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Reforms implemented in 1991 (diversification of Higher Education; humanization; decentralization of management, University autonomy; creation of A non-public (private) sector of Higher Education) allowed for changes in Higher Education including the establishment of a multi-level structure that would meet international standards and mach the country's human resource needs.

Public and private higher education institutions provide Higher Education in Russia. Education in public Higher Education Institutions is free of charge. The Russian Government guarantees open and free access to Higher Education on competitive basis.

Higher education in RUSSIA is under the jurisdiction of the Russian Ministry of Education, which is responsible for THE accreditation of Higher Education Institutions and for THE development and MAINTENANCE OF State Educational standards.

Nowadays Higher Education in the Russian Federation IS COMPRISED OF 552 higher education institutions, not including military institutions. Some 2.6 million students were enrolled in higher education institutions in 1996 with a teaching staff of over 220,000 professors at university-level institutions.

The government of the Russian Federation has stipulated three levels of study:

- Level I generally TAKES 2 years to study for a Bakalavr's or Specialist's intermediate diploma. This level concentrates on compulsory fundamental courses in the given disciplines. Students holding a Level I qualification may either continue their studies or, if they CHOOSE TO, leave the institution with an intermediate diploma.

- Level II marks the continuation of studies for additional two years leading to a Bakalavr's degree. Consequently, this first academic degree entails four years of study.

- Level III represents an educational level common to both the Magistr's Diploma and the Specialist's Diploma.

There are two levels of doctoral scientific degrees: Kandidat Nauk Degree (the first level) and Doktor Nauk Degree (the second, highest level).

National Doctrine of Education in the Russian Federation


Strategic goals:

- an overcoming of social, economic and spiritual CRISES; providing citizens with a higher quality of life and greater national security;

- restoration of the status of Russia in the Global (World) community as a great power in the fields of Education, culture, science, high technologies and economics;

· Creation of a foundation for the social, economic and spiritual development of Russia. Objectives:

The System of Education should provide:

- a historical continuity (succession) of generations; keeping, disseminating and developing the national culture;

-the raising up of patriots of Russia, citizens of THE civil, democratic, social State who respect the laws and liberties of personality and have high moral standards;

· all-round and well-timed development of children and youth, formation of skills of self-education and self-realization of personality;

· formation of integral understanding and a modern scientific world outlook of children and youth, development of the culture of inter-ethnic relations;

· systematically renovating of all aspects of education reflected in changes occurring in the fields of culture, economics, science, techniques and technologies;

· continuing education throughout a person's life;

· diverse educational institutions and variation of educational programs guaranteed the individualization of Education;

· continuity of levels and degrees of Education;

· development of a Long Distance Learning Education Program, creation of programs realizing the information technologies in Education;

· academic mobility of learners;

· development of State's traditions in the work with gifted children and gifted youth, participation of educators in research;

· training highly educated and highly skilled specialists; professional development and professional mobility in the conditions of the Informatization of society and the development of new scientific technologies;

· Ecological Education forming a protective stance towards nature.

(After Sergei N. Shirobokov)

Tasks to the text.

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