Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Words and phrases to remember
how are things with you?/how are you doing? - как дела?
pool - общий фонд
to pool - создавать общий фонд
to apply for - обращаться за чем-либо
to join - вступать
to require - требовать
that sounds good! - это (звучит) хорошо
to manage - управлять; успешно справляться с чем-либо
pretty soon - очень скоро
Exercise 10. Make up similar dialogues.
1. You are starting a new business and apply for funds to a commercial bank.
2. Your company has a good reputation and a commercial bank provides the prime rate for you.
3. You deposit some of your money into a bank which offers you accounts of two types. Choose one of them.
Exercise 11. Translate the following sentences
1. Правительственные предписания ограничиваю спектр услуг которые может предлагать банк.
2. Государственный банк запрещает выплачивать проценты по расчётному счёту.
3. Финансовые учреждения предлагают новые виды вкладов.
4. Некоторые банки экспериментируют со счетами.
5. Многие компании устанавливают в своих зданиях банкоматы.
6.Федеральное правительство использует электронную систему передачи средств.
Exercise 12. Put the verb in brackets into the right form
1. Large commercial banks (install) automatic teller machines nowadays.
2. Customers usually (use) their debit cards to transfer money from their checking account to the merchant's account.
3. As a rule a customer (pay) a fee of forty cents for each transaction outside the state.
4. Financial supermarkets (appear) all over the USA these days.
5. The customers often (look) around for the highest return on their savings or the lowest rate they can get on a loan.
6. Small banks now (compete) with larger banks by finding a special need and meeting it.
Exercise 13. Make up sentences after the following models
Model:to open a checking account
I am thinking of opening a checking account.
1. to use the electronic funds transfer system.
2. to transfer money outside the state.
3. to provide new services to my customers.
4. to buy 100 shares of stock.
5. to sell some bonds.
6. to plan a number of financial transactions.
7. to assign my major customers a personal banker.
Model:to balance my checkbook at last
I am going to balance my checkbook at last.
1. to drop unprofitable services.
2. to ask for financial advice
3. to wait on customers
4. to install an automatic teller machine in my shopping center
5. to attract more customers by providing less expensive services
6. to pay a fee of a dollar for this banking transaction
7. to use my debit card to a better purpose
Exercise 14. Read the text
In the past, financial management was not a major concernfor a business. A company used toestablish relations with a local bank. The bank handled the financing and the company took care of producing and selling.
Today only a few firms operate in this way. Usually businesses have their own financial managers who work with the banks. They negotiate termsof financial transactions, compare rates amongcompeting financial institutions. Financial management begins with the creationof a financial plan. The plan includes timingand amount of funds and the inflowand outflowof money. The financial manager developsand controls the financial plan. He also forecasts the economic conditions, the company's revenues,expenses and profits.
The financial manager's jobstarts and ends with the company's objectives.He reviews them and determinesthe funding they require. The financial manager compares the expenses involvedto the expectedrevenues. It helps him to predictcash flow. The availablecash consists of beginning cash plus customer payments and funds from financing.
The financial manager plans a strategyto make the ending cash positive. If cash outflow exceedscash inflow the company will run outof cash. The solutionis to reduceoutflows. The financial manager can trimexpenses or ask the customers to pay faster.
The financial manager also chooses financing techniques.One of them is short-term financing. Another is long term financing.
Short-term financing. The seasonal financial needs of a company may be coveredby short term sources of funds. The company must pay them off within one year. Businesses spend these funds on salaries and for emergencies. The most popular outside sources of short term funds are trade credit, loans, factors, sales finance companies, and government sources.
About 85 percent of all US business transactions involve some form of trade credit. When a business orders goods and services, it doesn't normally pay for them. The supplier provides them with an invoice requesting payment within a settledtime period, say thirty days. During this time the buyer uses goods and services without paying for them.
A company can use the trade credit as a source of savings. A typical trade arrangement is 2/10, net 30. If a buyer pays within 10 days instead of 30, he gets a 2 percent discount. The savings a buyer obtains can be used as a source of short term funds.
Commercial banks lend money to their customers by direct loans or by setting up lines of credit.A line of credit is the amount a customer can borrow without making a new request, simply by notifyingthe bank. If the business doesn't pledge collateral when it borrows, the loan is an unsecured loan.Only customers with an excellent credit rating can get an unsecured loan. They usually repay it within a year's time. When a company wants to borrow a large amount of money it pledges collateral to back up the loan. Such a loan is a securedone.
Sometimes a company might sell its accounts receivableto a special financial broker: a factoring company, a factor. The factor immediately pays the firm cash, usually 50 to 80 percent of the value of the accounts receivable. When customers make the payments on their accounts, the money goes directly to the factor.
Some big firms obtain funds by selling commercial paper.Because commercial paper has no collateral behindit, only firms with a good financial reputation can sell it. In special cases, a business may obtain short term funds from the federal government.
Long-term financing. When a business needs funds to construct a new assembly lineor to do extensiveresearch and development which may notbegin to bring in revenues for several years, short term financing wouldn't work. In this case, business will need long termsources of funds.
Firms may meet long term needs by increasing the company's debteither by getting loans or by selling bonds.
A long term loan is a loan that has a maturityof from one to tenyears. Within this period of time the firm pays interest on the debt.Sometimes the lender protectsits financial position by requiring that the company obtain the lender's permissionbefore taking on any additional long term debt. If the loan is particularlyrisky, the lender may even require the firm to limit or eliminatedividends to stockholders.
If the firm wants to be free of lender's restrictions,it may issuebonds. These are long term debts with a maturity date of 20 to 30 years in the future. Governments issue government bonds. Corporations issue corporate bonds which may be secured or unsecured.
If a company wants to sell bonds it can offer some collateral. Itis difficult, if not impossible, to find investors who are willing to buy bonds which are not backed up by collateral. Only huge corporations such as AT&T can successfully issue unsecured bonds, which are called debentures.
Most bonds carry a face valueof $1000 and pay a predeterminedinterest rate (the couponrate). The company pays this interest regularly according tothe indenture agreementwhich specifiesthe terms of a bond issue. The company may retirebonds before they mature if the indenture agreement contains a call provision.In this case the firm pays the bondholders a redemptionpremium.
Another flexiblefeature in some agreements is the conversion privilege.It allows bondholders to convert their investment into a stated number of shares of common stock.If the price of the company's common stock is going up, the investors can profit from conversion. Convertibility makes the bond issue more attractive to potentialinvestors.
V. Milovidov «English for Financial
Words and expressions
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