Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Unit 5. Towns and Cities of Great Britain.
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Unit 5. Towns and Cities of Great Britain.
Lesson 9. London. The Capital.
Task 1. Answer the following questions choosing the proper variant:
1. How much do you know about London?
a) not much
d) your own variant
2. When was the capital of the UK founded?
a) in the first century B. C.
b) in the first century A. D.
c) in the fifth century
d) your own variant
3. Would you like to visit London? Why?
a) No. I’d rather prefer some other city. There is nothing interesting for me in London.
b) Yes, of course. There are many places of interest in London.
c) Sure. First of all I’d like to improve my English and to see their culture.
d) your own variant
4. Say whether the British capital is divided into several parts or not.
a) Yes. It consists of the City, the West End and the East End.
b) No. There is no division into different parts in London.
c) Yes. Like all other cities London has its centre. And all the rest of its territory doesn’t belong to the central part.
d) your own variant
Task 2. Try to do the following tasks while reading the text below:
A. Think of the outline of the text or just write out the key notions (words) covered in the text
B. Compare the British capital with the Russian one (You may cover any aspect you like).
B. Make a conclusion to characterise London in one sentence.
C. Decide on what place you would like to visit in London most of all. Explain your choice.
Task 3. Read the text to check yourself.
London. The capital.
London is the capital of the UK. It was founded in the first century A. D. by the Romans. One in seven of the population of the United Kingdom is a Londoner.
London draws people from all over the world. Some come on business, some come to study, to work or on holiday. London is naturally a very English city and it is very cosmopolitan, containing goods, food and entertainment, as well as people, from many countries of the world. London spreads its influence over much of the southern areas of England; it gives work to millions of people who live not only in the inner city areas but in surrounding districts.
There is much in London which fascinates visitors and inspires the affection of Londoners: the splendour of the royal palaces and the Houses of Parliament, the Tower of London, the dignity of St. Paul’s Cathedral and many monuments and beautiful parks. London shows examples of buildings that express all the different areas of its history. Buckingham Palace is the official London residence of the Sovereign. The palace was built in 1703 by the Duke of Buckingham. Piccadilly Circus has become an important meeting point. At its heart there is a bronze fountain topped by a figure of a winded archer, known as Eros, the pagan god of love. This area is now famous for its theatres, clubs and shops. Whitehall is a street in central London running from Trafalgar Square to the Houses of Parliament and containing many important buildings and government offices, such as the Treasury, Admiralty and others. In the centre of the roadway stands the Cenotaph, the memorial to the fallen of both world wars. The Prime Minister’s residence at No. 10 Downing Street isdirectly connected to Whitehall.
London is always full of life. The streets are crowded with traffic. High ‘double-decker’ buses rise above the smaller cars and vans.
London is a city of great contrasts. Its West end is the richest part of London. The East End is the districtinhabited by the workers and the poor. The heart of London is the City – its commercial and business centre. The city of London today is the financial powerhouse of the country and one of the chief commercial centres of the western world. The city has its own Lord Major, its own Government and its own police force. Here the medieval buildings stand side by side with modern glass high-rise offices.
The parks of London provide a welcome contrast to the great built-up areas. St. James’s Park, Green Park, Hyde Park, and Kensington Gardens are linked together. They form 313 hectares of open parkland in the heart of London.
Task 4. A. Find the English equivalents of the Russian words and study the word combinations.
- притягивать людей со всех концов мира
- распространять свое влияние на …
- близлежащие (окружающие) районы
- очаровывать приезжих
- вдохновлять на любовь (увлеченность)
- средневековые здания
- Палаты Парламента
- Собор Святого Павла
- населять (заселять)
B. Find the Russian equivalents of the English words and study the word combinations.
- modern glass high-rise offices
- splendour of the royal palaces
- the dignity of…
- to take place
- crowded with traffic
- ‘double-decker’ buses
- the financial powerhouse
- to provide a welcome contrast to…
C. Make your own sentences with the word combinations above. Try to use as many of them as you can.
Task 5. A. Find or think of synonyms of the words below:
- to fascinate
- In the centre
- to take place
B. Find or think of antonyms of the words below:
- the poor
С. Match the words with their definitions
Task 6. Fill in the prepositions.
