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THE PROS AND CONS OF THE INTERNET
The Internet is without doubt one of the most important inventions in history. It was started in 1968 by the US government, but at first it was used mainly by scientists. Since 1990, when the World Wide Web was created, it has changed the world and its uses are growing every day.
The main use of the Internet is to find information – for your schoolwork or job, or just to find out more about your hobbies, sports or current events.
All of the latest information is available to you, in your home, at any hour of the day and night. It’s much faster and easier to surf the net in search of information from all over the world than to travel to libraries in dozens of countries.
You can also use the Internet to read newspapers and magazines, play games, plan your holiday or buy from your favourite shop.
E-mail makes it possible to send electronic messages anywhere in the world in seconds, and you can use the Internet to “chat” with people and make new friends.
However, the real world of the Internet may not be as perfect as it seems.
With so much information available, finding what you want can take you hours. Multimedia web pages with photographs, music and video are attractive, but they make downloading slow and boring. Besides, there is too much advertising instead of real information.
As for Internet friendships, sitting at home in front of a computer making “chat friends” is not the same as actually meeting people.
1.When and by whom was the Internet started?
2.Who used the Internet at first?
3.When was WWW created?
4.What is the main use of the Internet?
5.What are the advantages and disadvantages of the Internet?
3.Think of other pros and cons of using computers and Internet. Discuss them with your group-mates.
4.Fill in the table. Use the picture above.
5.Fill in the gaps with the correct word derived from the words in brackets.
The Internet has changed 1 ______ (communicate) as we know it. From education to 2 _______ (advertise) this new 3 _____ (technology) advance has affected 4 _____ (practical) every aspect of our lives. Magazines, newspapers and even books are “on-line” and can be read on the computer. You can find 5 _____ (inform) on any topic – the 6_____ (possible)are 7 _____ (end). The Internet can 8 _____ (instant) connect you to other computers, allowing you to “chat” with people all over the world. It’s actually very easy to learn how to use the system, and once you’ re on line, you’ll never want to turn the computer off! The 9 ____ (develop) of such technology has come a long way. These 10 _____ (amaze) electronic devices have changed many people’s lives for ever.
6.Write the composition “Computer in my life”
Text. The Founder of the Microsoft
1.Read and translate.
It’s hard to believe that the first personal computer, the prototype of the computer now found in homes and offices around the world, was developed less than twenty years ago. The original PC, as it’s known, came in a form of an electronic kit, a piece of hardware strictly for the hobbyist. The software for that machine – the language that allows us to tell the computer what we want it to do – was developed by William Gates.
Bill was born in 1955 in Seattle. He became interested in computers when he was 13 years old. Bill attended Harvard University. There he began to develop the computer language called Basic. Later William returned to Seattle where he established the Microsoft Company in 1975. It employed only three workers at first. Microsoft developed software for established American companies like General Electric, City Bank and International Business Machines company, known as IBM. In1981 IBM began selling a personal computer that used Microsoft products as part of its operating system. By then Microsoft had 129 workers.
Today four out of five of the world’s personal computers run on Microsoft software, on what is called Microsoft DOS or on its latest incarnation – Windows. Windows system makes it much easier to use a computer. It’s through the Windows system that we may gain access to the Internet, the global computer network.
Microsoft does thousands of millions of dollars in business each year. It now has more than 16 thousand workers in 48 countries. Microsoft produces computer programmes in 30 languages and sells them in more than 100 countries.
Thanks to the success of his company, William Gates has earned a personal fortune estimated to be in excess of seven billion dollars. He is one of the richest men in the world.
electronic kit – електронний конструктор
incarnation – втілення
access – доступ
earn – заробляти
in excess of – більш ніж
2.Answer the questions.
1.When was the first personal computer developed?
2.By whom was the software for the machine developed?
3.When and where was William Gates born?
4.At what age did he become interested in computers?
5.At what University did he study?
6.What did he begin to develop during his studies at the University?
7.When and where did he establish the Microsoft Company?
8.For what companies did he develop software?
9.What are the advantages of using Windows system?
10.In how many languages does Microsoft produce computers programmes?
3.Retell the text.
Read and dramatise the following dialogue.
