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— Excuse me, can you tell me the way to the centre of the city?

— Certainly. Would you like to walk there or to go by underground?

— I’d rather walk there if it is not far. I want to see something of the city on my way to the hotel.

— And what hotel did you put up at?

— The “Metropole”.

— Well, it’s rather far from here.

— Never mind. I am not in a hurry. If I am tired, I will take a bus or a trolley bus.

— Then you may walk straight along Kutuzov avenue. It will lead you to Arbat square and the Kremlin is not far from there. When you get to the Kremlin, ask for the “Metropole” hotel.

— And what can I see on my way to the centre of the city?

— Let me see! Kutuzov Avenue is one of the best ave­nues of our capital. If you walk up the avenue, in about 20 minutes you will[Е1] come to the «Ukraina" hotel. It is one of the best Moscow hotels. In front of it you'll see a mon­ument to Shevchenko. There is a taxi stand near the hotel and you can take a taxi there if you are tired.

— And are there any bookshops in this avenue?

— Oh, yes, there is a good bookshop on the other side of the avenue. You can see it from here. However, take care when you cross the street.

— I see there is a lot of traffic in this avenue.

— There are always a lot of cars, buses, trolley buses and lorries in it. You must cross the street only by the green light. In any case, if you want to cross the street,
take care to look to your left, and when you reach the middle of the street, look to your right.

— May I cross the street here?

— By no means. You must go to the corner of this block and turn there to the left to cross it.

— Thank you very much!

— You are welcome.

Task to the text:

1. Choose the object on the plan A(P.11) and tell or ask the way to the other




The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

The official name of GB is the United Kingdom of GB and Northern Ireland. It occupies the territory of the British Isles. The BI lie to the north-west of Europe and consists of two main islands: GB and Ireland. Their total area is over 244.000 square km. The British Isles are separated from the continent by the North Sea, the English Channel and the Strait of Dover, which is 18 miles wide. The western coast of GB is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea. GB is one of the world’s smaller countries. Its population is over 57 millions. Four of every five people are urban. But in spite of all the territory of GB is small, the country has a wide variety of scenery. GB is made of three countries: England, Scotland and Wales. Everyone in Britain speaks English, but in some parts of Scotland and Wales, people speak different languages as well. GB with NI forms the UK of GB and NI.

 The capital of the UK is London, in England. England is the largest of three countries, which make up GB. The north and the West of England are mountainous, but the rest of the territory is a vast plain. The Lake District in Northern England with its lakes, mountains and valleys is favorite holiday resort. The national symbol of England is a red rose. The capital of England is London. Its economic, political and cultural centre. It is one of the largest cities in the world and one of the world’s most important ports. It is situated upon both banks of the river Thames. But while the Thames is the deepest and the most important one, the Severn is the largest river.

Wales is the smallest land of the UK, but it is noted for its picturesque mountains with the highest peaks of GB rivers, waterfalls and lakes. Cardiff is the capital and the largest city in Wales and its also an important industrial centre and port. The national symbol of Wales is a leek or a daffodil.

Scotland is a land, which is known for its beauty. The north of Scotland is mountainous and is called the Highlands. This is the region of mountains and rivers, small towns and villages. The highest of mountains is Ben Nevis. The best known between the lakes is Loch Ness where as some people think a large monster lives. The capital of Scotland is Edinburg and the great industrial centre is Glasgow. The national symbol of Scotland is a thistle.

GB’s largest island neighbour is Ireland. The independent Republic of Ireland mainly occupies this. Many small islands are also linked with the UK. Most of the land is hilly, though the mountains are not very high. The capital of NI is Belfast. The national symbol of Ireland is a shamrock.

The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of the Gulf Stream influence the climate of the British Isles. The summers are usually cool and rainy. And there is much rain and fog in autumn and in winter. That is why GB is a very damp country.

The flag of the UK is known as the Union Jack. It is made up of 3 crosses: the cross of St. George, St. Andrew and St. Patrick.

Nowadays the UK is a highly developed industrial power. It is one of the most powerful countries in Europe.

Tasks to the text.

I. Answer the questions:

1. What is the official name of GB?

2. What seas and oceans seperate British Isles from the continent?

3. What languages are spoken in GB?

4. Which country is the smallest one?

5. Why the flag of GB is called “the Union Jack”?

Bottom of Form 0

    Political System

The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy. This means that it has a monarch (a king or a queen) as its Head of State. The monarch has very little power and can only reign with the support of Parliament. Parliament consists of two chambers known as the House of Commons and the House of Lords. Parliament and the monarch have different roles in the government of the country, and they only meet together on symbolic occasions such as the coronation of a new monarch or the opening of Parliament.

In reality, the House of Commons is the only one of the three, which has true power. It is here that new bills are introduced and debated. If the majority of the members are in favour of a bill it goes to the House of Lords to be debated and finally to the monarch 10 be signed. Only then does it become law. Although a bill must be supported by all three bodies, the House of Lords only has limited powers, and the monarch has not refused to sign one since the modern political system began over 200 years ago.

The House of Commons is made up of 650 elected members, known as Members of Parliament (abbreviated to MPs), each of whom represents an area (or constituency) of the United Kingdom. They are elected either at a general election, or at a by-election following the death or retirement of an MP. The election campaign usually lasts about three weeks. Everyone over the age of 18 can vote in an election, which is decided on a simple majority - the candidate with the most votes wins. Under this system, an MP who wins by a small number of votes may have more votes against him (that is, for the Other candidates) than for him. This is a very simple system, but many people think that it is unfair because the wishes of those who voted for the unsuccessful candidates are not represented at all.

Parliamentary elections must be held every five years at the latest, but the Prime Minister can decide on the exact date within those five years. The British democratic system depends on political parties, and there has been a party system of some kind since the 17th century. The political parties choose candidates in elections (there are sometimes independent candidates, but they are rarely elected). The party, which wins the majority of seals, forms the Government and its leader usually becomes Prime Minister. The largest minority party becomes the Opposition. In doing so it accepts the right of the majority party to run the country, while the majority party accepts the right of the minority party to criticize it. Without this agreement between the political parties, the British parliamentary system would break down.

The Prime Minister chooses about twenty MPs from his or her party to become Cabinet Ministers. Each minister is responsible for a particular area of government, and for a Civil Service department. For example, the Minister of Defence is responsible for defence policy and the armed forces, the Chancellor of the Exchequer for financial policy, and the Home Secretary for, among other things, law and order and immigration. The powers of the monarch are not defined precisely.

Theoretically every act of government is done in the Queen's name -every letter sent out by a government department is marked "on her Majesty's service" - and she appoints all the ministers, including the prime minister. In reality, everything is done on the advice of the elected government, and the monarch takes no part in the decision ­- making process.

Tasks to the text.

I. Divide the text into logical parts.

II. Make a short report or a dialogue about the life in modern GB.

III. Speak about:

· geographical position of GB;

· English science and culture;

· well-known Britons;

· London’s sights.

Lesson 5. THE USA

1. Read the text:

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