1. London was founded … the first century A. D. … the Romans.
2. London draws people … all … the world.
3. Some come … business, some come to study, to work or … holiday.
4. London spreads its influence … much … the southern areas … England; it gives work … millions … people.
5. Buckingham Palace was built … 1703 by the Duke of Buckingham.
6. The Prime Minister’s residence … No. 10 Downing Street isdirectly connected Whitehall.
7. Piccadilly Circus is now famous … its theatres, clubs and shops.
8. The streets in London are crowded … traffic. High ‘double-decker’ buses rise … the smaller cars and vans.
9. In the city the medieval buildings stand side … side … modern glass high-rise offices.
10. The parks of London form 313 hectares of open parkland … the heart of London.
Task 7. Look at the words and fill in the table.
Task 8. A. Find in the text the sentences with the Passive Voice and translate them into Russian.
Task 9. Make up your own sentences, using the Passive Voice.
Task 10. Choose the right sentence.
a. It will be finished tomorrow.
B. It will being finishing tomorrow.
A. The house was painted when I arrived.
B. The house was being painted when I arrived.
A. Over 25 models have been produced in the past two years.
B. Over 25 models are produced in the past two years.
A. “The flight to Brunswick” was written in 1987 by Tim Wilson.
B. “The flight to Brunswick” was being written in 1987 by Tim Wilson.
A. Fords were being made in Cologne.
B. Fords are made in Cologne.
Task 11. Answer the questions choosing the proper variant.
1. Who founded London?
A. Indians B. Celts C. Romans
2. Why do most people from all over the world come to London?
A. to work, to study, on holiday or on business
B. to buy some flowers
C. to order some furniture
3. What is the official London residence of the Sovereign?
A. the Houses of Parliament B. the Treasury C. Buckingham Palace
4. What area in London is now famous for its theatres, clubs and shops?
A. Whitehall B. Piccadilly Circus C. Downing Street
5. What is the City of London?
A. it is its commercial and business centre
B. it is the richest part of London
C. it is the districtinhabited by the workers and the poor
Task 13. True or false.
1. You can hardly call London very cosmopolitan.
2. London gives work to millions of people who live only in the inner city areas.
3. There are many buildings in London that express all the different areas of its history.
4. There is not much in London which fascinates visitors and inspires the affection of Londoners.
5. Buckingham Palace was built in the 18th century by the Duke of Buckingham.
6. The Cenotaph is the memorial to the English Queen.
7. At the heart of Piccadilly Circus there is a bronze fountain topped by a figure of Eros, the pagan god of love.
8. St. James’s Park, Green Park, Hyde Park, and Kensington Gardens form 13 hectares of open parkland in the heart of London.
9. Buckingham Palace is the official Washington residence of the Sovereign.
10. The heart of London is the City – its commercial and business centre.
Task 17. Read the texts about sights of London. Look through the map of London, find those sights on it. Present your own route of visiting those places. Act as a guide and present a tour round London, use information from the texts. Add your own information:
Westminster Abbey is the historic building to which every visitor goes sooner or later. It was founded in 1050 as a monastery. Later it was rebuilt, by Henry III. In the 18th century the West Towers were added. The present building dates from about 1480.
As the scene of coronation of English kings, Westminster Abbey continues a tradition established by William the Conqueror who was crowned on Christmas Day, 1066. When Queen Elizabeth II was crowned on June 2, 1952, the ritual was essentially the same although the architectural setting had changed.
Westminster Abbey is in the centre of London. Many great Englishmen are buried in the Abbey: Newton, Darvin, Watt and others. Here we can see a lot of monuments to and tombs of great men. There is a corner usually called "Poets' Corner", where the famous British poets lie. Near the West Door of the Abbey the Unknown Warrior lies in a simple grave.
