I.Find the Russian equivalents for the following expressions from the text.



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I.Find the Russian equivalents for the following expressions from the text.



Baxter Slate

Baxter Slate is a police officer. He is 23 years old. He was born in California. Now Baxter works at the Los Angeles Police Department. He is a patrol officer. His duty is to make uniform patrol in the district and to help detectives with their follow-up investigations. Sometimes Baxter works on the daywatch and other times on the nightwatch. Baxter likes to do police work. He wants to become a captain so he takes police sciences classes at night school twice a week.

Baxter is married. His wife Clara is 2 years younger than her husband. She is a college graduate but she does not work at present. Clara looks after her children, a boy of 3 and a girl of 4, 5. Clara thinks that in future she will get a job and work as an economist.

When Baxter finishes his tour of duty, he returns home where he helps his wife, plays with his children and has a rest. If he is not busy with his studies, he usually watches TV, reads newspapers and magazines. On his days off Baxter and his wife often go to the cinema or visit their parents.

Tasks to the text.

I.Find the Russian equivalents for the following expressions from the text.

Learn the words:

 Police Department; patrol officer; to make uniform patrol; follow-up investigations; on the daywatch/nightwatch; to become a captain ; to take police sciences classes; college graduate; at present; in future; to get a job; to work as a lawyer / investigator; to be busy with smth.; on days off;

II.Think of your own sentences with the given expressions.

III.Answer the questions:

1. What is Baxter’s duty?

2. How often does he go to night school?

3. Is he married?

4. What does he usually do in the evening? 

 

Lesson 2. HIGHER EDUCATION

1. Read the text:

Oxford University

Oxford is a beautiful town on the River Thames about fifty miles from London. Some people say it is more beautiful than any other city in England.

Oxford University was founded in the 12th century as an aris­tocratic university and has remained so to the present day. The Uni­versity consists of 32 colleges — 27 colleges for men and 5 colleges for women. There are 16 faculties there. Each college is a completely autonomous body, governed by its own laws. A large college has about 500 students, a small one — about a hundred. Several colleges say they are the oldest, but no other college is as old as Merton, which began in 1264.

The term of studies lasts for 10 weeks. There are 3 terms in the Oxford academic year.

Within the first week, the freshman meets his tutor who tells the student about his plans, the lectures, which he must take, about the requirements for the examination which he will take, about the course of reading for him. Attendance at lectures is not compulsory. Once every week each undergraduate goes to his tutor's room to read out an essay, which he has written, and discuss this essay with the tutor.

At the beginning or end of each term, the progress of the students is tested by the college examinations. They pay great attention to athletics at the University. The students are engaged in the different kinds of sports, take part in competitions between Oxford and Cambridge Universities.

  This is how a student spends his day. His working hours are from nine to 1. At 9 o’clock, he sees his tutor or goes to the library, attends lectures. From 2 to 5 he is engaged in sports and all kinds of exercise. From 5 to 7 he works in the library or laboratory.

 At 7 o’clock, they have dinner-time. After dinner the students have club activities, debating societies, etc.By 10 o'clock the student must be in the college, as most оf students live in the colleges, only some of them live in lodgings in the town.

The doors of Oxford University are not open to all. The majority of the students are graduates of private schools, so Oxford University remains an aristocratic university to the present day.

Tasks to the text.

1. Think of your own sentences using the given expressions:

1. freshman- студент первокурсник.

2. college — высшее учебное заведение, в котором учатся 3 года

и получают спец. образование (техническо гуманитарное, медицинское и др.). Колледж может существовать как самостоятельная единица также может входить в состав

университета university — это вуз, сост. из колледжей различных специальнос­тей (срок обучения 3 года). Выпускник университе­та получает степень бакалавра (e.g. the Degree of Bachelor of Arts, Science, Medicine, Engineering etc.)

Institute — это, как правило, научно-исследовательское учреж­дение

3.tutor — в английских университетах — это преподаватель, ведущий практические занятия в группе; он следит за учебой и дисциплиной студентов.

