ТОП 10:

Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the vocabulary list of Unit 3.



1. Жесткая дорожная одежда более долговечная, чем нежесткая.

2. Асфальтобетонные дорожные покрытия строятся на участках c высокой интенсивностью движения.

3. На строительство бетонного дорожного покрытия требуется больше времени.

4. Большинство асфальтобетонных дорожных покрытий укладывается на щебеночную основу.

5. Бетонный слой состоит из портландцемента, щебня, песка и воды.

6. При непрерывно армированном железобетонном дорожном покрытии используется арматура, а не швы сжатия.

7. Нежесткие дорожные покрытия состоят из битумных материалов, а жесткие из портландцемента.

8. Поверхностная обработка дорожного покрытия битумом используется в основном на участках с низкой интенсивностью дорожного движения.

9. Гравийное основание является относительно дешевым.

10. Кирпич, булыжный камень и брусчатка используются для эстетических целей.

11. Жесткие покрытия предназначены для дорог с высокой интенсивностью движения.

 

4. Form three groups. Each group should describe one of the following points for discussion: ü rigid (cement) pavement ü flexible (asphalt) pavement ü other types of pavements.

 

UNIT 4: ROAD CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

1. Before you start. · Have you ever seen road works? What were the road builders doing? · What do you think about the quality of roads in our country? What influences the quality of roads?

Read the words and learn them by heart.

1. timing – расчет времени

2. land survey – топографическая съемка

3. to handle – осуществлять, проводить, контролировать

4. evaluating – оценка

5. to take into account – учитывать, принимать во внимание

6. to maintain – сохранять, поддерживать

7. data – данные, сведения

8. transportation planner – дорожно-транспортный планировщик

9. environmentalist – эколог

10. landscape architect – специалист по вопросам ландшафтной архитектуры

11. soil scientist – почвовед

12. to determine – определить

13. accuracy – точность

14. terrain – грунт

15. drainage – водоотвод

16. capability – возможность, способность

17. ratio – соотношение

18. level – уровень (n); выравнивать (v)

19. to provide – обеспечивать

20. screened dirt – просеянный грунт

21. bump – дорожная неровность

22. dip – впадина

23. to spray – опрыскивать

24. to compact – спрессовывать

25. density – плотность

26. sewer – канализационная труба

 

Read and translate the text to learn more about the basic steps in pre-construction activities.

Pre-construction activities

The type of construction adopted for a particular road depends on:

· the volume and nature of traffic,

· the nature of available materials,

· the topography,

· foundation conditions,

· type and availability of construction equipment,

· financing arrangements and timing.

There are many steps in the road construction process. They involve many teams of people and much organization from the use of a surveying company to handle land surveys to project managers. The steps must be carefully followed to ensure a successful project is completed. These steps can be summarized as:

1.

http://www.michigan.gov/mdot/0,1607,7-151-9615-129011--,00.html
planning;

2. design;

3. earthworks;

4. pavement construction;

5. open to traffic.

Step I: Planning

A road project begins with evaluating the transportation system, taking into account statewide priorities, including strategic plans for the state’s transportation system. Department of Transportation collects and maintains information about our roads, including road and bridge conditions, traffic volumes, crash statistics.

Using this data, transportation planners, engineers, environmentalists, landscape architects, soil scientists and others identify trends that determine what and how to build.

http://www.michigan.gov/mdot/0,1607,7-151-9615-129011--,00.html
Step II. Design

A survey of the area is step two. Recently, Global Positioning Systems, laser surveys, and other technology have sped up the process and improved accuracy. Many factors influence designs, including location, terrain and soil properties, drainage capabilities, traffic volume, the ratio of cars to trucks and buses, possible future development in the area, effects on the environment or nearby residents.

Step III. Earthwork

Earthwork is one of the most important elements in road construction because it establishes a stable foundation. The aim of the earthworks phase of the construction is to position the subgrade underlying the pavement layers in the right location and at the correct level and to provide drainage.

http://www.michigan.gov/mdot/0,1607,7-151-9615-129011--,00.html
First, embankments are built. Next, a grader or bulldozer levels the screened dirt. Leveling bumps and filling in dips creates a surface that will support a road for decades. The screened dirt is sprayed with water and compacted to its maximum density. During this stage, drains and sewers are installed. The center of the road must be higher than the edges so water will run off into the storm sewers. Drainage is a critical element because improper drainage will greatly reduce the new pavement’s life expectancy. All of this work must pass strict inspections before the project can continue. To complete the earthwork, workers place gravel in 12-inch layers on the road bed, then moisten and compact each layer. Layers are added and compacted until the road bed reaches the height called for in the design.

The earthwork is often the largest task in the road building process and therefore careful planning and organization are essential. Speed and efficiency depend very much upon the quantity and types of earthmoving plant available.

Source: http://www.michigan.gov/mdot/0,1607,7-151-9615-129011--,00.html







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