St. Paul’s Cathedral
St. Paul's Cathedral is the City's greatest monument and Sir Christopher Wren's masterpiece. Sir Christopher Wren was the most famous of all English architects. St. Paul's Cathedral was built in 1675 - 1708 and was the fifth church put on the same site. The earliest cathedral was erected in 604. The second, built in stone 675 - 685, was burned by the Danes in 962, and the third was destroyed by fire in 1087. The Normans rebuilt it in 1180. After its destruction in the Great Fire in London in 1666, it was rebuilt by Sir Christopher Wren. During World War II it was hit by enemy bombs, one of which destroyed the High Altar. Although destroyed in World War II, it exists and is now seen and used by people.
Buckingham Palace is the official London residence of the Queen. It was built in the 18th century and rebuilt later by the architect John Nash. Nash began his work in 1825, but the palace was not completed until 1837. The first Queen to live there was the young Queen Victoria.
Above the State Entrance is the central balcony where the Royal Family appears on occasions of national importance.
The Royal Standard flying over Buckingham Palace is the sign that the Queen is in the residence. The absence of the Royal Standard over the east front of Buckingham Palace means that the Queen is absent from London.
Royal Horse Guards ceremony always arouses the interest of visitors.
Trafalgar Square is in the centre of the West End of London. It was named so in commemoration of the victorious naval battle of Trafalgar in 1805, in which Admiral Lord Nelson was fatally wounded. The Nelson Column was erected in the 1840s. On the top of the imposing column is a 17 feet-tall statue of Lord Nelson. The total height of the monument is 184 feet. On the pedestal are bronze relieves cast from a captured French cannon, representing Nelson’s most famous victories. The four bronze lions are the work of the English architect of Landseer.
On the north side of Trafalgar Square are the National Gallery and the National Portrait Gallery. The National Gallery was built in 1824. It contains one of the finest collections of pictures in the world. There are more than 850 masterpieces of all the European schools of painting.
In the Northeast corner is the well-known church of St. Martin-in-the-Fields. The church was built in 1222 and rebuilt in 1726. Trafalgar Square is one of the busiest places in London. During the rush hours, when people go to and from their work, it is hardly possible to cross the streets. At that time the quickest transport is the Underground railway. All over traffic is slowed down by crowds of people and all kinds of vehicles.
The Tate Gallery
There is another art gallery in London - the Tate Gallery. It was founded in 1897. It is named after its founder Henry Tate, a sugar manufacturer. The Gallery has rich collections of pictures by 16th century English artists as well as paintings by foreign painters of the 19-20th centuries - by impressionists and post impressionists. It also has a large sculpture collection.
Albert Hall is a circular brick building under a glass-and-metal roof. The Hall was built in 1867 - 1871. It is a big concert hall, seating 8,000. Albert Hall is used for concerts, athletic events, for public gatherings and other functions.
The Tower of London
In 1066 the Normans built a castle on the edge of London, in the south-eastern corner of the old Roman city walls. The Normans joined up the walls with a Dutch and fence to make a yard, in which they probably built a wooden tower. About ten years later William the Conqueror ordered the building of the great stone tower, later called the White Tower.
The Tower of London long continued to be both a fortress and a palace. It was also a prison. At first prisoners were often foreign princes and nobles who had been captured in war. But later on, in Tudor times, the Tower became the place where famous and infamous people were sent, and perhaps tortured and executed. After the Stuart period few prisoners were brought to the Tower. Instead more and more visitors came to see the ancient armour and weapons and the Crown Jewels.
Now the Tower is simply Britain's most famous and most visited historic building.
According to tradition the Tower is guarded by the Yeoman Warders or "Beefeaters". They still wear their old bright and colourful Tudor uniforms.
Not far from the tower of London is Tower Bridge, built across the Thames in 1894. It was designed so that it could be used equally by road traffic and by ships going up the River Thames. When a ship approached, everybody was cleared off the bridge, which then split in two, and raised itself in the air so that river traffic could pass through.
After a few minutes, the bridge was lowered again, and pedestrians, carriages, and cars could continue their journey.
In this busiest time, the road was raised and lowered 50 times a day. Parliament decided that pedestrians should be able to cross the river at any time, so when the lower half of the bridge was used by ships, people could (if they wished) cross by two walk ways, 45 meters above the Thames.
