Put the following sentences in the right order.

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Put the following sentences in the right order.

a. Portland cement substitutes can reduce the cost of the concrete and improve its physical properties.

b. Concrete pavements are typically stronger and more durable than asphalt roadways.

c. JPCP controls cracks by dividing the pavement into slabs separated by contraction joints.

d. Concrete surfaces are created using a concrete mix of Portland cement, coarse aggregate, sand and water.

e. Continuously reinforced concrete pavements use reinforcing steel rather than contraction joints for crack control.

f. JRCP uses reinforcing steel within each slab to control within-slab cracking.


6. Find in the text synonyms to the following words and word-combinations:

aim, regulate, divide, though, fix, lasting, perceptible, taking much time, primary, decide, plus.


7. Give English equivalents of the following words and word combinations.

Интенсивное движение, большегрузное транспортное средство, бетонная смесь, требуемое количество воды, ослабить вредные химические реакции, физические свойства, отдельные плиты, противоскользящее покрытие, заметный недостаток, требующий много времени.


8. Tell all the information that you learnt about concrete pavement, its types, advantages and disadvantages.
1. Before you start. · Do you know any other pavement types? · Have you ever seen a road covered with material different from concrete or asphalt?

Read the words and learn them by heart.

1. to rehabilitate – реконструировать, восстановить

2. low-traffic – низкая интенсивность движения

3. bituminous surface treatment – поверхностная обработка дорожного покрытия битумом

4. sealing coat – покрывающий слой

5. to rejuvenate – обновить

6. aggregate – щебень

7. emulsion – эмульсия

8. cut-back asphalt cement – жидкий асфальтовый битум

9. to embed – укладывать

10. rolling – укатка

11. rubber-tired roller – каток на пневматических (резиновых) колесах

12. chip seal – щебеночное уплотнение

13. unstable terrain – слабый грунт

14. application – применение

15. to thaw – таять

16. granular surface – поверхность из мелкого каменного материала (гравия, щебня)

17. to top – покрывать

18. paver – материал для мощения (камень, кирпич, брусчатка, гравий)

19. pre-cast concrete block – бетонный блок заводского изготовления

20. cobblestone – булыжный камень

21. sett – брусчатка


Read and translate the text to learn more about other types of pavement.

Other pavements

Composite surface combines Portland cement concrete and asphalt. They are usually used to rehabilitate existing roadways rather than in new construction.

Bituminous surface treatment (BST) is used mainly on low-traffic roads, but also as a sealing coat to rejuvenate an asphalt concrete pavement. It generally consists of aggregate spread over a sprayed on asphalt emulsion or cut-back asphalt cement. The aggregate is then embedded into the asphalt by rolling it, typically with a rubber-tired roller. This type of surface is described by a wide variety of regional terms including "chip seal", "oil and stone" etc.

The ease of application of BST is one reason for its popularity, but another is its flexibility, which is important when roadways are laid down over unstable terrain that thaws and softens in the spring.

Gravel is known to have been used extensively in the construction of roads by soldiers of the Roman Empire. A granular surface can be used with a traffic volume where the average annual daily traffic is 1,200 vehicles per day or less. There is some structural strength as the road surface combines a sub base and base and is topped with a seal aggregate with emulsion. The decision whether to pave a gravel road or not often depends on traffic volume. Obviously, it is not as durable as concrete or asphalt pavements, but relatively cheap.

Pavers generally have the form of pre-cast concrete blocks, are often used for aesthetic purposes. Pavers are rarely used in areas with high-speed vehicle traffic.

Brick, cobblestone, sett pavements were once common in urban areas throughout the world, but fell out of fashion in most countries, due to the high cost of labor required to lay and maintain them, and are typically only kept for historical or aesthetic reasons. In some countries, however, they are still common in local streets.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Road_surface

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