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System of Education in Great Britain
Grammar: неличные формы глагола: причастие 1, причастие 2; конструкции с причастиями
credit кредит, балл
syllabus/ a programme программа
certificate диплом, свидетельство
to enter поступать (в вуз)
Упражнение 1. Прочитайте следующие слова:
[ i] - system, consist of, skills, activity, since, differ
[ i: ] - three, chief, stream, these, each, need, people, week, degree
[ ju: ] - education, university, tutorial, focused, student, graduate
[Λ] - study, plus, among, instruction, number, subject, discussion
[ æ ] - grammar, mathematics, natural, at, have, Cambridge
[ a: ] - apart, far, car, parliament
[ o: ] - according, Oxford, all, for, course, four, law
Упражнение 2. Назовите три формы глаголов:
ask, study, visit, open, discuss, paint, represent, contain, begin, bring, build, do, find, forget, get, give, go, have, hear, keep, know, make, meet, read, run, say, see, send, set, show, sit, speak, spell, spend, stand, swim, take, teach, tell, think, write, understand.
Упражнение 3. Назовите синонимы к следующим словам и словосочетаниям:
qualified, to get an education, to train, a faculty, a system of teaching, a degree, schedule, syllabus, a subject you choose, a subject you must study, the first scientific degree, the second scientific degree, elementary, to carry on scientific work, to finish, a student who studies all the time, a student who works and studies.
Упражнение 4. Назовите антонимы к следующим словосочетаниям:
profound knowledge, to enter, capable, an elective course, a full-time student, higher education, to be equal, a first-year student.
Упражнение 5. Прочитайте вслух и переведите на русcкий язык следующие словосочетания:
to apply one's knowledge in practice; profound knowledge; to carry on research work; to study at a higher school, to be a full-time student, a schedule, a tutorial system, the tuition, a tutor, to enter, to graduate from, a graduate, a certificate, an academic year.
Упражнение 6. Подберите определения к словам:
Text . The System of Education in Great Britain
The educational system in Great Britain is divided into three parts: primary, secondary and higher education.
Primary education consists of the infant school for children aged 5-7 and the junior school for children aged 8-11. At the age of 11 the pupils take the 11-plus examination, and according to the results of the test the pupils are sent to one of the main types of secondary schools – grammar, technical, modern or comprehensive.
The Higher Education in Great Britain is represented by the colleges and universities. All British universities are private. The British universities can be divided into 3 main groups: the old universities; the redbrick universities which include all the provincial universities of the 1850-1930, as well as London University; the new universities founded since the Second World War.
In the group of old universities Oxford (1167) and Cambridge (1209) are the oldest ones (Oxbridge). A number of well-known scientists and writers were educated in Cambridge (Newton, Darwin, Byron, etc). These two universities differ greatly from all the others in general organization, methods of instructions, syllabuses, traditions, history, etc. They are based on colleges (law, natural science, economy, agriculture, education, etc).
Apart from lectures teaching is carried out by tutorial system. This is a system of individual tuition, each tutor being responsible for the progress of the students.
The typical academic programme for university students in Great Britain is composed of a varying number of courses or subjects. The academic obligations for each subject fall into three broad types, lectures, tutorials and examinations. Lectures often outline the general scope and the particular specialisation of the lecturer. Tutorials ensure the understanding of the subject, through individual or group discussion, under the tutor's direction.
The examinations on each subject require the students to consolidate their knowledge of the subject, which they had gained through lectures, discussions and independent study. These three categories of academic activity - lectures, tutorials and examination provide knowledge in British universities. The course of study at a university lasts three or four years. The first academic degree is given to the students who pass their examination at the end of the course – Bachelor’s Degree.
In 1971 the Open University was set up for the people who do not have time or the qualifications to study at a conventional university. There are weekly Open University lectures broadcast on BBC television and radio. The students need to study about ten hours a week.
Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык.
1. Система образования в Великобритании включает начальное, среднее, высшее образование
2. Краснокирпичные университеты были основаны в 1850-1930 гг., включая все провинциальные университеты, а также Лондонский университет
3. В группе старых университетов – Оксфорд и Кембридж, называемые Оксбридж.
