Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Associate of arts degree, 1984, Richland college, Dallas, Texas. Major in business with emphasis in sales and secretarial science High School Diploma, 1982, Willard High School Dallas, Texas
Extracurricula Student Government Representative
Activities Young Salespeople of America
References Available upon request
TELExes, TELEgrams, TELEFAXES
Telegrams sent with the help of teleprinters (teletypes) are called telexes.
Telexes are mostly used for information which is in urgent for you to have or to pass. The Telex network is world-wide and links over 400,000 subscribers in over fifty different countries. How wide is the Telex network nowadays can be seen just from one example: only one Japanese company «Mitsubishi Serji» has got 125 teleprinters all over the world and 60 teleprinters in Japan itself. They are all linked with the Central Computer Exchange of the company in Tokyo by communication lines of 450 thousand km long, which is 11 times longer than the circumference of the Earth.
All telex numbers are published in the Telex Directory. Company telex number(s) is (are) given in printed company-forms (company letter-paper) in the letterhead or at the bottom of the page: e.g. TLX # 783290, Telex 86286 Allman G, Telex: 667844 Simcar G.
The telex system provides a 24-hour service, and messages may be sent to a subscriber even when his teleprinter is unattended, if it has not been switched off. So it is possible to send messages at night ready to be dealt with first thing next morning. All calls are charged on a time-and-distance basis.
In addition to standard telex equipment for the messages as they are typed, there is a special equipment for the transmission of messages automatically at high speed. This equipment may be fitted to the teleprinter and transmit messages on perforated tape at a continuous speed of 400 characters (or 66 words) a minute.
The advantages of automatic transmission are obvious. Here are some International Telex Abbreviations which may be useful to remember:
ABS = absent, office closed
ATTN = for the attention of
FIN = end of message
NC = lines engaged
OCC = customer engaged
OK = agreed
PLS/SVP = please
RPT = please repeat message
RYT = reference your telex
TX/TLX = telex
EEE/XXXX = an error, the next word replaces the last word.
Telexes should be short, exact and clear. They are often written without the Opening Salutation or the Complimentary Closing and without paragraphs. Very often conjunctions, prepositions, pronouns and punctuation marks may be omitted if it does not impair the meaning of the message. To mark the end of the sentence the word «stop» or full stop may be used. As a rule, no capital letters are used in the telex messages.
attn: vice general director petrov
pls confirm our understanding that your requirements will be the purchase of equipment in western countries in accordance with your own specifications and thus our company will not be required to carry out any engineering design work.
411194a tmi su
667844 simcar g
attn: deputy director «techmashkhimapparat»
informing you that our sales manager and myself will be in Kyiv again 15-22 November inclusive, we wish to discuss delivery progress of current contract and your recent further enquiries to which quotations were mailed to you lately pls advise as soon as possible by telex suitable form date and time of our appointment. Wednesday or Thursday would be more convenient for us if that is ok with you.
411194 tmi s u
84829 6ihferm g
att: dr grover
re:agreement # 1-73/79
reference is made to our letter dated 10.10.91 about submitting an invoice to us every year to the amount as stated in para.3.2 of the licence agreement stop we would ask you to send us respective invoice in august this year.
7256545 sel d
411246 lit su
Messages transmitted by telegraph are called telegrams if they are sent by means of wire and cables (cablegrams) if they are sent by means of cable (laid underground or on the ocean bottom). Nowadays in Britain and in most other English-speaking countries, however, the word «cable» is used for any telegrams which are sent out of the country. It is even applicable to wireless communication (to radiograms). Telegrams are usually typed out in capital letters without any punctuation, the word «stop» may be used if necessary to make the meaning clear.
Since telegrams are charged according to the number of words, they must be economically worded, i.e. kept short:
1. By means of omitting nonessential words such as articles, link words, pronouns as subjects, some prepositions (not «within» or «without») and other auxiliary parts of the sentence. But the message to be sent must not be cut down so far as to make it ambiguous.
2. By leaving out the Opening Salutation and Complimentary Closing. Such courtesy-words, however, as thanks (thank you-TU),please (PLS), kindly appreciate, regards (RGDS) and some others are widely used.
3. By using abbreviations such as:
4. By joining parts of words and whole words: OURLET = our letter, YOUR LET = your letter, OUR TEL = our telegram (telex), YOURTEL = your telegram (telex), RELET = relating (referring) to letter, RECABLE = relating (referring) to cable, REPHONE =referring to telephone conversation, REURLET = referring to your letter /REYRLET/, REURTEL = referring to your telegram (telex) /REYRTEL/, PRODOC = project document, PERDAY = per day, PERTON = per ton, FIVEPERCENT = five per cent (%).
To avoid mistakes number in cables are written in words, and certain numbers e.g. double figures (cardinal and ordinal) from twenty one (twenty first) and on — twentyone, thirtyfirst, fortyfive are written in one word. Number «one hundred (thousand),etc.» are written in one word, as well as ninehundred, seventhousand, fivethousand and fiftyfive (=5 055).
e.g. «REYRTEL TENTH MAY QUOTING LOWEST TWOHUNDRED PERUNIT INCLUDING FIVEPERCENT TRADE DISCOUNT RGDS»
5. By using «cable language» («telegraphic English»), which is not always correct in ordinary writing, for example:
«PLS QUOTE LOWEST AND SOONEST TWO MACHINETOOLS CIF CALCUTTA RGDS» (The words «lowest» and «soonest» are understood to mean: «the lowest price» and «the soonest (earliest) delivery time»).