(Leon has been working in the computer centre for many years. His younger brother David is a newcomer. David combines his work with studies. He is in his first year at the University, Computer Faculty.)
David: Leon, did you buy that computer we had seen?
Leon: I sure did. One of our customers wants to buy it. It is a new store and they want the computer to have their own record keeping system.
David: Do you know everything about operating it? The computer is of the newest model.
Leon: Of course, I do. It’s my job. I’m going to explain our customers how to operate it, how to plan the use of this computer in their business.
David: It is useful for their business, isn’t it?
Leon: It goes without saying.
David: I wish I knew about computers as much as you do.
Leon: All in good time, my dear, all in good time. By the way, what are you reading?
David: I’m working over my report on computers and their nowadays use. But there are some special terms I can hardly understand.
Leon: All right. What are those terms?
David: Say, the word “bit”.
Leon: Bit is the smallest unit of information that the computer recognises. It is as simple as that.
David: Thank you, Leon. And what is byte?
Leon: A group of bits which stand for a single letter or number in the computer.
David: The word “cassette” means some way to store information, doesn’t it?
Leon: You are right. But also it means the cheapest and slowest way to store information and only when the computer’s of.
The Present Perfect, the Past Perfect and the Future Perfect Passive are formed by means of the Present Perfect, the Past Perfect and the Future Perfect of the auxiliary verb to be and Participle II of the notional verb.
The Present, Past and Future Perfect in the Passive Voice as well as in the Active Voice express an action completed before a definite present, past or future moment or before the beginning of another action.
1. Supply the missing part of the analytical form of the verb in the Passive Voice.
1.A lot of houses _____ been built in our town this year. 2.Don’t close the window. It has just ____ opened. 3.The next morning when I came out, I saw that the streets ____ been washed out by rain. 4.I didn’t know that he hadn’t ____ invited. 5.The construction of the bridge ____ not been finished before winter came. 6.His parents ____ been married five years when he was born. 7.How long has this stadium ____ built? 8.He went away last year and he ___ not ___ heard of ever since.
2. Open the brackets, using the Passive Voice.
1.He knew that his mistake (not/discover). 2.She didn’t follow the advice she (give). 3.When she returned, the subject of the conversation already (change). 4.Everybody (send) an invitation? 5.I didn’t know that the letter (lose). 6.He said he had never been there but he often (tell) about this place. 7.All the books from the library (return) by the end of the term. 8.When we came to the cinema, all the seats (sell).
3. Make these sentences passive.
1.They have published her new book recently. 2.The town council has just opened our local museum. 3.Their house looks very smart after they have painted it. 4.The room looks nice. Somebody has cleaned it. 5.She had written the answers to all the questions long before the end of the lesson. 6.Dinner is ready and hot. Someone has just cooked it. 7.No one has lived in this house for the last hundred years. 8.Have they told him about the changes in the time table?
4. John had been away from his home city for ten years. When he came back to Mainfield he saw many changes. Say what John saw using passive structures.
1)they had built a new hospital; 2)they had rebuilt the old library; 3)they had turned the city centre into a real shopping area; 4)they had opened a new fire station; 5)they had changed the names of some streets; 6) . . .
5. Translate the following sentences, using the Passive Voice.
1.Запрошення не було прийняте, так як воно було отримане занадто пізно. 2.Було обговорено лише три питання, коли ми почули дзвоник. 3.Ця кімната завжди призначалась (використовувалась) для гостей. 4.Вони заблудились тому, що їм не показали дорогу. 5.Її щойно забрали в лікарню. 6.Коли приїхав тато, речі вже були спаковані.
1.Remember the following words and word combinations:
to exist існувати
to designate позначати, вказувати
foreign invaders іноземні загарбники
to enslave обертати в рабство
armed forces збройні сили
to maintain підтримувати
to stretch простягатися
to possess володіти
iron ore залізна руда
non-ferrous metals кольорові метали
breadbasketжитниця, основний зерновий район
resort курорт, часто відвідуване місце
to dot усіювати
southernmost tip самий південний схил
Remember the pronunciation of the following proper names:
Ukraine, Belarus, Russia, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Moldova, the Carpathian Mountains, the Crimean Mountains
2.Read and translate paying attention to the active words and word combinations.