4. within the first week — в течение (не позднее) первой недели

5. attendance at lectures is not compulsory — присутствиее (посещение) лекций необязательно

6. to live in lodgings — снимать комнату

7. the progress of the students is tested by the college examina­tions — успехи студентов проверяются экзаменами в колледже

8. a debating society — дискуссионный клуб

9. to take club activities- участвовать в работе кружка

III. Active Vocabulary:

Law enforcement professional education;

Law enforcement experts of great practical experience;

 a graduate; to graduate from;

Work as investigators;

divisional inspectors the State Auto Inspection Department;

Other militia services; refreshment courses;

To enter the college; to pass the entrance examinations;

An applicant; conditions for getting a good education;

To do one’s best; professional specialization; to provide education;

Specially equipped laboratories; libraries; proper trainig; the term of training; diploma of a lawyer; lieutenants of militia; tutorials; to get knowledge of…;

Operative Detective Activity;

Administrative Law; Criminalistics;

to be engaged in; to have scientific societies; various clubs;

to patrol the streets; to maintain public order;

IV. Make the report about your college using the words from the active vocabulary.

Read the text.

2000-2025

Strategic goals:

- an overcoming of social, economic and spiritual CRISES; providing citizens with a higher quality of life and greater national security;

- restoration of the status of Russia in the Global (World) community as a great power in the fields of Education, culture, science, high technologies and economics;

· Creation of a foundation for the social, economic and spiritual development of Russia. Objectives:

The System of Education should provide:

- a historical continuity (succession) of generations; keeping, disseminating and developing the national culture;

-the raising up of patriots of Russia, citizens of THE civil, democratic, social State who respect the laws and liberties of personality and have high moral standards;

· all-round and well-timed development of children and youth, formation of skills of self-education and self-realization of personality;

· formation of integral understanding and a modern scientific world outlook of children and youth, development of the culture of inter-ethnic relations;

· systematically renovating of all aspects of education reflected in changes occurring in the fields of culture, economics, science, techniques and technologies;

· continuing education throughout a person's life;

· diverse educational institutions and variation of educational programs guaranteed the individualization of Education;

· continuity of levels and degrees of Education;

· development of a Long Distance Learning Education Program, creation of programs realizing the information technologies in Education;

· academic mobility of learners;

· development of State's traditions in the work with gifted children and gifted youth, participation of educators in research;

· training highly educated and highly skilled specialists; professional development and professional mobility in the conditions of the Informatization of society and the development of new scientific technologies;

· Ecological Education forming a protective stance towards nature.

(After Sergei N. Shirobokov)

Tasks to the text.

London

London has many faces. You can find beautiful houses and poor dirty buildings, there are streets full of well-dressed people and streets where dirty children play; big shops which sell wonderful things and small shops full of old clothes.

There is a lot of traffic in the streets of London - lines of buses and cars. Most buses in London are the famous red double-deckers that have two platforms for passengers. Bright-red buses look very nice in the streets of London. There are also green single-deckers; they run from London to the country.  In Britain, the traffic keeps to the left, and not to the right as in other countries. That is why when English people want to cross the street, they must look first to the right and then to the left.

The traffic lights are also different there. The red light means, "Stop", the green means "Wait", and only when you see the yellow light, which means "Cross", you may cross the street. "Keep left" is the general rule in Great Britain and people keep left.
People cross the street at the black-and-white zebra crossing, but sometimes they just run across the street.

In London, you may see people with unusual occupations, for example, buskers. What is a busker? It is a man who sings or plays in the streets, near cinemas and theatres or at bus stops - and people throw money in his hat. Buskers are usually young people between seventeen and thirty years old. Some of them play classical music and some play pop music.

One o'clock is lunchtime in London. The streets are full of people going to have their lunch. Many of them go into a pub to have lunch.

Londoners do not have to go very far to find green parks, because London is very rich in parks and gardens. Londoners are very proud of their parks. One of the most popular parks is Hyde Park. Londoners love it. On Sundays, you may see many Londoners there sitting with their families on the grass. Hyde Park is the place for all kinds of parades and meetings.

