III. Translate the underlined words and make up your own sentences with these words.

Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!

Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!

Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


III. Translate the underlined words and make up your own sentences with these words.


Fingerprints found at the scene of a crime can be evidence connecting an individual with a crime. Fingerprints can be either visible or latent. Visible prints--formed by dirt or blood, for example--or three-dimensional prints formed in soft matrices, can be photographed directly. Latent fingerprints, which are not ordinarily visible, can be brought out by dusting techniques

when the surface is hard and by chemical techniques when the surface is porous. In dusting for fingerprints, a fine powder of contrasting colour is applied with a fine brush. The powder clings to the residual oils and fats in the print and the excess powder is removed with the brush. On porous surfaces such as paper, fuming iodine, silver nitrate, or ninhydrin solutions are used to develop the latent fingerprints. The most effective developer of latent fingerprints is ninhydrin, which can reveal prints that are several years old.

Fingerprints are identified on the basis of agreements in a significant number of individualities, commonly known as "points." These are the bifurcations, ending ridges, and dots in the fingerprint pattern. If sufficient points are found with spatial relationship to other points, a basis exists for identifying a fingerprint. It was formerly considered necessary to have 12 points to identify a fingerprint, but in current practice, a lesser number is often used. Palm prints and footprints are identified in the same manner as fingerprints.

Tasks to the text:

I. Give all possible word combinations:

prints (скрытые, видимые, невидимые, пластичные)

evidence (вещественные, косвенные, прямые, подтверждающие, убедительные)

fingerprints (найти, обработать порошком, проявить, подделать)

evidence (искать, измерять, извлекать, разрушать, загрязнять, собирать)

the scene of the crime (осматривать, охранять, фотографировать)

II Do the following tasks:

· Divide text into logical parts.

· Give the name to each part.

· Give the contents of each part in 1-3 phrases.

· Give the summury of the whole text.


Legal professions in GB

Solicitors. There are about 50000 solicitors, a number which is rapidly increasing, and they make up by far the largest branch of the legal profession in England and Wales. They are found in every town, where they deal with all the day-to-day work of preparing legal documents for buying and selling houses, making wills, etc. Solicitors also work on court cases for their clients, prepare cases for barristers to present in the higher courts, and may represent their client in a Magistrates court.

Barristers. There are about 5000 barristers who defend or prosecute in the higher courts. Although solicitor and barristers work together on cases, barristers specialize in representing clients in court and the training and career structures for the two types of lawyer are quite separate. In court, barristers wear wigs and gowns in keeping with the extreme formality of the proceedings. The highest level of barristers have the title QC (Queens Counsel).

Judges. There are a few hundred judges, trained as barristers, who preside in more serious cases. There is no separate training for judges.

Jury. A jury consist of twelve people (Jurors), who are ordinary people chosen at random from the Electoral Register (the list of people who can vote in elections). The jury listen to the evidence given in court in certain criminal cases and decide whether the defendant is guilty or innocent. If the person is found guilty, the punishment is passed by the presiding judge. Juries are rarely used in civil cases.

Magistrates. There are about 30000 magistrates (Justices of the Peace or JPs), who judge cases in the lower courts. There are usually unpaid and have no formal legal qualifications, but they are respectable people who are given some training.

Coroners. Coroners have medical or legal training (or both ), and inquire into violent or unnatural deaths.

Clerks of the court. Clerks look after administrative and legal matters in the courtroom.

Tasks to the text:

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