London's West End is the richest part of the city, and its heart is Piccadilly Circus. This is London's theaterland, and at night it is bright with electric signs. Under the Circus lies one of the busiest stations of London's underground railway network.
In the centre of the Circus stands the bronze statue of Eros on a high pedestal above the fountain. It was erected by architect Alfred Gilbert in 1892.
North of the Circus, the streets shade off into Soho and to Oxford Street and the Telecom Tower. South of the Circus, in Haymarket, there is the colonnaded Theatre Royal, founded in 1720. West of the Circus, is the Royal Academy of Arts. The West End also covers Mayfair and Marble Arch, the shopping centres of Oxford Street and Bond Street. (from Поликарпова 1994).
(from Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture 2002).
The city of Birmingham
Birmingham ( [bɜːmɪŋəm]) is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands county of England. Birmingham is the largest of England's core cities, and is often considered to be the second city of the United Kingdom. The City of Birmingham has a population of 1,006,500 (2006 estimate).
The city's reputation was forged as a powerhouse of the Industrial Revolution in Britain, a fact which led to Birmingham being known as "the workshop of the world" or the "city of a thousand trades". Although Birmingham's industrial importance has declined, it has developed into a national commercial centre, being named as the third best place in the United Kingdom to locate a business. In 1998, Birmingham hosted the G8 summit at the International Convention Centre, the birthplace of exhibitions in 1850 and remains a popular location for conventions today.
Birmingham is situated just to the west of the geographical centre of England on the Birmingham Plateau, the area crossed by Britain's main north-south watershed between the basins of the Rivers Severn and Trent. Birmingham is located in the centre of the West Midlands region of England.
The Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery has renowned displays of artwork that include a leading collection of work by the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and the world's largest collection of works by Edward Burne-Jones.
The Barber Institute of Fine Arts is both an art gallery and concert hall. It also has one of the world's most detailed and largest coin collections. Cadbury World is a museum showing visitors the stages and steps of chocolate production and the history of chocolate and the company.
There are over 8,000 acres (3,200 ha) of parkland open spaces in Birmingham. The largest of the parks is Sutton Park covering 2,400 acres (970 ha) making it the largest urban nature reserve in Europe. The city centre consists of numerous public squares including Centenary Square, Chamberlain Square and Victoria Square.
Although Birmingham grew to prominence as a manufacturing and engineering centre, its economy today is dominated by the service sector. Tourism is also an increasingly important part of the local economy. Despite the decline of manufacturing in the city several significant industrial plants remain, including Jaguar Cars in Castle Bromwich and Cadbury Trebor Bassett in Bournville.
Birmingham has a number of notable residents from various walks of life. Joseph and Neville Chamberlain are two of the most well-known political figures who have lived in Birmingham. Author J. R. R. Tolkien was brought up in Birmingham with many locations in the city such as Moseley bog, Sarehole Mill and Perrott's Folly supposedly being the inspiration for various scenes in “The Lord of the Rings”. Writer W. H. Auden grew up in the Harborne area of the city. Birmingham has also produced a number of popular bands and musicians. The Streets, UB40, Judas Priest, Black Sabbath, Led Zeppelin, Wizzard and Duran Duran were all popular bands, whilst musicians Jeff Lynne, Ozzy Osbourne, John Lodge, Nick Mason, Roy Wood, Jamelia, and Steve Winwood all were very successful.
Manchester ([mæntSIstə]) is a city and metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester, England. Manchester was granted city status in 1853. It has a population of 452,000, and lies at the centre of the wider Greater Manchester Urban Area, which has a population of 2,240,230, the United Kingdom's third largest conurbation. Manchester has the second largest urban zone in the UK and the fourteenth most populated in Europe.
Forming part of the English Core Cities Group, and often described as the "Capital of the North", Manchester today is a centre of the arts, the media, higher education and commerce. In a poll of British business leaders published in 2006, Manchester was regarded as the best place in the UK to locate a business. It is the third most visited city in the United Kingdom by foreign visitors and is now often considered to be the second city of the UK. Manchester was the host of the 2002 Commonwealth Games, and among its other sporting connections are its two Premier League football teams, Manchester United and Manchester City.