Task to the text:

Tasks to the text.

I. Answer the questions:

1. What is the official name of GB?

2. What seas and oceans seperate British Isles from the continent?

3. What languages are spoken in GB?

4. Which country is the smallest one?

5. Why the flag of GB is called “the Union Jack”?

Bottom of Form 0

    Political System

The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy. This means that it has a monarch (a king or a queen) as its Head of State. The monarch has very little power and can only reign with the support of Parliament. Parliament consists of two chambers known as the House of Commons and the House of Lords. Parliament and the monarch have different roles in the government of the country, and they only meet together on symbolic occasions such as the coronation of a new monarch or the opening of Parliament.

In reality, the House of Commons is the only one of the three, which has true power. It is here that new bills are introduced and debated. If the majority of the members are in favour of a bill it goes to the House of Lords to be debated and finally to the monarch 10 be signed. Only then does it become law. Although a bill must be supported by all three bodies, the House of Lords only has limited powers, and the monarch has not refused to sign one since the modern political system began over 200 years ago.

The House of Commons is made up of 650 elected members, known as Members of Parliament (abbreviated to MPs), each of whom represents an area (or constituency) of the United Kingdom. They are elected either at a general election, or at a by-election following the death or retirement of an MP. The election campaign usually lasts about three weeks. Everyone over the age of 18 can vote in an election, which is decided on a simple majority - the candidate with the most votes wins. Under this system, an MP who wins by a small number of votes may have more votes against him (that is, for the Other candidates) than for him. This is a very simple system, but many people think that it is unfair because the wishes of those who voted for the unsuccessful candidates are not represented at all.

Parliamentary elections must be held every five years at the latest, but the Prime Minister can decide on the exact date within those five years. The British democratic system depends on political parties, and there has been a party system of some kind since the 17th century. The political parties choose candidates in elections (there are sometimes independent candidates, but they are rarely elected). The party, which wins the majority of seals, forms the Government and its leader usually becomes Prime Minister. The largest minority party becomes the Opposition. In doing so it accepts the right of the majority party to run the country, while the majority party accepts the right of the minority party to criticize it. Without this agreement between the political parties, the British parliamentary system would break down.

The Prime Minister chooses about twenty MPs from his or her party to become Cabinet Ministers. Each minister is responsible for a particular area of government, and for a Civil Service department. For example, the Minister of Defence is responsible for defence policy and the armed forces, the Chancellor of the Exchequer for financial policy, and the Home Secretary for, among other things, law and order and immigration. The powers of the monarch are not defined precisely.

Theoretically every act of government is done in the Queen's name -every letter sent out by a government department is marked "on her Majesty's service" - and she appoints all the ministers, including the prime minister. In reality, everything is done on the advice of the elected government, and the monarch takes no part in the decision ­- making process.

Tasks to the text.

I. Divide the text into logical parts.

II. Make a short report or a dialogue about the life in modern GB.

III. Speak about:

· geographical position of GB;

· English science and culture;

· well-known Britons;

· London’s sights.

Lesson 5. THE USA

1. Read the text:

What do you know about?

1. The US President?
2. The House of Representatives?
3. The Senate?
4. The Congress?
5. The branches of the US government?

Crossword Puzzle

ACROSS:

1. Presiding Officer in the House of Representatives.
2. It is made in the United States Capitol.
3. The first President of the USA.
4. The person who discovered America and after whom Washington district is named.
5. The tallest building in Washington, D.C.
6. The month the presidential election is held.
7. The legislative branch of the US government.
8. The place where the President lives and works.

DOWN:

4. The 42nd President of the USA.
9. The river Washington, D.C. stands on.
10. The head of the executive branch of the US government.
11. A person who works in the US Senate.
12. The President who was the first to live in the White House.
13. It has 3 branches: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial.