Today, Ukraine is included in all the world atlases. But there did exist maps on which Ukraine was not designated. In the past foreign invaders tried more than once to destroy and enslave the country.
Now Ukraine is a rich farming, industrial and mining region in south-eastern Europe. It is an independent democratic state. Its population is about 49 million people. Its capital is Kyiv. Ukraine has its own armed forces and maintains its own diplomatic relations with foreign countries.
The territory of Ukraine is 603,700 square kilometers. Two such countries as Italy can be placed on this territory. Ukraine stretches for more than 1300 km from east to west and about 900 km from north to south.
Ukraine borders on Belarus in the North, Russia in the East and Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania and Moldova in the West. The country is washed by the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov in the South. The depth of the water area near the Ukrainian coast is no more than 120 metres and only at the south coast of Crimea it is up to 2 kilometres. The geographical position of Ukraine is ideal for the development of its resources. Its earth possesses almost all chemical elements of Mendeleev’s table: aluminium, lead, zinc, nickel, etc. The land of the country is rich in coal, ore, iron ore, oil, non-ferrous metals.
Within the borders of Ukraine there are the Carpathian Mountains with the highest pick Hoverla 2061m high and the Crimean Mountains with the highest pick Roman Kosh 1545m high.
Ukraine is the country of many rivers. The Dnieper/Dnipro river divides Ukraine into two parts: Right-Bank and Left-Bank Ukraine. The Danube gives Ukraine access to European countries and the Siversky Donets – to the Don.
The economic potential of Ukraine is great. Ukraine is criss-crossed by railroads and highways, oil and gas pipelines.
The climate of Ukraine is different in different parts. Most of Ukraine has a moderately continental climate, though it is alpine in the Carpathians and subtropical in parts of the Crimea. The north and the north-east regions are the coldest. The climate on the territory along the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov is much warmer than in other parts of Ukraine. Average temperatures vary from – 8°C in the north and 4°C in the south in January, to 18°C in the north and 24°C in the south in July. Annual precipitation also varies, from an average of 1500 mm in the Carpathians to 300 mm on the sea coasts; the south often suffers of drought.
The differences in climate in different regions of Ukraine contribute to the richness of the national economy, enabling agriculture to grow various kinds of plants.
1.Is Ukraine included in modern world atlases?
2.Where is Ukraine situated?
3.What is the capital of the country?
4.Does it have its own armed forces?
5.What area does Ukraine cover?
6.What kind of state is it?
7.What is its population?
8.What countries does Ukraine border on?
9.Does Ukraine have any marine borders?
10.What is the depth of water area near Ukrainian coast?
11.Is the geographical position of Ukraine perfect for the development of its resources?
12.What minerals is Ukraine rich in?
13.Are there any mountain ranges on the territory of Ukraine?
14.What are the main rivers of Ukraine?
15.What is the climate of Ukraine? Is it the same in different parts?
3.Read the following information, do the tasks below and be ready to speak about Ukraine as a great mixture of
ü agricultural farmland
ü mountainous regions and
ü beachy tourist resorts
a)Ukraine has for many years been known as the Breadbasket of Europe. This is mainly due to its ability to produce vast amounts of grain. Central and southern Ukraine is almost all steppe, or prairie land with very fertile black soil perfect for farming grain. In the east is the industrial capital of Ukraine, containing large reserves of mineral deposits, known as the Greater Donbas or Donetsk Basin.
Although many people imagine Ukraine to be very flat, agricultural and generally not interesting geographically, this is not the case. The northern and western parts of Ukraine are very hilly and heavily forested. Picturesque mountain resorts are dotted throughout the Carpathian mountain range. Lying on Ukraine’s western border the Carpathians provide a paradise for those who like winter sports such as skiing. On the southernmost tip of Ukraine is the semitropical Crimean mountain range which divides the Crimean peninsula. The Crimea has long been a favourite holiday destination for Ukrainian tourists.
So, overall, Ukraine is a great mixture of agricultural farmland, mountainous regions and beachy tourist resorts.
b) Match the words with their definitions
c)Match the word combinations in English and Ukrainian, find and read out the sentences with them in the text.
d)Complete the sentences
1.Ukraine is called the Breadbasket of Europe due to . . . . . . .