Historically, most of the city was a part of Lancashire, with areas south of the River Mersey being in Cheshire. Manchester was the world's first industrialized city and played a central role during the Industrial Revolution. It was the dominant international centre of textile manufacture and cotton spinning. During the 19th century it acquired the nickname Cottonopolis, suggesting it was a metropolis of cotton mills. Manchester City Centre is now on a tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites, mainly due to the network of canals and mills constructed during its 19th-century development.
Edinburgh ([ɛdɪnb(ə)rə]) is the capital of Scotland, is its second largest city after Glasgow which is situated 45 miles (72 km) to the west, is one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and is the seventh largest city in the United Kingdom as a whole.
Located in the south-east of Scotland, Edinburgh lies on the east coast of Scotland's Central Belt, along the Firth of Forth, near the North Sea. Owing to its rugged setting and vast collection of Medieval and Georgian architecture, including numerous stone tenements, it is often considered one of the most picturesque cities in Europe.
It forms the City of Edinburgh council area; the city council area includes urban Edinburgh and a 30-square-mile (78 km²) rural area.
It has been the capital of Scotland since 1437 (replacing Scone) and is the seat of the Scottish Parliament. The city was one of the major centres of the Enlightenment, led by the University of Edinburgh, earning it the nickname Athens of the North. The Old Town and New Town districts of Edinburgh were listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995. There are over 4,500 listed buildings within the city. In the census of 2001, Edinburgh had a total resident population of 448,624.
Edinburgh is well-known for the annual Edinburgh Festival, a collection of official and independent festivals held annually over about four weeks from early August. The number of visitors attracted to Edinburgh for the Festival is roughly equal to the settled population of the city. The most famous of these events are the Edinburgh Fringe (the largest performing arts festival in the world), the Edinburgh International Festival, the Edinburgh Military Tattoo, the Edinburgh International Film Festival, and the Edinburgh International Book Festival.
Other notable events include the Hogmanay street party (31 December), Burns Night (25 January), St. Andrew's Day (November 30), and the Beltane Fire Festival (30 April).
The city is one of Europe's major tourist destinations, attracting around 13 million visitors a year, and is the second most visited tourist destination in the United Kingdom, after London.
Grammar rules Revision
Причастие – неличная форма глагола, обладающая свойствами глагола, прилагательного и наречия. Английское причастие соответствует в русском языке причастию или деепричастию. Причастия употребляются главным образом в письменной речи.
Причастие настоящего времени (Participle I Active) употребляются в качестве определений и обстоятельств. Время действия причастия и глагола-сказуемого обычно совпадают. Причастие настоящего времени переводится на русский язык: 1) причастием, 2) деепричастием, 3) обстоятельственным придаточным предложением.
Причастие прошедшего времени (Participle II Passive) (III форма глагола) обычно соответствует русскому причастию прошедшего времени страдательного залога и являются определениями. На русский язык переводится: 1) причастием, 2) обстоятельственным придаточным предложением.
Перфектное причастие (Perfect Participle) соответствует русскому деепричастию и выполняет функцию обстоятельства. В предложении выражает действие, предшествующее действию сказуемого. Перфектное причастие переводится на русский язык: 1) деепричастием, 2) обстоятельственным придаточным предложением.
to go – going
to study - studying
to write – writing, to live – living.
to sit- sitting, to run – running.
to lie – lying, to tie – tying.
See also Lessons 7, 11 and 12.
C. Check yourself consulting the rules.
Настоящее продолженное время (The Present Continuous Tense) выражает действие, которое происходит в момент речи. (Сравните: Я иду в школу. Я хожу в школу.) Образуется с помощью глагола to be в настоящем времени и причастия настоящего времени (Participle I) смыслового глагола.
Настоящее продолженное время может выражать действие, относящееся к ближайшему будущему. Конструкция to be going to do something употребляется в значении «намереваться», «собираться».
Глаголы, обозначающие чувства и восприятие, не употребляются в продолженных временах: to love, to feel, to know, to see, to hate, etc.
The city of Liverpool
Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough in the county of Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary.