4. Оксфорд и Кембридж отличаются от других университетов общей организацией.
5. Обучение осуществляется, используя лекции, семинары, экзамены.
6. Экзамены сдали успешно все студенты, посещавшие лекции.
7. Курс обучения в Открытом университете продолжительнее, и составляет 6-8 лет.
8. Первая учёная степень, получаемая студентом в университете, - Бакалавр.
9. Открытый университет, учреждённый в 1971 году, позволяет учиться тем, у кого нет времени учиться на дневном отделении.
10. Обучаясь хорошо, многие студенты получают гранты.
Упражнение 2. Закончите следующие предложения на основе текста.
1. The educational system in Great Britain is divided into … .
2. The higher education is represented by … .
3. The British universities can be divided into … .
4. The old universities are … .
5. The redbrick universities include … .
6. Oxbridge differs greatly from all other universities in … .
7. Tutorial system is the system … .
8. The typical academic programme is composed of … .
9. The lectures outline … .
10. The tutorials ensure … .
11. The examinations require the students … .
12. The course of study at the conventional university lasts … .
13. The first academic degree is … .
14. The Open University was set up for … .
15. The methods of instruction at the Open University are … .
Упражнение 3. Составьте ваши предложения с новыми словами
а) на английском языке:
to enter, department, a system of teaching, schedule, syllabus, an elective course, to study regularly, to receive Bachelor’s Degree;
б) на русском языке:
высшее образование, поступить, сдать экзамены успешно, обязательные предметы и курсы по выбору, расписание, программа, самостоятельная работа, выпускник.
Упражнение 4. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.
1. What chief areas is the educational system in Great Britain divided into?
2. Why is the 11plus examination important?
3. What is the higher education represented by?
4. What do Oxford and Cambridge differ from all other universities in?
5. How is teaching carried out?
6. What is the tutorial system? Who is a tutor?
7. What is the typical academic programme for the university students composed of?
8. What does a “schedule” mean?
9. What do the exams require?
10. How long does the course of study last?
11. What is the difference of the Open University from all the other Universities?
12. Whom do we call a Bachelor of Science?
Упражнение 5. Выделите главную мысль в каждом абзаце текста, письменно составьте план пересказа текста.
Упражнение 6. Составьте диалоги по одной из следующих тем:
А) встреча российских и британских студентов (сравнить две системы образования);
Б) на международной конференции студентов по программам образования (сравнительный анализ) на основе следующей ситуации:
“Are you glad that you live in the first half of the twenty first century? Or do you wish you had lived and studied in the past century? If you had studied in the 20th century, for example, do you think you and your studies would have been more enjoyable? What are the advantages of modern higher education and qualified specialists?”
Упражнение 7. Прослушайте диалоги (работа в парах), воспроизведите их.
Dialogue 1. «В библиотеке университета» (Joe – зарубежный стажёр, библиотекарь).
Joe: We are foreign research students. My first question is how can I find out about the course requirements, lecture and laboratory schedules. I believe it’ll be possible for me to take some undergraduate courses.
Librarian: All the information about pre-requisites, prescribed texts, lecture and laboratory time-tables is to be found in the University Calendar. We always have a copy for the current year on desk reserve.
Joe: Please, could you tell me the procedures for finding journal articles?
Librarian: We keep copies of the main abstracting journals in the reference section. If you want to find out our holding of a particular journal you will have to use the library computer system.
Joe: OK, thank you.
Dialogue 2. «В библиотеке университета» (Joe – зарубежный стажёр, библиотекарь).
Joe: Have you got an interloan system at the library?
Librarian: Since you are research students you will be able to use the interloan system, or production of your students’ library card.
Joe: Please, explain, what these black bars on my library card mean?
Librarian: They are a bar code, like the universal code on supermarket items. The one on your card is the individual number of your card. When you put your card I front of a card reader, the number is entered into the library computer. When you borrow a book it should have a similar bar code on it. This identifies the book for the computer: the fines for overdue books are steep.