 

Lesson 6. CONSTITUTIONAL LAW OF THE US & THE UK

The branches of the US government  

The American system of government is established by the United States Constitution, which provides for three separate but equal branches of government--legislative, executive, and judicial. Together, these branches make, execute, and interpret the laws that govern our country. Because each branch has both individual and shared powers, no one branch has more authority than the other two, and each is accountable to the others. This "checks and balances" system means that the balance of power in our government remains steady.

Under the Constitution, the federal government is divided into three branches.

The legislative power is vested in Congress and made up of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representative. There are 435 members in the House of Representative and 100 senators. Each state elects two members of the 100-member Senate.

The President, who proposes bills to Congress, enforces federal laws, serves as commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces and with the approval of the Senate, makes treaties, heads the executive branch. President can veto a bill unless Congress by a two-thirds vote shall overrule him.

The vice President, elected from the same political party as the President, acts as chairman of the Senate, and in the event of the death of the President, assumes the Presidency.

The judicial branch is made up of Federal District Courts, 11 Federal Courts and the Supreme Court. The President for life appoints federal judges. Federal courts decide cases involving federal law, conflicts between citizens of different states. The Supreme Court may rule the law to be unconstitutional.

Now about the elections. The President is chosen in nation-wide elections every 4 years together with the Vice-President.

 Constitution has been amended 26 times. The Bill of Rights guarantee individual liberties: freedom of word, religion and so on. Later amendments abolish slavery, grant the vote to women and allow citizens to vote at age 18.

Tasks to the text.

Tasks to the text.

MISSION


The mission of the FBI is to protect and defend the United States against terrorist and foreign intelligence threats, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States, and to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state, municipal, and international agencies and partners. The organization with these responsibilities has not always been called the FBI.

CORE VALUES

The FBI will strive for excellence in all aspects of its missions. In pursuing these missions and vision, the FBI and its employees will be true to, and exemplify, the following core values:


• Adherence to the rule of law and the rights conferred to all under the United States Constitution;
• Integrity through everyday ethical behavior;
• Accountability by accepting responsibility for our actions and decisions
and the consequences of our actions and decisions;
• Fairness in dealing with people; and
• Leadership through example, both at work and in our communities.

 

FBI Leadership Past and Present
Since its creation in 1908, the FBI has had ten Directors:

1908-1912 Chief Examiner Stanley Finch 1912-1919 Chief A. Bruce Bielaski 1919-1921 Director William J. Flynn 1921-1924 Director William J. Burns 1924-1972 Director J. Edgar Hoover
1973-1978 Director Clarence M. Kelley 1978-1987 Director William H. Webster 1987-1993 Director William S. Sessions 1993-2001 Director Louis J. Freeh 2001-Present Director Robert S. Mueller, III

THE DIRECTOR

The FBI is headed by a Director who is appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. On October 15, 1976, in reaction to the extraordinary 48-year term of J. Edgar Hoover, Congress passed Public Law 94-503, which limits the term of each FBI Director to ten years.

 The current Director, Robert S. Mueller, III, was confirmed as Director of the FBI by the Senate on August 2, 2001. He took the oath of office on September 4, 2001. Director Mueller previously served as US Attorney for the Districts of Northern California and Massachusetts and as Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Department of Justice’s Criminal Division. Director Mueller has experience in the private practice of law and is a Fellow of the American College of Trial Lawyers. For three years, he also served as an officer in the United States Marine Corps. Director Mueller holds a bachelor of arts degree from Princeton University, a master’s degree in international relations from New York University,and a law degree from the University of Virginia.

HEADQUARTERS

 

FBI Headquarters is currently located in the J. Edgar Hoover Building on Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, DC The Special Agents and support personnel who work at Headquarters organize and coordinate FBI activities around the world. Headquarters personnel determine investigative priorities, oversee major cases, and manage the organization’s resources, technology, and personnel. Headquarters also has a role in gathering and distributing information. If a Special Agent in Boise, Idaho, has some information that would help an Agent in New York City solve a case, Headquarters is responsible for making sure the information gets from Boise to New York.

