fear of technology and by placing the main character in dissent with society.

Actually, his working title for the novel was The Last Man in Europe (meaning, we assume, that Winston Smith was the end of the line for the humane traditions of western civilization), and the decision to publish the novel as 1984 was a late one.

. In the 36 years between 1912 and 1948, the world had seen two global wars, the rise of three totalitarian systems (Russian Communism, German Nazism, and Chinese Communism), mass annihilation of civilian populations, formation of secret police organizations, and the mechanization of warfare—these just to name some major developments. With another 36 years comparable to those 36 years, the scenario depicted in 1984 doesn’t seem so unreasonable at all.

But we must realize that Orwell, finally, wasn’t making predictions so much as he was giving warnings. He saw how in the post-World War II years, the Eastern Bloc countries and the Western countries were settling down for the Cold War. War hysteria was on the rise in the late forties, and many feared that once again humankind would be plunged back into warfare. Orwell shows us a horrible world that he hopes we will never let happen. Such warnings are one of the uses of dystopian fiction.

  • dystopia is usually written by realists, anti-utopia by modernist writers
  • first example of dystopia – “We” Євгений Зам’ятин

 

20. Realism in the English literature of the first half of the 20th century.

Literary realism is the trend, beginning with mid nineteenth-century French literature and extending to late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century authors, toward depictions of contemporary life and society as it was, or is. In the spirit of general "realism," realist authors opted for depictions of everyday and banal activities and experiences, instead of a romanticized or similarly stylized presentation.

Features: (це з конспекту)

  • Constant polemics between modernism and realism.
  • Is influenced by modernism even though realism in English literature has a long history
  • Tried to reproduce the most detail and objective life of the first half of the 20 c.
  • Narrative form is characterized by several narrative ( in order to create an objective vision of life)
  • Their vision of life is more optimistic than modernism ( but they still show a rather tragic vision of life)
  • Satire and dark humour
  • Tragic vision of life – a character realizes he can’t break all relations with society because he is a part of society)

 

Genres:

  • Social novel, psychological novel, novel of formation, fantastic novel, comic(satirical) novel
  • Drama of ideas, mythopoetic drama, social- psychological drama, short story
  • The epic cycle

 

Three names were prominent among the writers who continued the traditions of realism. They were George Bernard Shaw, John Galsworthy and Herbert George Wells (also Evelyn Waugh, George Orwell, John Priestley, Arnold Bennett)

The narrow-mindedness, hypocrisy and stupidity are mercilessly criticized in the works of George Bernard Shaw. Bernard Shaw was an Irish dramatist, literary critic, a socialist spokesman, and a leading figure in the 20th century theatre.

John Galsworthy excels (відзначатися) in revealing the characters from a psychological point of view. John Galsworthy was an English novelist and playwright. Notable works include The Forsyte Saga (1906–1921) and its sequels, A Modern Comedy and End of the Chapter. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1932. The Forsyte Saga consists of: The Man of Property (1906); Indian Summer of a Forsyte (1918); In Chancery (1920); Awakening (1920;) To Let (1921)

Amodern comedy(trilogy) : T he White Monkey; The Silver Spoon; Swan Song

Has 2 Interludes: A Silent Wooing; Passers By.

Of great interest are the works of Herbert George Wells. He is a new type of writer who thinks about the future of mankind. The leading genre of the above mentioned period of time was the novel. He was an English writer, now best known for his work in the science fiction genre.

His most notable science fiction works include The War of the Worlds, The Time Machine, The Invisible Man and The Island of Doctor Moreau.

21. The life and work of J. Galsworthy, The Forsyte sequence.

Life and Works of John Galsworthy

John Galsworthy was born at Kingston Hill in Surrey, England into an established wealthy family, the son of John and Blanche Bailey Galsworthy. He attended Harrow and New College, Oxford, training as a barrister, and was called to the bar in 1890. However, he was not keen to begin practising law and instead

travelled abroad to look after the family's shipping business. During these travels he met Joseph Conrad. From the Four Winds, a collection of short stories, was Galsworthy's first published work in 1897. These and several subsequent works were published under the pen name John Sinjohn, and it would not be until The Island Pharisees (1904) that he would begin publishing under his own name, probably owing to the death of

his father. His first full length novel, Jocelyn was published in an edition of 750 under the name o f John Sinjohn - he later refused to have it republished. His first play, The Silver Box (1906), became a success, and he followed it up with The Manof Property (1906), the first in the Forsyte trilogy. Although he continued writingboth plays and novels, it was as a playwright that he was mainly appreciated at thetime. Along with those of other writers of the time, such as George Bernard Shaw,his plays addressed the class system and social issues, two of the best known beingStrife (1909) and The Skin Game (1920).He is now far better known for his novels, particularly The Forsyte Saga, his trilogy about the eponymous family and connected lives. These books, as with many of his other works, deal with social class, upper-middle class lives in particular. Although sympathetic to his characters, he highlights their insular, snobbish, and acquisitive attitudes and their suffocating moral codes. He is viewed as one of the first writers of the Edwardian era who challenged some of the ideals of society depicted in the preceding literature of Victorian England. The depiction of a woman in an unhappy marriage furnishes another recurring theme in his work. The character of Irene in The Forsyte Saga is drawn from Ada Pearson, though her previous marriage was not as miserable as that of the character. His work is often less convincing when it deals with the changing face of wider British society and how it affected the lower social classes. Through his writings he campaigned for a variety of causes, including prison reform, women's rights, animal welfare, and the opposition of censorship. During World War I he worked in a hospital in France as an orderly after being passed over for military service. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1932. He was too ill to attend the Nobel awards ceremony, and died six weeks later of a stroke.

The Forsyte Saga is a series of novels and two interludes published between 1906 and 1921 by John Galsworthy. They chronicle the vicissitudes(чергування) of the leading members of an upper-middle-class British family.

Consists of: The Man of Property (1906) Indian Summer of a Forsyte (1918) In Chancery (1920) Awakening (1920) To Let (1921)

Themes

Duty versus Desire: Young Jolyon was the favourite of the family until he left his wife for his daughter's governess. He eschews his status in society and in the Forsyte clan to follow his heart. Soames, though it seems he is the polar opposite of Jolyon, has those same inclinations toward doing what he desires. For example, instead of finding a wife who is rich, he marries Irene and then Annette, who have neither money nor status. When he takes Irene to a play about a married woman and her lover, he ironically sympathizes with the lover and not the husband. However, most of his decisions are on the side of duty.

Generations and Change: The many generations of the Forsyte clan remind everyone of what has come to pass over the years. However, as the old ranks begin to die, people are able to change. For example, after a few generations, the fact that they are nouveau riche does not matter as much. This is also the case with Soames and Irene's marital problems. Once they grow old and their children can overcome their parents' past, Soames can finally let go of the past. Mortality is an important issue because it forces people to let go. Another change with generations is the diminished number of Forsyte offspring. Many of the second generation have fewer children.



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