﻿﻿ Завдання 5. Підберіть вірні визначення наступним словам.
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# Завдання 5. Підберіть вірні визначення наступним словам.

 mathematics     physics     science   effect   theory a) knowledge which depends on seeing and testing facts and stating general natural laws. b) scientifically acceptable explanation for a fact or event which has not been proved to be true. c) the science of numbers and of the structure and measurement of shapes. d) the science concerned with the study of matter and natural forces. e) something that happens when one thing acts on another

 on the lowest temperature obtainable with a mixture of common salt and water. For a higher reference point he selected the body temperature of a healthy man. The interval between reference points was divided into 96 equal parts. The centigrade scale was devised in 1742 by the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius, who reasoned that water would make an excellent primary thermal standard. For convenience, he established the zero point on his scale at the freezing point of water and the 100-degree mark at its boiling point. Both temperatures are measured at one atmosphere pressure on air-saturated water. The relationship is (°F) = 1.80 x (°C) + 32.0 Lord Kelvin in 1848 used his knowledge of the behavior of gases to predict a temperature that would represent the lowest energetic state in which matter could exist. Theoretical predictions based on thermodynamics indicate that absolute zero can never be attained. Temperatures (T) on the absolute scale are measured in degrees Kelvin (K) in his honour. The size of the degree is identical with that on the centigrade scale. The relationship is (°K) = (°C) + 273.16 Cambridge Cambridge is one of the two main universities of England which is located at the Cam River. It was founded at the beginning of the 12th century. The University consists of 24 different colleges including 4 colleges for women. Each college is self-governing. The head of the University is the chancelor who is elected for life. The teachers are commonly called «dons» and «tutors». Part of the teaching is by means of lectures organized by the University. Besides lectures teaching is carried out by tutorial system for which Cambridge University is famous all over the world. This is a system of individual tuition organized by the colleges. Each student has a tutor who practically guides him through the whole course of studies. The tutor plans the student's work and once a week the student goes to his tutor to discuss his work with him. The training course lasts 4 years. The academic year is divided into 3 terms. The students study natural and technical sciences, law, history, languages, geography and
 e) something that happens when one thing acts on another

Завдання 6. Доповніть речення згідно зі змістом тексту.

1. At the age of 21 Albert Einstein got a job as …

2. He presented his third paper on …

3. Everybody wanted to know …

4. He spoke much with …

5. Einstein’s fame among scientists grew …

UNIT 2

OUR STAR — THE SUN.

There are nine planets in the solar system:

Me — Mercury — Меркурій

Ve — Venus — Венера

Ea — Earth — Земля

Ma — Mars [ma:z] — Mapc

Jupiter — Юпітер

Saturn — Сатурн

Uranus — Уран

Neptune ['neptju:n] — Нептун

Pluto ['plu:tou] — Плутон

What do you know today of the nearest star which lies 150 million kilometers away?

The Sun is a mass of flaming matter, the temperature at its surface is above 5,500 degrees Centigrade, the temperature in the