Headquarters plays a key role in fighting terrorism. It is the focal point for intelligence, not only from around the country, but from the CIA and various countries overseas. Headquarters takes the intelligence information it collects, analyzes it, and sends it to field offices, state and municipal police departments, and other federal agencies such as the Department of Homeland Security.

As the FBI has grown, some Headquarters functions have been moved to other locations. The Criminal Justice Information Services Division is located in Clarksburg, West Virginia. The Laboratory and Investigative Technologies Divisions are located in Quantico, Virginia. Other specialized facilities, such as high-tech computer forensics centers, are at various locations across the country.

THE FIELD

The nuts and bolts work of the FBI is done in its 56 field offices and their 400 satellite offices, known as resident agencies. It is the Special Agent in the field who looks for clues, tracks down leads, and works with local law enforcement to catch and arrest criminals. A Special Agent in Charge oversees each field office, except for the largest field offices, in Washington, DC; Los Angeles; and New York City, which are headed by an Assistant Director.

INTERNATIONAL OFFICES

 

In addition to its field offices across the United States, the FBI has 45 offices known as Legal Attachés or “Legats” located around the world. Legats are our first line of defense beyond our borders. Their goals are simple—to stop foreign crime as far from American shores as possible and to help solve international crimes that do occur as quickly as possible.

To accomplish these goals, each Legat works with law enforcement and security agencies in their host country to coordinate investigations of interest to both countries. Some Legats are responsible for coordination with law enforcement personnel in several countries. The purpose of these Legats is strictly coordination; they do not conduct foreign intelligence gathering or counterintelligence investigations. The rules for joint activities and information sharing are generally spelled out in formal agreements between the United States and the Legat’s host country. The entire worldwide Legat program is overseen by a Special Agent in Charge located at FBI Headquarters.

Task to the text:

1. Read, translate the text with the vocabulary and divide it into logical parts.

2. Make a brief outline of the text.

3. Retell the story with the help of words and the plan you’ve written out.

 

Lesson 8. CRIMINAL JUSTICE PROCESS

-

1. Read and translate the text, paying attention to the underlined words.

II. Learn these new words.

Forensic science

Forensic science has come to play an increasingly important part in the investigation of serious crimes. One of the first significant developments was identification by fingerprints. It was discovered in the 19th century that almost any contact between a finger and a fixed surface left a latent mark that could be exposed by a variety of procedures, the most common being the use of a fine powder. It was accepted in 1893, by the Troup Committee established by the Home Secretary, that no two individuals had the same fingerprints, and this proposition has never been seriously refuted. Fingerprint evidence was accepted for the first time in an English court in 1902.

The original purpose of recording and collecting fingerprints was to establish and to make

readily available the criminal record of particular offenders, but fingerprinting is now widely used as a means of identifying the perpetrators of particular offenses. Most major police forces maintain collections of fingerprints taken from known criminals at the time of their conviction, for use in identifying these individuals should they commit later crimes. Fingerprints (which may be incomplete) found at the scene of the crime are matched with fingerprints in the collection. According to the British standard, if the sets of fingerprints share at least 16 characteristics, it is considered virtually certain that they are from the same person. Searching fingerprint collections had historically been a time-consuming manual task, based on various systems of classification, but systems for electronic storage and rapid searching of fingerprint collections were developed and implemented in the 1980s.

A broad range of other scientific techniques is available to law enforcement agencies attempting to identify suspects or to establish beyond doubt the connection between a suspect and the crime in question. Examples include the analysis of bloodstains and traces of other body fluids (such as semen or spittle) that may indicate some of the characteristics of the offender. Fibres can be analyzed by microscopy or chemical analysis to show, for instance, that fibres found on the victim or at the scene of the crime are similar to those in the clothing of the suspect. Hair samples, and particularly skin cells attached to hair roots, can be compared chemically and genetically to those of the suspect. Many inorganic substances, such as glass, paper, and paint, can yield considerable information under microscopic or chemical analysis. Examination of a document in question may reveal it to be a forgery, on the evidence that the paper on which it is written was manufactured by a technique not available at the time to which it allegedly dates. The refractive index of even small particles of glass may be measured to show that a given item or fragment of glass was part of a particular batch manufactured at a particular time and place. Such information may help to identify the kind of automobile involved in a hit-and-run accident. Computer networks allow investigators to search increasingly large bodies of data on material samples, but the creation of the necessary data bases is a lengthy process.