2.Central and southern Ukraine is . . . . . . .
3.In the east is . . . . . . .
4.The northern and western parts of Ukraine are . . . . . .
5.The Carpathian mountain range lies on . . . . . ..
6.On the southernmost tip of Ukraine is . . . . . . . .
4.Situation. You are invited to take part in the TV programme about Ukraine. You are asked to give the most essential information for those who have never heard about the geographical position of this country. You may use the map. Remember that you are limited in time. No more than 1min. is at the disposal of each.
Text A. Government of Ukraine
1.Read and translate the text.
Ukraine is an independent state since adoption of the Declaration on State Sovereignty of Ukraine on July 16, 1990.
According to the Constitution of Ukraine adopted on June 28, 1996 Ukraine has a democratic political system. The powers of the government are divided into the legislative (consisting of the Verkhovna Rada), the executive (headed by the President) and the judicial (led by the Supreme Court).
The Verkhovna Rada is the only body of the legislative power in Ukraine. It includes 450 deputies who are elected for a term of four years. The Verkhovna Rada adopts the State Budget and controls the execution of it.
The Presidentis the head of the state. The people of Ukraine elect the President to a five-year term. Ukrainians 18 years old may vote.
The President is assisted by a Cabinet, which the President appoints. A Prime Minister heads the Cabinet. The Cabinet carry out domestic and foreign policy of the state, the implementation of the Constitution, etc.
The Supreme Courtandthe Constitutional Court represent the judicial power. They watch over the executive and legislative powers. They are nominated by the Verkhovna Rada. The Constitutional Court has the right to declare laws and actions of the national and local governments unconstitutional.
Ukraine is divided into 24 regions called oblasts and the Crimean Autonomous republic. Each region has its local authorities.
2. Use the words from the box to complete the sentences
1.An_______ branch is headed by the President.
2.The national parliament is a _______ branch of power.
3.The Supreme Court heads ________ power.
4.The president appoints a _______ .
5.The Verkhovna Rada discusses and adopts the ________ .
3. Answer the questions.
1.When was the Declaration of the State Sovereignty adopted?
2.What branches is the state power of Ukraine divided to?
3.How many deputies are there in the Verkhovna Rada?
4.Who appoints the Cabinet?
5.Who represents the judicial power?
6.How many administrative regions are there in Ukraine?
Text B. Agriculture of Ukraine
1.Learn the following words and word combinations:
topsoilорний шар ґрунту
grain productionвиробництво зерна
meat-dairy cattleм’ясо-молочна худоба
2.Read and translate the following text.
Ukraine is famous for its agricultural production and is known as the breadbasket of Europe. Steppes and plains compose the most part of the territory of Ukraine. The topsoils are mainly black. They are the biggest treasure of the Ukrainian land. 25% of the world’s black rich soils are in Ukraine. Ukraine’s climate is mainly moderatly continental and the precipitations are 500-600 mm. It enables agriculture to grow different kinds of plants.
Ukraine’s crop production is highly developed. Its grain and potato output almost rivals that of France, and our country is the world’s largest producer of sugar beets. The black soils are exceptionally good for wheat. Besides wheat, Ukraine produces such grains as barley (mostly for animal feed), buckwheat and rye. Other crops include potatoes,vegetables, melons, berries, fruit, nuts and grapes. Ukraine’s most important industrial crop, sugar beet, is concentrated in the forest-steppe zone. Sugar can be called ‘white gold’. This product can bring great profits to Ukraine’s state treasury. Much of it is exported. Truck farming or market gardening is particularly developed on the outskirts of large cities.
Another important branch of farm production is animal husbandry. Animal farms specialize in meat-dairy cattle raising, poultry farming, fishing. Cattle and pigs are raised throughout Ukraine, while chicken, geese and turkey are kept for meat and egg production. Bees are kept in all parts of Ukraine for honey and wax.
The main fishing grounds are the Black Sea estuaries and the Sea of Azov, though the latter is heavily polluted by chemical fertilizers and pesticides. All the main rivers are full of fish but they suffer from pollution, too.
3.Speak about the agriculture of Ukraine.