Inhabitants of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpoolians but are also known as "Scousers", in reference to the local meal known as 'scouse', a form of stew. In 2007 the city celebrated its 800th anniversary, and in 2008 it holds the European Capital of Culture title together with Stavanger, Norway.
Built across a ridge of sandstone hills rising up to a height of around 230 feet (70 metres) above sea-level at Everton Hill, these represent the southern boundary of the West Lancashire Coastal Plain.
Like the rest of the United Kingdom the city has seen a large growth in the service sector, both public and private. Government offices include parts of the National Health Service, Revenue and Customs and Home Office agencies such as the Criminal Records Bureau and the Identity and Passport Service, formerly the UK Passport Agency. Private sector service industries have invested in Liverpool too with major call centres opening in recent years. The activities of the port have left the site with a communications infrastructure that had for a long time exceeded requirements.
Growth in the areas of New Media has been helped by the existence of a relatively large computer game development community. Sony based one of only a handful of European PlayStation research and development centres in Wavertree. The first professional quality PlayStation software developer's kits were largely programmed by Sony's Liverpool 'studio' – the console has since become one of the World's most successful consumer products ever.
Tourism is a major factor in the economy and will be of increasing importance in the run up to the Liverpool's year as European Capital of Culture. This has led to a great increase in the provision of high quality services such as hotels, restaurants and clubs. The buildings of Liverpool not only attract tourists but also film makers, who regularly use Liverpool to double for cities around the world and making it the second most filmed city in the UK.
Car-manufacturing also takes place in the city at the Halewood plant where the Jaguar X-Type and Land Rover Freelander models are assembled.
Liverpool's main shopping area is Church Street, lying between Bold Street to the East and Lord Street to the West.
The docks are central to Liverpool's history, with the best-known being Albert Dock: the first enclosed, non-combustible dock warehouse system in the world and is built in cast iron, brick and stone.
The area around William Brown Street has been labelled the city's 'Cultural Quarter', owing to the presence of the William Brown Library, Walker Art Gallery and World Museum Liverpool, just three of Liverpool's neo-classical buildings. Nearby is St George's Hall, perhaps the most impressive of these neo-classical buildings. Also in this area are Wellington's Column and the Steble Fountain.
Liverpool is internationally known as a cultural centre, with a particularly rich history in popular music (most notably The Beatles), performing and visual arts. In 2003, Liverpool was named a European Capital of Culture for 2008, the other site being Stavanger, Norway.
Liverpool has a strong history of performing arts which is reflected in its annual theatrical highlight The Liverpool Shakespeare Festival which takes place inside Liverpool Cathedral and in the adjacent historic St James' Gardens every summer, and in the number of theatres in the city.
Liverpool has three universities: the University of Liverpool, Liverpool John Moores University and Liverpool Hope University. Edge Hill University, originally founded as a teacher-training college in the Edge Hill district of Liverpool, is now located in Ormskirk in south-west Lancashire.
Liverpool is associated with a variety of sports, most notably football, but also a number of others, such as basketball, county cricket, speedway, boxing, swimming, rugby, lacrosse, parkour or freerunning.
Cardiff ['cɑːdɪf] is the capital and largest city of Wales, and the country's commercial, sporting, tourism, transport, media and political centre. According to Census 2001 data, Cardiff was the 14th largest settlement in the United Kingdom, and the 21st largest urban area. However recent local government estimates put the population of the unitary authority as 317,500, making Cardiff one of the fastest growing cities in the United Kingdom.
The city of Cardiff is the county town of the historic county of Glamorgan (and later South Glamorgan). Cardiff is part of the Eurocities network of the largest European cities. Cardiff Urban Area covers a slightly larger area, including Dinas Powys, Penarth and Radyr. The area surrounding the Cardiff Urban area, South East Wales has a population of around 1,900,000 in 2006, two thirds of the whole Welsh population.
Cardiff is home to the National Assembly for Wales in Cardiff Bay and much of the media in Wales. The television programmes "Doctor Who", "Torchwood", parts of "Gavin and Stacey", "The Worst Witch", "Tracey Beaker" and other popular television series are filmed mostly within the City and County of Cardiff. It has the biggest media sector in the UK outside London, being home to a number of television studios and radio stations, such as the BBC, ITV, HTV, S4C and Capital TV.