Librarian: Yes, the fines for overdue books are very expensive.
Joe: Thank you for your information. But I wonder if your catalogue system here is different from the one we use back home.
Librarian: My pleasure. Bye.
Упражнение 8. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
1. At the University library the student cards have bar code on them. What else has such codes?
2. What is “a course requirement”?
3. What is the library schedule?
4. In what library section are the copies of the abstracting journals kept?
5. How does a computer system help to find out books and journal articles?
Упражнение 1. Прочитайте предложения и переведите их на русский язык, используя Participle I, II.
1. There is a lot of work waiting for me to do. 2. There are some people hurrying to us. 3. Who is the man sitting by the window? 4. Who is the lady standing at the time-table? 5. The cup broken by the man was old. 6. The things packed were winter things. 7. The fruit dried in summer will be eaten in winter. 8. The students taking part in the competition must be here at 4 o’clock. 9. There were loud voices coming through the door. 10. They were eager to study foreign language taught at the university. 11. It was the work done by the farmers. 12. The test written by Kate is the best.
Упражнение 2. Вставьте вместо пропусков Participle I или Participle II.
1. The students have always been interested in books … (described, describing) different aspect of their future profession.
2. Flight to the Moon … (describing, described) by writers showed that people began to dream of space travel long ago.
3. Which do you know better: pictures … (painting, painted) by modern artists or the artists of the 19th century?
4. Who is the man … (told, telling) something interesting?
5. We watched the train … (steamed, steaming) past.
6. We heard the band … (playing, played) in the park.
7. I found the papers … (scattering, scattered) by the wind.
8. I heard my name … (calling, called).
9. I found him … (working, worked).
10. I saw the man … (getting off, got off) the bus.
11. She felt somebody … (touching, touched) her shoulder.
12. My task having been … (finishing, finished), I went to visit my friends.
13. The weather … (being, been) hot, the passengers took off their hats.
Упражнение 3. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, используя причастие 1 и 2.
1. The system of education in Great Britain is complex, including primary, secondary and higher schools.
2. Having passed the 11plus exam the pupils are sent to one of the secondary schools.
3. John entered the new university, founded since the Second World War.
4. There are a lot of scientists educated in Cambridge.
5. The tutorial system functions well, using individual tuition.
6. Having studied the traditions of the university, the students kept them up.
7. The tutor, being responsible for the progress of the students, helps them.
8. The academic programme is interesting, including the elective courses.
9. Having consolidated knowledge they passed all the exams well.
10. Being part-time students, they worked and studied.
11. The Bachelor’s Degree is the first scientific degree, received by a student.
12. Having become a graduate, he continued his education.
Упражнение 4. Измените следующие предложения по образцу, используя the Nominative Absolute Participle Construction.
Example: As the rain had ruined her hat, she had to buy a new one. – The rain having ruined her hat, she had to buy a new one.
1. As there was nothing to do, we went home.
2. When the signal was given, the Festival began.
3. As the lecture was over, the students went to the lab.
4. If the time permits, I shall answer all your letters.
5. As Mary has come from the University, we had dinner.
6. As my sister has been busy, I stayed at home.
7. As they have returned my book, I can work further.
8. As the weather was still cold and windy she was wearing a heavy winter coat.
9. As all was ready, we could go home.
10. As their house was far, she didn’t go to see them.
Упражнение 5. Измените следующие предложения по образцу, используя Complex Object.
Example: The students were going to the University. We saw them. – We saw the students going to the University.
1. She was looking round. Jane saw her.
2. She was watching him. Tom didn’t see her.
3. Someone was shouting. Eric heard him.
4. Lena was looking at them. They noticed her.
5. My cheeks were going red. I felt them.
6. The gardeners were watering bed of lettuce. Bobby watched them.
7. I felt that I was doing something useful.
8. I noticed Kate. She was sitting against Freddy’s chair.
9. I saw Dave. He was standing on the pavement.
10. I heard that a man was playing the guitar.
11. He opened the window. He heard how the birds were singing.
12. Julia saw Kate. Kate was striding across the grass.
Test № 8
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