D. I. MENDELEYEV — PRIDE OF RUSSIAN SCIENCE



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D. I. MENDELEYEV — PRIDE OF RUSSIAN SCIENCE



The list of fields of knowledge which Mendeleyev's genius touched upon is enormous. Chemistry, physics, earth sciences, metrology, economics, metallurgy and many more. Mendeleyev's legacy comprises 25 volumes, a third of them devoted to chemistry.

D. I. Mendeleyev, the outstanding Russian scientist, was born in Tobolsk in 1834. In 1850 at the age of 16 he entered the Pedagogical Institute in St. Petersburg to study chemistry. Five years later he graduated from it with a gold medal and was invited to lecture on theoretical and organic chemistry at St. Petersburg University. To continue his studies and research Mendeleyev was


Завдання 3. Доберіть відповідні англійські слова та словосполучення до підкреслених українських.
1. проводити a) to master b) to put
  c) to began d) to conduct
2. оголосити a) to decide b) to suspend
  c) to announce d) to understand
3. криголам a) a neutron b) an ice – breaker
  c) a reactor d) monopoly
4. продовжувати a) to belong b) to continue
  c) to lead d) to work
5. досвід a)experience b) experiment
  c) research d) knowledge

Завдання 4. Перекладіть на українську мову та англійську групи слів, користуючись текстом.

a)
  1. маловідомі
  2. ядерна фізика
  3. ланцюгова реакція
  4. ядро атома
  5. існувати
b) 1. to put into operation 2. uranium – graphite reactor 3. to split 4. to suspend 5. dielectrics

Завдання 5. Дайте вірні визначення наступним словам

  1. nucleus
  2. peace
  3. government
  4. famous
  5. to split
a) The group of people who govern a country b) well – known, known to a lot of people c) a centre round which other parts are grouped d) to divide something up, to cut or chop it e) freedom from war
sent to Germany in 1859. While living abroad he made a number of important investigations. The year 1868 was the beginning of his highly acclaimed work "Fundamentals of Chemistry". When working at the subject Mendeleyev analysed an enormous amount of literature, made thousands of experiments and calculations. This tremendous work resulted in the Table of Elements consisting of vertical groups and horizontal periods. Mendeleyev was the first to suggest a system of classification in which the elements are arranged in the order of increasing atomic weights. The main idea of the Periodic System is the idea of periodic repetition of properties with the increase of the atomic weights. Arranging all the existing elements in the Table Mendeleyev had to overcome great difficulties, as a considerable number of elements were unknown at that time and the atomic weights of 9 elements (out of 63) were wrongly determined. Thanks to his investigations Mendeleyev was able to predict not only the existence of a few unknown elements but their properties as well. Later the elements predicted were discovered. More than 350 works written by Mendeleyev deal with a great many subjects. Combining theory with practical activities he carried out an enormous research in coal, iron and steel industries in Russia. He died in 1907 at the age of 73. The achievements in chemistry and physics at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century made it necessary to reconstruct the Periodic Table taking into account3 new discoveries. Time is the severest judge in science. After more than 100 years of its existence, the Periodic Law has preserved its full value and is being constantly developed with each new discovery. Notes on the Text 1. a number of — деяка кількість, ряд 2. to take into account — прийняти до уваги


thermonuclear research. Notes on the Text
  1. by right – по праву
  2. as far as early thirties – ще на початку тридцятих років
Words to Be Learnt
belong – належати conclusion – висновок fission –розщеплювання ice – breaker – криголам induce – викликати installation – установка key - ключ lead (led) – вести, приводити lose (lost) – втрачати master – оволодівати nuclear – ядерний particle – частка split (split) - розщеплювати

Завдання 1. Дайте відповіді на запитання

  1. Where did Kurchatov begin to work?
  2. What discovery did the experiments of Kurchatov`s group lead to?
  3. Why was the neutron research program interrupted?
  4. When was the first atomic power plant put into operation?
  5. What reactor was this power generating installation based on?