It was a small town until the early 19th century and came to prominence as a major port for the transport of coal following the arrival of industry in the region. Cardiff was made a city in 1905, and proclaimed capital of Wales in 1955. Since the 1990s Cardiff has seen significant development with a new waterfront area at Cardiff Bay which contains the new Welsh Assembly Building, and the city centre is currently undergoing a major redevelopment.
History of Birmingham
Birmingham started life in the 6th century as an Anglo-Saxon farming hamlet on the banks of the River Rea. The name 'Birmingham' comes from "Beorma ingas ham", meaning "home of the people of Beorma."
Birmingham was first recorded in written documents by the Domesday Book of 1086 as a small village, worth only 20 shillings. There were many variations on this name. Bermingeham is another version.
In the 12th century, Birmingham was granted a royal charter to hold a market, which in time became known as the Bull Ring, transforming Birmingham from a village to a market town. As early as the 16th century, Birmingham's access to supplies of iron ore and coal meant that metalworking industries became established.
By the time of the English Civil War in the 17th century Birmingham had become an important manufacturing town with a reputation for producing small arms. Arms manufacture in Birmingham became a staple trade and was concentrated in the area known as the Gun Quarter. During the Industrial Revolution (from the mid-18th century onwards), Birmingham grew rapidly into a major industrial centre and the town prospered. During the 18th century, Birmingham was home to the Lunar Society, an important gathering of local thinkers and industrialists.
By the 1820s an extensive canal system had been constructed, giving greater access to natural resources to fuel to industries. Railways arrived in Birmingham in 1837 with the arrival of the Grand Junction Railway, and a year later, the London and Birmingham Railway. During the Victorian era, the population of Birmingham grew rapidly to well over half a million and Birmingham became the second largest population centre in England. Birmingham was granted city status in 1889 by Queen Victoria. The city established its own university in 1900.
Birmingham was originally part of Warwickshire, but expanded in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, absorbing parts of Worcestershire to the south and Staffordshire to the north and west. The city absorbed Sutton Coldfield in 1974. The people of Sutton Coldfield still consider themselves separate from Birmingham. At the same time Birmingham became a metropolitan borough in the new West Midlands county. Up until 1986, the West Midlands County Council was based in Birmingham City Centre.
Birmingham suffered heavy bomb damage during World War II's "Birmingham Blitz", and the city was extensively redeveloped during the 1950s and 1960s. This included the construction of large tower block estates, such as Castle Vale in Erdington. The Bull Ring reconstructed and New Street station was redeveloped. In recent years, Birmingham has been transformed, with the construction of new squares like Centenary Square and Millennium Place. Old streets, buildings and canals have been restored, the pedestrian subways have been removed, and the Bull Ring shopping centre has been redeveloped further.
In the decades following The Second World War, the population of Birmingham changed dramatically, with immigration from the Commonwealth of Nations and beyond. The population peaked in 1951 at 1,113,000 residents.
The city of Cambridge
The city of Cambridge is a university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire, England. It lies about 50 miles (80 km) north-northeast of London and is surrounded by a number of smaller towns and villages. It is also at the heart of the high-technology centre known as Silicon Fen.
Cambridge is best known for the University of Cambridge, which includes the renowned Cavendish Laboratory, King's College Chapel, and the Cambridge University Library. The Cambridge skyline is dominated by the last two, along with the chimney of Addenbrooke's Hospital in the far south of the city and St John's College Chapel tower in the north. The city's name is pronounced [keɪmbrɪdZ], as opposed to another Cambridge in Gloucestershire, England, which is pronounced [kæmbrɪdZ].
According to the 2001 United Kingdom census, the City's population was 108,863 (including 22,153 students), and the population of the urban area (which includes parts of South Cambridgeshire district) is estimated to be 130,000.
In 1209, students escaping from hostile townspeople in Oxford fled to Cambridge and formed a university there. The oldest college that still exists, Peterhouse, was founded in 1284. One of the most impressive buildings in Cambridge, King's College Chapel, was begun in 1446 by King Henry VI. The project was completed in 1515 during the reign of King Henry VIII.