Read, translate and dramatize the following dialogues.
- Could I ask you a few questions about the state structure of your country?
- You are welcome.
- As far as I know your parliament is called the Verkhovna Rada. Am I right?
- You are quite right. The Verkhovna Rada (the Supreme Soviet) is the only body of legislative power in Ukraine.
- What are its functions?
- The main function of the Verkhovna Rada is making laws and adopting the State Budget.
- And how are the members of the parliament called in Ukraine?
- People’s deputies. There are 450 of them in the Verkhovna Rada.
- By the way, what’s the term of office of the deputies?
- They are elected for four years.
- Sorry, but one more detail. At what age can one be elected to the Verkhovna Rada?
- To be elected as a deputy a person must be at least 21 years old. Besides he (or she) must be a citizen of Ukraine for previous 5 years.
- And who may vote in this country?
- Any person who’s reached the age of 18.
- It is interesting to know when the last elections to the Verkhovna Rada were held?
- Last spring.
- Thank you for your information. It was very interesting and useful.
- Could I ask you a few questions about the state structure of your country?
- You are welcome.
- As far as I know Ukraine is a presidential republic. Is the President the head of your state?
- You are quite right. Really the President is the head of our state.
- And what are his functions?
- First of all the President heads the executive power. He appoints the Prime Minister and the members of the Cabinet and they assist him in carrying out domestic and foreign policy. He is a commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces. The President also signs the laws adopted by the Verkhovna Rada. He can veto them.
- By the way, what’s the term of office of the President?
- 5 years with no more than two full terms.
- And who can be elected as the president?
- Any person not younger than 35. Besides he (or she) must be a resident of Ukraine for no less than 10 previous years.
- Sorry, but one more question. When will the next presidential elections be held?
- If I am not mistaken in 2 years.
- Thank you, you’ve been very helpful.
1. Match the two parts of these sentences to make well-known proverbs and sayings and find their Ukrainian equivalents in the box.
2.Rewrite the sentences in the passive, omitting the word in brackets.
1. (They) opened the theatre only last month.
2. (People) will soon forget it.
3. (You) must write the answers in ink.
4. (Someone) has taken two of my books.
5. (We) have already filled the vacancy.
6. What should (one) do in such cases?
7. Did (they) say anything interesting?
8. Has (anyone) ever made the situation clear to you?
9. (One) should keep milk in a refrigerator.
10. I don’t think (anyone) can do it.
3.In this exercise you have to read a sentence and then write a new sentence with the same meaning. Begin in the way shown each time.
M O D E L: They didn’t offer Ann the job. – Ann wasn’t offered the job.
1.They don’t pay Jim very much. – Jim . . . .
2.They will ask you a lot of questions at the interview. – You . . . .
3.Nobody told me that George was ill. – I . . .
4.His colleagues gave him a present when he retired. – He . . . . .
5.He will send you your examination results as soon as they are ready. – You . . . .
6.They didn’t ask me my name. – I . . . .
4.Translate into Ukrainian.
1.He is very highly spoken of. 2.I was seldom allowed to visit the Roberts. 3.And how do you get on, and where are you being educated? 4.”Do you like him? Is he generally liked?” “ Oh, yes.” 5.I shall be late at the hospital but it can’t be helped. 6.I cannot trifle, or be trifled with. 7.In the meantime there was her daughter to be thought of.
5.Respond, using an interrogative repetition. Then replace the verb form by the appropriate passive form.
They took you sightseeing about the town. About the town you say? Yes, I was taken sightseeing about the town.
1. The exhibition displayed in this museum greatly impressed everybody.
2. They will invite us to the show by all means.
3. The goods that are shown in these shop-windows attract people.
4. They saw Jane in the Central Department store.
5. They will recognise you in these clothes immediately.
6.Ask questions on the italicised parts of the sentence. Let your partner answer them.
1.Sumy was founded in 1652. 2.It was completely destroyed during the Second World War. 3.After the war it was restored by the citizens of Sumy. 4.Now the city is called a centre of highly developed industry, science, culture. 5.The goods produced in Sumy are sent to different parts of our country and abroad.