Завдання 2. Заповніть пропуски до тексту

  1. A group of ________________________ began investigating the physics of the nucleus of the atom.
  2. In 1940 I. Kurchatov came to the conclusion that _____________________.
  3. The USA lost ___________________.
  4. The secret of ______________ no longer existed.
  5. Later he was carried away by another great idea ______________________.
Words to Be Learnt achieve v — досягти graduate v — закінчувати achlevement n — досягнення investigate v — досліджувати amount n —кількість investigation n — дослідження arrange v — розташувати law n — закон coal n — вугілля order v — порядок combine — з’єднувати overcome (overcame; over- come)v — долати consist (of) v — складатися create v — творити predict v —передбачувати repetition n — повторення deal with (dealt) v — result in v — у висновку мати справу із determine v — визначати enter v — поступати suggest v — пропонувати Завдання 1. Дайте відповіді на запитання. 1. What fields of knowledge did Mendeleyev΄s genius touch upon? 2. Where did Mendeleyev study chemistry? 3. What is the main idea of the Periodic System? 4. What was Mendeleyev able to predict? 5. Was the Periodic Table reconstructed at the beginning of the 20th century? Завдання 2. Заповніть пропуски в реченнях, користуючись текстом. Mendeleyev was invited to lecture on ַַַַַַַַַ at St.


5. Rutherford created a school of ___________. 2 семестр. (всі спеціальності) UNIT 1 Academician Igor Kurchatov (1903 – 1960) Among the famous atomic scientists the first place belongs by right to Academician Igor Kurchatov. Since 1925 I. V. Kurchatov began to work at the Physical – Engineering Institute in Leningrad. It was here that he achieved great results in the research of dielectrics which had been little known at that time. As far as early thirties atomic research was being successfully conducted. The nuclear physics was in need of powerful source of fast particles capable of inducing a nuclear reaction. A group of young research workers, with I. Kurchatov at the head, began investigations led to a striking discovery of fission of uranium nucleus. I. Kurchatov understood that the neutron was the key to splitting the atom and he put all his efforts into neutron research. In 1940 I. Kurchatov came to the conclusion that slow neutron chain reaction was quite possible. But World War II interrupted his work, and all research programs had to be suspended. In 1949 the Government announced that the secret of the atom bomb no longer existed and the USA had lost its atomic monopoly. It was decided that the scientists would continue their work in the field of atom application for peace. On June 27, 1954, the first atomic power plant in the world was put into operation near Moscow. This power generating installation based on the uranium – graphite reactor was Kurchatov`s favourite creation. Later he was carried away by another great idea – to master controlled thermonuclear reactions. V. Kurchatov died in 1960 but his experience and his knowledge have become immortalized in the world’s first atomic power plant, atom – driven ice – breakers, in Dubna Institute and in
1.Petersburg University. 2. The Table of Elements consists of ַַַַַַַַַ and horizontal periods. 3. Mendeleyev had to overcome ַַַַַַַַ to arrange all elements in the Table. 4. Mendeleyev carried out enormous research in ַַַַַַַ and steel industries. 5. The Periodic Law has preserved its ַַַַַַַַ 6. Mendeleyev predicted the existence of ַַַַַַַַ Завдання 3. Доберіть відповідні англійські слова та словосполучення підкресленим українським.
1. Кількість a) amount b) subject
  c) weight d) volumes
2. Відкриття a) existence b) development
  c) discovery d) work
3. Величезний a) atomic b) tremendous
  c) important d) practical
4. Знання a) system b) research
  c) theory d) knowledge

Завдання 4.Перекладіть на українську та англійську мову групи слів, користуючись текстом.

A).

1. важливі дослідження

2. невідомі елементи

3. обчислення

4. атомна вага

5. передбачати

6. брати до уваги

B).

1. to touch upon

2. to suggest

3. existence

4. an enormous amount


Завдання 4. Перекладіть на українську та англійську мову групи слів користуючись текстом. A).
1. splitting the atom
2. to be awarded
3. famous work
4. important results
5. to study the processes

B).

  1. ведучий університет
  2. мати справу із
  3. важливі результати
  4. розробка теорії
  5. получати результати


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