 London`s Heathrow is one of greatest airports of the world. It tops the list of both international flights and international passengers. In 1989, it handled 355,000 flights and over 38 million passengers with 57 million items of luggage. It has grown into a city in its own right, employing 53,000 people full time. Like all the great airports, it dates back only to the last days of the Second World War. The first runway was built on the flat land near the village of Staines in 1944. It was a place of historic interest. One of the most important Anglo-Saxon temples is buried under Terminal Two, and the village of Heathrow is now under the main car park. The airport has ghosts. A Saxon prince has been seen near the ponds, where he drowned, and an outlaw rides through the cargo sheds, with a three-cornered hat and a black horse. Heathrow has been operating as an international airport since 1 January 1946, when a British South American Airways Lancastrian took off into the morning mists on a flight to Buenos Aires. In February 1952, the Queen arrived from Entebbe to set foot on British soil for the first time as monarch. Since those early days, constant building has been necessary to deal with the growth of air traffic and the demands of air travellers. How­ever, Heathrow shares the same problems as all big airports - too many planes, too many people, and too much crime. It is the centre-point of the great air routes between Europe and North America in one direction, and between Europe and the Gulf, Africa, and Asia in the other. It is alive with all the citizens of this strange world, rich and poor, honest and dishonest. It is the Airport International par excellence. The Temperature Scales The scientist finds two temperature scales the most convenient. They are the centigrade (or Celsius) scale and the absolute (or Kelvin) scale. Many engineers use the Fahrenheit scale (currently in the United States). The oldest thermometric scale was devised by Gabriel Fahrenheit, a German instrument-maker. In 1714 Fahrenheit invented the mercury-in-glass thermometer. Zero degree
 Sun's centre is as high as 20 million degrees Centigrade. The Sun's diameter is 109 times that of the Earth and its mass is 330,000 times greater. The illumination of the Earth by the Sun is 10 billion times stronger than that by Sirius, the brightest star of the northern hemisphere. But this does not mean that the Sun is bigger than Sirius: it is simply closer to the Earth. Nine planets with their satellites revolve round the Sun due to the force of universal gravitation. It takes our Earth a little more than 365 days to revolve around the Sun. The Sun is the most important body in the Universe for mankind. It provides us with light during the day and the light of the Moon is only the reflected sunlight. It is also important that the Sun gives us heat without which no life can exist on the Earth. It provides us with all the energy that we use every day. When we look at the Sun, it seems a fire ball. But, even from a brief acquaintance with some of the solar phenomena, it is clear that the Sun is an ever boiling ocean. The Sun is a giant natural hydrogen bomb, equivalent to millions of man-made ones where the thermonuclear reaction proceeds continuously. It is interesting to note that every second the Sun sends into space as much energy as mankind consumed during the whole period of its existence from the first fire of the cave-man to the establishment of the atomic power station. Solar energy has great value to mankind. Man has tried to use solar energy since the earliest times. Methods of using the light and heat energy from the Sun are not new, but they are not very efficient as yet. It is necessary to find effective methods to use this immense supply of free energy, to make our star — the Sun — serve mankind. WORDS TO BE LEARNT bright a — яскравий consume v — споживати due to prp — завдяки during prp — протягом

 Завдання 6. Доповніть речення згідно зі змістом тексту. 1. Now computer makers introduce small computers into our life _________. 2. Each new generation of computers is significantly better than _________. 3. Every day a new use is found for computers _____________. 4. Computers provide the answers to a large variety of problems _________. 5. Digital analogue computers work differently and yield ___________. Навчальні тексти для реферування Niels Henrik David Bohr (1885-1962, Denmark) Bohr is regarded by many as the founder of the modern atomic theory and certainly his theory of the hydrogen atom and the origin of spectra as published in 1913-1915 in the Philosophical Magazine has had a profound influence on all subsequent work and thought in that field. The Bohr theory has also been of great value in the study of the chemical and physical properties of atoms and in their periodic relationships. In 1911 Bohr received the doctor's degree from the University of Copenhagen, after which he studied with J.J. Thomson and Rutherford in England. In 1916 he became professor of physics at his "alma mater" and in 1920, director of the newly founded Institute of Theoretical Physics at that institution. During World War II he worked on the atomic bomb project in the United States. In 1922 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics and in addition he received many other medals and honours among which was an honourable membership of Moscow University. Heathrow, London’s Airport International travel has completely changes for the last 30 years. Crossing the world is as easy as getting from one side of a city to another. The world of air travel has developed into a huge industry.
 even adv — навіть exist v — існувати find (found) v — знаходити force n — сила free a —вільній (in)efficient a— непродуктивный lie (lay; lain) v — лежати Universe n — всесвіт value n — значення whole a — увесь Sun n — сонце supply n — запас since prp — з тих пір solar а — сонячний strong a — сильний serve v — служити heat n — тепло, и — нагрівати mankind n — суспільство man-made a — штучний matter n — матерія mean (meant) v — значити Moon n — місяць power n — енергія provide v — забеспечувати reflect v — відображати revolve v — обертатися seem v — вважатися send (sent) v — відсилати Завдання 1. Дайте відповідь на запитання. 1. What is the Sun? 2. What is the temperature at the Sun's surface? 3. Which is the brightest star of the northern hemisphere? 4. Is the Sun bigger than Sirius? 5. How many planets revolve around the Sun?

Завдання 3. Доберіть відповідні англійські слова та словосполучення підкресленим українським.
 1. допоміжний a) analogue b) parallel c) digital d) auxiliary 2. обробляти a) to process b) to develop c) to work d) to try 3. складний a) several b) every с) complex d) main 4. надійний a) reliable b) basic c) fantastic d) broad 5. тварина a) plant b) person c) human d) animal

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