7.Express the same in English
1.Коли я приїхав до цього міста, цей міст будувався. 2.Це питання зараз обговорюється на зустрічі. 3.Поглянь! Збудовано новий кінотеатр. 4.На уроці буде вивчатися новий матеріал. 5.Текст потрібно перекласти. 6.Цей фільм, без сумніву, вам дуже сподобається. Про нього так багато говорять. 7.Джона Леннона знають не лише в Англії. 8.Де будують новий магазин? 9.Коли приїхав тато, речі були вже спаковані. 10.Пасивний стан часто використовується в англійській мові.
1.Remember the following words and word combinations:
2.Read and translate paying attention to the active words and word combinations.
Kyiv, the capital of Ukraine, is one of the oldest cities of Eastern Europe. It is situated on the hilly right bank and on the low left bank of the Dnieper river.
The date of the ‘birth’ of Kyiv is approximately 482. Kyy, the prince of the Slavic tribe, is considered the city founder. According to a widely-known legend, Kyiv was founded by three brothers, Kyy, Shchek, Khoriv and their sister, Lybid.
Now Kyiv is the political, economic and cultural centre of Ukraine. Its population is over 3 million people. The Ukrainian capital is the seat of our government.
Kyiv is one of Europe’s most beautiful cities, as well as a treasury of medieval art and architecture. Landmarks of Kyiv include St. Sophia’s Cathedral and the Golden Gate of Yaroslav the Wise, both completed in 1037. The Monastery of the Caves (Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra), which has a network of catacombs, also dates from the Middle Ages. The Marinsky Palace and the Church of St. Andrew, both built during the mid-1700’s, are important examples of the architecture of that period. Kyiv is known for its attractive parks and famous Khreshchatyk Street.
Being an educational centre of Ukraine Kyiv has a number of colleges, universities and research institutes. Among them are the University of Kyiv (founded in 1834) named after Taras Shevchenko and the Ukrainian Academy of Science (founded in 1918).
Kyiv is also a major industrial centre with firms engaged in electronics, instrument construction, aviation, engineering and metal-working, light and food industries, chemical and petrochemical industries, etc.
The city is an important highway and railroad junction, an air transportation hub, and a busy river port.
3.Answer the following questions:
1.When and by whom was Kyiv founded?
2.On what bank of the river Dnieper is Kyiv situated?
3.What is the population of our capital?
4.Why is Kyiv considered to be one of the most beautiful cities of Europe?
5.What higher educational establishments in Kyiv do you know?
6.The Ukrainian Academy of Science was founded in 1834, wasn’t it?
7.What do you know about the industry of the capital?
8.Have you ever been to Kyiv? If yes, when? Why did you go there? What places of interest did you visit ?
9.If you haven’t been to Kyiv, can you say that you would like to go there ? What would you like to see?
10.Why do you think a lot of tourists visit Kyiv-Pecherska Lavra?
4.Match the following English words with their Ukrainian equivalents.
1) approximately a) головний
2) medieval b) машинобудування
3) treasury с) скарбниця
4) attractive d) згідно з
5) network e) привабливий
6) junction f) підземна печера
7) according to g) вузол
8) major h) середньовічний
9) engineering i) мережа
10) catacomb j) приблизно
5.Decide if the following statements are true or false.
1.Kyiv is one of the oldest cities of Eastern Europe.
2.Kyiv is situated on the hilly left bank and on the low right bank of the Dnieper river.
3.Kyiv was founded approximately in 842.
4.The Church of St. Andrew and Hyde Park are the landmarks of Kyiv.
5.Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra, which has a lot of catacombs, dates from the Middle Ages.
6.Our capital is the seat of our government.
7.Kyiv was founded by three sisters Kyy, Shchek, Khoriv and their brother Lybid.
6.Make up questions to the following answers.
1.It is situated on the river Dnieper.
3.Over 3 million people.
4.Yes, it is. It’s the seat of the government.
5.The Monastery of Caves, the Church of St. Andrew, the Golden Gates and others.
7.Yes, it is. The city is an important railroad junction and transportation hub.
8.Yes, it is. Kyiv has a lot of colleges, universities and research institutes.
9.The University of Kyiv named after Taras Shevchenko.
7.Speak about Kyiv as the capital of Ukraine.
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