Cambridge University Press originated with a printing license issued in 1534. Hobson's Conduit, the first project to bring clean drinking water to the town centre, was built in 1610 (by the Hobson of Hobson's choice). Parts of it survive today. Addenbrooke's Hospital was founded in 1766. The railway and station were built in 1845. According to legend, the University dictated their location: well away from the centre of town, so that the possibility of quick access to London would not distract students from their work. However, there is no basis for this in written record.
Despite having a university, Cambridge was not granted its city charter until 1951. Cambridge does not have a cathedral, which was traditionally a pre-requisite for city status.
Cambridge is now one of East Anglia's major settlements, along with Norwich, Ipswich and Peterborough. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the size of the city was greatly increased by several large council estates planned to hold London's overspill. The biggest impact has been on the area north of the river, which is now home to the estates of Arbury, East Chesterton and King's Hedges, whilst there are many smaller estates to the south of the city.
Drawing on its links with the University, the Cambridge area today is sometimes referred to as Silicon Fen, due to the growth of high tech businesses and technology incubators that have sprung up in the series of science parks and other developments in and around the city. Such companies include CSR, world leader in Bluetooth chips, Acorn Computers (now ARM) and Sinclair. Cambridge was also the home of Pye Limited famous in the last century for early wireless and TV sets. In later years Pye evolved into several other companies including Pye Telecommunications (now Sepura, famous for TETRA radio equipment). Another major business is Marshall Aerospace located on the eastern edge of the city. Such businesses and their early stage precursors are well networked within the Cambridge Network.
The University was joined by the larger part of Anglia Ruskin University, and the educational reputation has led to other bodies (such as the Open University in East Anglia) basing themselves in the city.
Landmarks of Manchester
Manchester's buildings display a variety of architectural styles, ranging from Victorian to contemporary architecture. The widespread use of red brick characterises the city. Much of the architecture in the city harks back to its days as a global centre for the cotton trade. Just outside the immediate city centre is a large number of ex-cotton mills, some of which have been left virtually untouched since their closure whilst many have been redeveloped into apartment buildings and office space. Manchester Town Hall, in Albert Square, was built in the gothic revival style and is considered to be one of the most important Victorian buildings in England. It has been used in film as a replacement location for the Palace of Westminster, where filming is not permitted. Manchester also has a number of skyscrapers built during the 1960s and 1970s, the tallest of which is the CIS Tower located near Manchester Victoria station. The Beetham Tower, completed in 2006, is an example of the new surge in high-rise building and includes a Hilton hotel, a restaurant, and apartments. On its completion, it was the tallest building in the UK outside London, although an even taller building, the Piccadilly Tower, began construction behind Manchester Piccadilly station in early 2008. The Green Building, opposite Oxford Road station, is a pioneering eco-friendly housing project, almost unique in the UK.
In the north of the city borough is the award winning Heaton Park which is one of the largest municipal parks in Europe covering 610 acres (2.5 km²) of parkland. There are a total of 135 parks, gardens and open spaces within the city. Two large squares hold many of Manchester's public monuments. Albert Square has monuments to Prince Albert, Bishop James Fraser, Oliver Heywood, William Ewart Gladstone and John Bright. Piccadilly Gardens has monuments dedicated to Queen Victoria, Robert Peel, James Watt and the Duke of Wellington. The cenotaph in St Peter's Square, by Edwin Lutyens, is Manchester's main memorial to its war dead. The Alan Turing Memorial in Sackville Park commemorates his role as the father of modern computing. A statue of Abraham Lincoln by George Gray Barnard in the eponymous Lincoln Square was presented to the city by Mr. and Mrs. Charles Phelps Taft of Cincinnati, Ohio, to mark the part that Lancashire played in the cotton famine and American Civil War of 1861–1865. The success of the 2002 Commonwealth Games is commemorated by the B of the Bang, located near the City of Manchester Stadium in the Eastlands area of the city. At 184 feet (56 m) tall, the sculpture is the tallest in the UK. A Concorde is on display near Manchester Airport.
Unit 5. Towns and Cities of Great Britain.
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