Copyright 1994-1998 Encyclopaedia Britannica

Tasks to the text:

I. Answer the questions:

1.What was the first system of identification?

1. When was the first fingerprint classification worked out?

2. Why is fingerprinting the best means of identification?

3. Is forgery of fingerprints possible?

4. How can a forged fingerprint be detected?

Fingerprints

Fingerprints found at the scene of a crime can be evidence connecting an individual with a crime. Fingerprints can be either visible or latent. Visible prints--formed by dirt or blood, for example--or three-dimensional prints formed in soft matrices, can be photographed directly. Latent fingerprints, which are not ordinarily visible, can be brought out by dusting techniques

when the surface is hard and by chemical techniques when the surface is porous. In dusting for fingerprints, a fine powder of contrasting colour is applied with a fine brush. The powder clings to the residual oils and fats in the print and the excess powder is removed with the brush. On porous surfaces such as paper, fuming iodine, silver nitrate, or ninhydrin solutions are used to develop the latent fingerprints. The most effective developer of latent fingerprints is ninhydrin, which can reveal prints that are several years old.

Fingerprints are identified on the basis of agreements in a significant number of individualities, commonly known as "points." These are the bifurcations, ending ridges, and dots in the fingerprint pattern. If sufficient points are found with spatial relationship to other points, a basis exists for identifying a fingerprint. It was formerly considered necessary to have 12 points to identify a fingerprint, but in current practice, a lesser number is often used. Palm prints and footprints are identified in the same manner as fingerprints.

Tasks to the text:

I. Give all possible word combinations:

prints (скрытые, видимые, невидимые, пластичные)

evidence (вещественные, косвенные, прямые, подтверждающие, убедительные)

fingerprints (найти, обработать порошком, проявить, подделать)

evidence (искать, измерять, извлекать, разрушать, загрязнять, собирать)

the scene of the crime (осматривать, охранять, фотографировать)

II Do the following tasks:

· Divide text into logical parts.

· Give the name to each part.

· Give the contents of each part in 1-3 phrases.

· Give the summury of the whole text.

Lesson 10. MY FUTURE PROFESSION

Legal professions in GB

Solicitors. There are about 50000 solicitors, a number which is rapidly increasing, and they make up by far the largest branch of the legal profession in England and Wales. They are found in every town, where they deal with all the day-to-day work of preparing legal documents for buying and selling houses, making wills, etc. Solicitors also work on court cases for their clients, prepare cases for barristers to present in the higher courts, and may represent their client in a Magistrates court.

Barristers. There are about 5000 barristers who defend or prosecute in the higher courts. Although solicitor and barristers work together on cases, barristers specialize in representing clients in court and the training and career structures for the two types of lawyer are quite separate. In court, barristers wear wigs and gowns in keeping with the extreme formality of the proceedings. The highest level of barristers have the title QC (Queens Counsel).

Judges. There are a few hundred judges, trained as barristers, who preside in more serious cases. There is no separate training for judges.

Jury. A jury consist of twelve people (Jurors), who are ordinary people chosen at random from the Electoral Register (the list of people who can vote in elections). The jury listen to the evidence given in court in certain criminal cases and decide whether the defendant is guilty or innocent. If the person is found guilty, the punishment is passed by the presiding judge. Juries are rarely used in civil cases.

Magistrates. There are about 30000 magistrates (Justices of the Peace or JPs), who judge cases in the lower courts. There are usually unpaid and have no formal legal qualifications, but they are respectable people who are given some training.

Coroners. Coroners have medical or legal training (or both ), and inquire into violent or unnatural deaths.