«CONFIRMING SHIPMENT EARLY MAY TWO MACHINETOOLS PLS ADVISE SHIPMENT TIME SECOND LOT ASAP RGDS» (confirming = we are confirming).
«REGRET PRICE UNACCEPTABLE» (=we regret we cannot accept your price).
«REGRET POOR DEMAND COMPETITORS POSITION VERY STRONG» (= we regret that there is poor demand for your equipment. Our competitors are in very strong position.)
For the sake of economy and occasionally of secrecy instead of writing cables in clear you may use commercial codes (Marconi, Bentley's) and cyphers. There are special «Code Books», for example the British ABC Code, which serve as dictionaries (to read cables written in code).
a) certain words are very frequent in cables, for example:
to advise повідомляти
to expedite прискорювати
to finalize завершувати, закінчувати
to report доповідати
«PLS ADVISE SOONEST DELIVERY DATE RGDS PETROV»
«PLS EXPEDITE REPLY RGDS BROWN»
«URGENTLY FINALIZE CONTRACT NEGOTIATIONS»
b) if a document is quoted, the word «QUOTE» is written at the beginning (meaning — цитую) and «UNQUOTE» at the end (= кінець цитати)
c) you write the word «EYE» for the pronoun «I» to avoid
d) to stress the importance of something the word «REPEAT» is used and the important part is repeated, e.g.
«PLS TRANSFER ENGLISH POUNDS 500 REPEAT 500 ASAP.»
Lengthy messages which are urgent may be sent by letter telegrams at half the rate for ordinary telegrams. They are delivered on the day next to one when they were handed in. Messages sent by ( letter telegram must have the appropriate indication: L.T. in front of the address.
Just a couple of decades ago telegraphic messages were the fastest means of business communication. They were widely used for buying and selling in exchanges, in dealings in raw materials, stocks and shares, foreign currencies, ships and insurance. But their role has been diminishing over since the appearance of other means of communication — especially telexes.
For the convenience of the customers companies register their cable addresses (= telegraphic addresses) which are abbreviated (brief) registered addresses for use in cables. Company cable addresses were and sometimes still are printed on company forms.
Formally the cable address was given in detail, for example on the letter paper of the English firm Y. Brown & W. Pink Ltd. you could read:
Foreign — BRONK, LONDON
Inland — BRONK, PICCY, LONDON
Code — BENTLIES
Now it is short:
Cable: STANLOR ESSLINGEN
(=cable address of Standard Electric Lorenz AG from Esslingen)
Cable: NISSH01WAI TOKYO
(=cable address of Nissho Iwai Corporation from Tokyo).
Some companies do not print their cable addresses on their forms any longer.
YOURLET SECOND JUNE CAN GUARANTEE DELIVERY BY AUGUST
ORDER RECEIVED LATEST JUNE FIFTEENTH RGDS BROWN
REGRET UNABLE ACCEPT FURTHER ORDERS UNTIL END JULY REPEAT END JULY RGDS
Since cables and telexes are not juridical documents and if they contain information changes in terms, dates or other important agreed data, they, should be confirmed by letters the same day, either by repeating their words, or by sending their carbon copies.
We confirm our exchange of cables according to the attached copies, and enclose our Order # 456 with shipping instructions.
ENC: 5 pages
We confirm our cable, as per copy attached (enclosed), and your reply as follows:
While telexes are used to pass information about orders, time of delivery ans various other matters during the negotiations, important printed materials may be transmitted from one place to another by telecopiers (which is principally a copying machine that is connected to another similar copier through the telephone network) often called telefaxes.
To: Mrs Marjolein Bakker
PTT Telecom Netherlands
fax: +56 72 511 3587
From: Ivan Petrenko
tel: + 380-44-229 1123
fax: + 380-44-229 0056
Date: March 2, 1995
Subject: On participation in GDM
Dear Mrs. Bakker,
Thank you very much for hotel reservation for us. As before, we plan to arrive in the Netherlands on March 26, 1995 by the flight of KLM Kyiv — Amsterdam.
We should be most grateful if you would send us an official invitation that is necessary for an entry visa at the Netherlands Embassy.
Hereby we send you our passport data:
Strategy & Planaing
To: Director Training
tel: 3170 332 3315
fax: 3170 332 4029
From: Ivan Petrenko
Network Strategy & Planning
tel: 380-44-224 1235
fax: 380-44-224 1239 -
Date: April 6, 1995
Subject: Course attendance «Management of Planning of Modern Telephone Network»
Dear Mr. Norman A. Matil,
Thank you very much for your help in entrance visa reception at the embassy of Netherlands in Kyiv.
I plan to arrive to Netherlands on Sunday, April 9, 1995 by the KLM flight Kyiv — Amsterdam. According to the time table, arrival time to Schiphol airport at 17.30.
Will you be so kind to arrange a transport to take me from the airport to Groningen.
Thank you for your assistance.
Network Strategy & Planning
To: Mr. Тау Lee Heng
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