Clerks of the court. Clerks look after administrative and legal matters in the courtroom.

Tasks to the text:

III.

Appendix 1. THE USA QUIZ

1. What is the official name of the USA?

2. Where is the USA situated?

3. Which countries does the USA border on?

4. What is the population of the USA?

5. What is the type of the state?

6. How many states are there in the USA?

7. Which four states of the USA begin with the word NEW?

8. Which 2 of the states are separated from the others?

9. Name the main political parties of the country and say which animals symbolize each party?

10. Describe the flag of the state.

11. How many presidents have been in the USA before G. Bush?

12. What is the largest city?

13. What is the biggest state?

14. What are the biggest rivers, the largest lakes and highest mountain chains?

15. What is the climate in the USA?

16. Which branches of heavy & light industry are highly developed in the USA? 

17. What can you say about the capital of the state?

18. Which kinds of sports are the most popular in the USA? (4)

19. Which famous American document begins with the words, “We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union…”

Appendix 2.

  US Constitution  

The Constitution defines the fundamental law of the United States federal government, setting forth the three principal branches of the federal government, outlining their jurisdictions, and propounding the basic rights of U.S. citizens. It has become the landmark legal document of the Western world, and is the oldest written national constitution currently in effect. The essential principle of the document is that government must be confined to the rule of law.

The Constitution of the USA guarantees the right of each individual over age 18 to take part in government. The government cannot take this right away. For their part, citizens in a democracy have the responsibility to participate in government.

Through the years, the Constitution has remained the basis of American government. It states the important rights in which Americans believe. All law in the United States is based on the Constitution. In addition, the Constitution describes how the national government is organised. It provides ways to make, change, and enforce the laws of the United States.

The national government only has certain powers. The Constitution gives all powers to the states and the people. This makes the United States a federal republic, or union of states.The federal government decides matters that affect all the states or the people as a whole. Individual states are responsible for local government. For example, each state controls its own schools, highways, and law enforcement.

Appendix 3. Bill of Rights.

The conventions of a number of the States having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added.

Article the first [Not Ratified]


After the first enumeration required by the first article of the Constitution, there shall be one Representative for every thirty thousand, until the number shall amount to one hundred, after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall be not less than one hundred Representatives, nor less than one Representative for every forty thousand persons, until the number of Representatives shall amount to two hundred; after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall not be less than two hundred Representatives, nor more than one Representative for every fifty thousand persons.

Article the second [Amendment XXVII - Ratified 1992]
No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.

Article the third [Amendment I]
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

Article the fourth [Amendment II]
A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

Article the fifth [Amendment III]
No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Article the sixth [Amendment IV]
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Article the seventh [Amendment V]
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Article the eighth [Amendment VI]
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

Article the ninth [Amendment VII]
In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Article the tenth [Amendment VIII]
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Article the eleventh [Amendment IX]
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Article the twelfth [Amendment X]
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

 

I. Список использованной литературы:

1. Ахманова О.С. Англо-русский словарь. – М.: Совет.энциклопедия, 1972.

2. Андрианов С.Н., Берсон А.С. Англо-русский юридический словарь- М.: Рус.яз., 1993.

3. Брускина Т.Л. Шитова Л.Ф. Краткий русско-английский фразеологический словарь.- СПб.: Из-во «Лань», 1999.

4. Вахмистров В.В. Английский язык. – М.: Высшая школа, 1968.

5. Голицинский Ю.Б. Великобритания: Пособие по страноведению. – СПб.: Каро, 2002.

6. Маккей А., Ботнер М.Т., Гейтс Дж.И. Словарь американских идиом. – СПб.: Издательство «Лань», 1997.

7. Куценко Л.И., Г.И. Тимофеева. Английский язык. Учебное пособие/ Под ред.И.И.Сущинского. - М.: МЮИ МВД России, 1996.

8. Ощепкова В.В. Шустилова И.И. О Британии вкратце: Книга для чтения на английском языке. – М.: Лист, 1999.

9. Ощепкова В.В. О США вкратце: Книга для чтения на англ.языке. – М.: Иностранный язык, Оникс, 2003.

10. Хорнби А.С. Оксфордский интенсивный английский для взрослых.- М.: Буклет, 1993.

11. Hornby A.S. Oxford Student’s Dictionary of Current English.- Oxford: Oxford University Press,1984.

12. Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language –New York/Avenel: Gramercy Books, 1994.

 

   Ресурсы Интернета:

1. URL: http://news.bbc.co.uk

2. URL: http://www.ox.ac.uk

3. URL: http://www.just-English.ru/abc.html

4. URL: http://www.edufind.com/English/grammar/toc.cfm.

5. URL: http://www.edu.ru

6. URL: http://nota.triwe.net/English11

7. URL: http://www.number-10.gov.uk.

8. URL: http://www.royal.gov.uk/

9. URL: http://titania.cobuild.collins.co.uk./direct.info.html

10. URL: http://ucl.ac.uk/English-usage/ice.html

11. The White House - URL: http://whitehouse.gov.

12. URL: http://oed.com

13.  URL: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/

14. URL: http://www.english.language.ru/tests

15. URL: http://www.rambler.ru/dict/enru/

16.  URL: http://www.britannica.com/

17.  http://www.gale.com/free_resourses/lit_kit/guide.htm

18. http://www.fbi.gov.

19. Карта Великобритании. – URL: http://strlondon.narod.ru/main.html

20. Карта Великобритании. – URL: http://www.tury.ru/index.php/countries

21. Карта США – URL: http://WWW.AMONDSMITH.RU/usa.htm

22. System of Russian Education - ­­URL: http://www.useic.ru/russian_education/

23.  Metropolitan Police - URL: http://www.met.police.uk

24. Энциклопедия Кирилла и Мефодия – URL: http://www.km.ru


Содержание

I. ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА…………………………………… ..2

II. СОДЕРЖАНИЕ УРОКОВ:

Lesson 1 . MY FAMILY………………………………………………………3                       

Lesson 2. HIGHER EDUCATION…………………………………..………...4

Lesson 3. TOWN…………………………………………………………….…7

Lesson 4. GREAT BRITAIN…………………………………………………10

Lesson 5. THE USA…………………………………………………………..12

Lesson 6. CONSTITUTIONAL LAW OF THE US & THE UK…………….17

Lesson 7. POLICE WORK IN THE USA, BRITAIN………………………..18

Lesson 8. CRIMINAL JUSTICE PROCESS…………………………………26

Lesson 9. PHYSICAL EVIDENCE…………………………………………..28

Lesson 10. MY FUTURE PROFESSION…………………………………….30

III. APPENDIX………………………………………………………………32

IV.СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ……………………..38

 

 

[Е1]

Baxter Slate

Baxter Slate is a police officer. He is 23 years old. He was born in California. Now Baxter works at the Los Angeles Police Department. He is a patrol officer. His duty is to make uniform patrol in the district and to help detectives with their follow-up investigations. Sometimes Baxter works on the daywatch and other times on the nightwatch. Baxter likes to do police work. He wants to become a captain so he takes police sciences classes at night school twice a week.

Baxter is married. His wife Clara is 2 years younger than her husband. She is a college graduate but she does not work at present. Clara looks after her children, a boy of 3 and a girl of 4, 5. Clara thinks that in future she will get a job and work as an economist.

When Baxter finishes his tour of duty, he returns home where he helps his wife, plays with his children and has a rest. If he is not busy with his studies, he usually watches TV, reads newspapers and magazines. On his days off Baxter and his wife often go to the cinema or visit their parents.

Tasks to the text.

I.Find the Russian equivalents for the following expressions from the text.

Learn the words:

 Police Department; patrol officer; to make uniform patrol; follow-up investigations; on the daywatch/nightwatch; to become a captain ; to take police sciences classes; college graduate; at present; in future; to get a job; to work as a lawyer / investigator; to be busy with smth.; on days off;



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